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LIBRARY OF CONGRESS. 



Sfcap* dop^ngy If a.. 

Shelf.JH.S7 



UNITED STATES OF AMERICA. 



FRENCH SPEAKER 



How to Pronounce, How to Read. 



H. BERTRAND, 

PROFESSOR OF FRENCH, CARLISLE, PA. 



If you wish to study French with the real desire to converse in this language, 
have first a good pronunciation. This book will give it to you in a genuine, 
simple and easy manner, and enable you to read well soon. It will surely con- 
vince you that French ought not to be considered a dead tongue, even if you 
study without a Master.— The Author. 



/ 8-^3 ST IV.' 



A spelled word is a spark. 

(Un mot £pel6 est une 6tinelle.) 

Victor Hfgo. 



HARRISBURG, PA. : 
E. K. Meyers, Printer and Binder. 

1891. 



3*7 



Copyrighted the 20th of May. 1891, by 
H. Bektkand. 



•' CONTENTS. 



FIRST PART. 

Pages. 

Preface, 9,10 

Abbreviations, 30 

Alphabet, 11 

Vowels and Consonants 12 

Double Consonants, 13 

Syllables — Monosyllable, dissyllable, trisyllable, poly syllable, 14 

Diphthongs, 16 

Important notice on Syllables ; e mute, 16 

Accents— Acute accent ; where it is used, 16-18 

Grave Accent — When used over a, over u. over e, 18-21 

Circumflex Accent — When used over a, over e, over i, over o, 

over u, ! 21-24 

Cedilla, 25,288 

Apostrophe — Observation — When the Elision occurs, .... 25-27 

Diaeresis— When used over e, over I, 27-28 

Hyphen, 28 

Different sounds of Vowels and Observations, 29 

Vowel a — Its pronunciation according to its place in words, 

and Reading Exercises, 29-42 

Vowel e— Its pronunciation according to its place in words 
and with the acute accent, the grave, etc. ; when 

it is mute, and Reading Exercises, 42-58 

Vowel i — Its pronunciation according to its place in words and 

with the circumflex accent ; Reading Exercises, 59-71 
Vowel o — Its pronunciation according to its place ; Reading 

Exercises, 71-88 

Double oo, 84 

Vowel u— How to pronounce it as in French— When pro- 
nounced — When silent after g and q — Reading 

Exercises, 88-95 

Vowel y — Its pronunciation according to its place in words : 

as one i, as two i's — Reading Exercises, .... 95-102 
(3) 



4 Contents. 

SECOND PART. 

Pages. 

Pronunciation of ai, ay, ei and ey — Observation on ai, .... 103 

Linking Consonants, 104-110 

Notice on Idiomatical Expressions, 110-111 

Numbers from 1 to 20 (cardinal), Ill 

Pronunciation of ail and ail le and au and eau, 112-114 

Numbers from 21 to 29 (cardinal), . . . . 114 

Pronunciation of eil, eille, ieil and ieille ; Names of the Days ; 

ielandielle, 115-117 

Pronunciation of er, ez, ie, ye, ier, iez and yer — Names of the 

Months, 117-123 

Pronunciation of ie— Names of the Seasons— Reading Exer- 
cise, 123-124 

Pronunciation of eu and oeu— Observation on en — Cardinal 

numbers from 30 to 65, 124-127 

Pronunciation ot eur and osur, 127 

Pronunciation of ieu— Observation, 128 

Pronunciation of euil and euille, ueil, ueille, . 129 

Mort terrible de trois cents prisonniers francais, . 129 

Pronunciation of oeil and oe, 131-134 

Pronunciation of oi — Numbers from 70 to 91, . 134-135 

Pronunciation of oir, ou, oue, oul, our, ouce and ouse ; ouss ; 

ouil and ouille, 135-140 

Numbers from 98 to 1,000,000 (cardinal), 137 

Ordinal Numbers from 1 to 20, 140 

Pronunciation of ui and uy, . 142 

Ordinal Numbers from 21st to 55th, 144 

Pronunciation of urn— Notice, 146 

Pronunciation of une and ume, 147 

Ordinal Numbers from 60th to 300th and up, 148-150 

How to form an Ordinal Number, 150 

How to pronounce Numbers after kings, popes, etc., 150 

How to pronounce Dating Numbers, 151 

Nasal Sounds — Cutting of Nasal Sounds, 154 

Pronunciation of am, an, em and en, 154-177 

Invitation to a Riding Party, . 155 

Invitation to a Fishing Party, 156 

Invitation to a Birthday Party, 161 

Answer to an Invitation to a Riding Party, 163 

Invitation to a Friend— Vacation News, 168 

Answer to the Preceding Letter, 171 

Sending Money and asking for Samples of Goods, 174 

Order for Groceries and Fine Spices, 175 

Claim lor a loss on Railroad, 178 



Contents. 5 

Pages. 

Pronunciation of aim, ain, em, im, in, ym and yu, 179-i82 

Asking Information about a Person, 180 

Information to Parents after a Change or School, 1S3 

Pronunciation of om and on, 184-193 

Answer to the Preceding Letter, 186 

Asking for a Loan and Offering Mortgage, 190 

Invitation to a Hunting Party, 191 

Answering an Advertisement for a Fellow-traveller, 194 

Pronunciation of oin and um, 196 

Information to Parents on the Choice of a Condition of Life, . 198 

Pronunciation of um and on, 199 

A Member of a Society to another Member to confer with him 

on account of an Election for a President, 201 

Answer to the Preceding Letter, 203 

THIRD PART. 

The Consonant B, 205 

To be observed in the Pronunciation of Verbs, 207 

Conjugation of Auxiliary Verbs. 

Avoir (to hare), 208 

The Consonant C, 211 

Angleterre— Les Premiers Habitants— Invasion des Romains 

— Les Saxons — Immigrations des Bretons — Les Angles, . . 212 

The Consonant D, • 214 

The Consonants F and Ph., 217 

Conjugation of the Interrogative Form of Verbs — Observa- 
tions, 218-221 

The Consonant G, 222-225 

Double Consonant GG, 226 

Conjugation of Verbs in their Negative Form — Observations, 224 
Les Ecossais adoptent le Chardon poar Embleme National, . 226 
Conjugation of Verbs in their Interrogative Form — Observa- 
tions, 228 

The Consonant H, 229-236 

Comment le Trerle devint T embleme National des Irlandais 231 
Le Christianisme est introduit en Grande Bretagne— Gre^oire 

ler 233 

Remarks on Impersonal Verbs, 237 

Verbs Conjugated as Impersonal Verbs, . . 240 

L' Heptarchie disparait — Egbert — Alcuin — Le Denier de St. 

Pierre, 241 

The Consonant J, 243 

The Verb Auxiliary etre (to be), 246 



6 Contents. 

Pages. 
Alfred dit le Grand — Anecdotes — Conversion des Banois au 

Christianisme — L' universite d' Oxford, 250 

The Consonant K and L, 252-266 

Henri II— Thomas Becket — 3a naissance— II est mis a mort— 
Annexion de l'lrelande a l'Angleterre — Adrien IV — Sa nais- 
sance, ....... 260 

Bouble Consonant LTj, . . 166 

Henri III — Simon de Monfort — Origine du Parlement Britan- 
nique — Premiere recherches pour le Charbon de terre — Be- 
fense temporaire de 1' employer — Richesse des mines de 

houille, 269 

The Consonant M, 271 

Bouble Consonant MM, 273 

Verbes Adjectifs— Befinitions, 273-275 

Place of the Pronouns Objects, 276 

First Conjugation. 

Aimer {to love), 278-282 

Conjugation of the Verbes Passifs, 282 

The Consonant N, 283-285 

Aller {to go), 286 

Observations on the Verbs of the First Conjugation, 288-290 

Edward III — Premier usage de l'artillerie — Van Artevelde — 

Siege de Calais — BeYouement de Six patriotes — L' Ordre de 

la Jarretiere — "Le Chateau de Windsor — Genre de taxation — 

Bomesticite et consommation a la Cour d' Angleterre, . . . 291 

Henri VIII— Son caractere, Ses moeurs et ses femmes, Sa 

tyrannie, 295 

The Consonant P, 302 

The Consonant Q, 304 

Second Conjugation. 

Saisir {to seize), *. 306 

The Consonant R, 309 

Bouble Consonant RR, 310 

The Consonant S, 311-315 

Irregular verbs of the Second Conjugation— Observations, . . 316 

Venir {to come), 316 

Tenir {to hold), 318 

The Consonant T, 319-323 

Ouvrir {to open), 324 

Assaillir {to assault), 325 

Bouillir {to boil), 327 



Contents. 7 

Packs. 

Cueillir {to gather), 328 

Conquerir (to conquer), 329 

Courir (to run), 331 

Mourir (to die) 333 

Consentir (to consent), 334 

Observations on some Verbs of this Category ; their Indicatif 

Present, . . . 333,336 

Fuir (to fly), 336 

Faillir (to fail), 336 

The Double Consonant TT, 340 

Hair (to hate), 340 

Fleurir (to blossom, to flourish), 340 

Benir (to bless), 341 

Gesir (to lie), . . . 341 

Etre obei (to be obeyed), 343 

Noblesse et Noblesse — I, 344 

Third Conjugation. 

Observations, 347 

Percevoir (to -perceive), 348 

Devoir (to owe), 349 

Mouvoir (to move), 351 

Pouvoir (to can, to be able), 352 

Pourvoir (to provide), 353 

Surseoir (to suspend) and seior (to fit), 355 

Valoir (to be worth), 356,357 

Voir (to see), 358,359 

Vouloir (to wish), 360,361 

Savoir (to kyiow), 361 

Choir (to fall) and Rechoir (to fall again), 362 

Dechoir (to decline, to decay), 363 

Echoir (to fall, to expire, to be due), 363 

The Consonants V and W, . 364 

Noblesse et Noblesse— II, 365 

Fourth Conjugation. 

Vendre (to sell), 370 

Irregular Verbs of the Fourth Conjugation— Battre (to beat), 372 

Boire (to drink), 374 

Clore (to close), 375 

Conclure (to conclude), 376 

Confire (to preserve with sugar), 377 

Coudre (to sew), 378 

Croire (to believe), 379 



8 Contents. 

Pages. 

Croitre (to grow), 380 

Craindre (to fear), 382 

Dire (to say) — Observations, * . . . 383 

Eclore (to hatch, to bloiv, to open), ' 385 

Ecrire (to write), 385 

Faire (to make, to do), 387 

Frire (to fry), 388 

Lire (to read), 389 

Mettre (to put*), 390 

~M.oxi(\re (to gri7id), 391 

Naitre (to be born), 393 

Paitre (to graze, to feed), 391 

Repaitre (to feed) and Se repaitre (to feed one's self), . . . 395 

Paraitre (to appear), . . 395 

Plaire (to please), 397 

Prendre (to take), 398 

Reduire (to reduce), 399 

Resoudre (to dissolve, to resolve, to decide), 401 

Rire (to laugh), 402 

Hom-pre (to break), 404 

Suivre (to follow), 405 

Traire (to milk), 406 

Vainere (to vanquish), 407 

Vivre (to live), 409 

Observations on the Meaning and Translation of some Verbs, 410 

The Consonant X, . . 413-416 

Noblesse et Noblesse — III, 416 

The Consonant Z, " 423 

Noblesse et Noblesse— IV, 424 

Pronominal Verbs. 

S 1 en aller( logo away), 428 

Se resign er (to submit), 429 

S' enfuir (to run a\oay, to slip away), 431 

S' asseoir (to sit down), 433 

Impersonal, Verbs. 

Tonner (to thunder), 436 

S' agir (to be the question), 437 

Falloir (to be needed, to be necessary), 437 

Pleuvoir (to rain), 438 

Faire (to do, to make), 439 

Noblesse et Noblesse— V, 439 



PREFACE. 



I have noticed that the easiest way to acquire a French 
pronunciation in a solid manner, is to assimilate the sounds. 
It is what I have done in this work by taking from the En- 
glish language words, or parts of words, which have the 
same sounds, or almost, supplying when necessary efficient 
explanations. This assimilation has, besides many other 
advantages, the one of securing the opportunity of meeting 
very often with words which are common to both languages, 
and so, of suggesting comparisons, which gives the most 
proficient study ; such as for example in : 



The 


La pronounce a as ah broad. 


table 


table 


" a as in lad, bl as in a 
diphthong, e mute. 


is 


est 


" e as in net, broad, st mute. 


pretty 


belle 


" belle as bell. 


He 


11 


" as ill. 


provides 


pourvoit 


" pour as poor, oit as wa 
in was 


for 


pour 


'• pour as poor. 


his 


sa 


s hard as in sea, a as in 
cat. 


family 


famille 


fa as iu fat, ille as ee in 



This work gives a full course of the French pronunciation, 
including the ordinary sounds, the liquid and the nasal 
sounds with all the combinations, and also the necessary 
rules and observations with many examines pronounced and 
translated, in order to familiarize the student with the French 
pronunciation and, at the same time, form his vocabulary. 
I have added to it a full scheme for Linking Consonants. 
For training, there are graduated Reading Exercises, Iclio- 
matical and others, all referring to serious subjects on morals 

(9) 



10 Preface. 

and physics, on history, on geography, on literature, etc., 
on common and daily expressions, comprising- all the num- 
bers in their cardinal and ordinal forms, the whole in har. 
mony with the intelligent capacity of the student and with 
his acquired knowledge. 

Principles of grammar have not been neglected, many 
have also been given at attracting points, and construction 
of sentences takes its place, as well as pronouns and nega- 
tions, in conversation and writing ; and in order to assist the 
student as far as possible, there is in the third part of this 
work a method for conjugating all the French verbs and 
very important notices on their translation, meaning and 
use. 

May my book be some help to persons who study French 
and realize their desire of being able to pronounce it well 
and speak it ! But my intention and my constant aim having 
been for the benefit of all, in spite of very hard labor, and 
relying on results already obtained by my method, I dare 
expect to enjoy the satisfaction of others ! 

H. Bertrand. 

September, 1891. 



FRENCH SPEAKER 



HOW TO PKONOUNCE, HOW TO BEAD. 



FIRST PART 



THE ALPHABET. 



In speaking and writing a language, words are used. 
Words are composed of syllables, as : 
Beau pronounce bo ; o as in no. 

*fine, nice. 

bonbon " bou bon ; on as in monk, both n's si- 

bonbon. lent. 

animal " a ni inal ; a as ah, ni as in nip, al as 

animal. in salvation. 

Syllables are composed of letters, which are called vowels 
and consonants ; vowels and consonants form the alphabet : 
a sounds ah. 



b " 


' bey. 


• 


c '' 


' sey ; 


5 hard as in son. 


d 


dey. 




e ' 


1 e; 


as a in fate. 


f " 


f ; 


as in English. 


S 


' gey; 


g soft as/ in bijou. 


h 


ash. 




i 


e ; 


as English e. 


J 


je; 


j soft as in bijou, and e as in English. 


k 

ti 


1 kah. 


as in English. 


m " 


m ; 


do. 



* The translation into English of the French words used as examples will immediately 
follow the words themselves throughout the entire book. 

(11) 



12 



French Speaker. 



n 


sounds 


n ; as in English. 


o 


a 


o ; do. 


P 


a 


pey- 


q 


" 


ku (see u). 


r 


" 


erre ; as ere in there with a longer rolled sound 


s 


u 


s ; as in English. 


t 


" 


tey. 


u 


a 


Place the lips as if about to whistle, and the t< 



close to the lower teeth, leaving the aperture very- 
small ; then try to utter u as in circus, and the 
sound of u will come merely from the extremity of 
the mouth. U must be sounded dry, without the 
sound of i at the beginning. 

vey. 

double vey ; clou with ou as oo in too, bl sounded 
and e final mute. 

eeks. 
1 e 2 grek; 

zed. 



as English e, 2 e as in net, k sounded. 



VOWELS. 

The vowels are a, e, i, o, u, y. 

They are so called because they have by themselves 
complete sound ; they even form syllables alone : 



Paris 


pronounce Pa ri ; 


a as in rat, i as in city. 


capital of France. 






cheval 


' ' she val ; 


she with e as u in tub, 


horse. 




val as in salvation. 


ananas 


' ' a na na ; 


all a 7 s as in rat. 


pine-apple. 






uni 


" u ni ; 


u as in the alphabet, 


united. 




ni as in nib. 


yacht 


yak; 


y as in yard, a as ah, 


yacht. 




k sounded. 


olive 


' ; o li v ; 


o as in not, li with i as 


olive. 




English e, v sounded 
as in dove, keeping 
e mute. 



CONSONANTS. 

The consonants are b, c, d,f, g, h, j, k, I, m, n, p, q, r 

V, IV, X, z. 



s, t. 



French Speakt 



13 



Cercle 


pronounce ser kl ; 


circle. 




fable 


" fa bl ; 


fable. 




horrible 


" or ri bl ; 


horrible. 




Marie 


" Marie; 


Mary. 




paletot 


" pal to ; 


coat. 




enfant 


" en fan ;f 


child. 





They are named consonants on account of their cooper- 
ation in the expression of words, helping vowels to form 
other sounds, and intonating- words and syllables : 

ser with er as ere in there and 5 

bard, kl sounded.* 
fa with a as in lad, b I sounded. 

or as or, h is mute, ri with i as 
English e, bl sounded. 

Ma with a as in cat, rie with 
ie as ee in bee. 

pal as in palp, to with o as in 
not. 

en and an as an in want, keep- 
ing both n's mute. 

DOUBLE CONSONANTS. 

The double consonants, which have the same use as the 
consonants, are ch, gh, gn, ph and th. 
Ch sounds as English sh : 
Chablis pronounce sha bli 

French wine. 

cher " sher ; 

dear. 

Ch sounds sometimes as k ; this occurs when it is in old 
and foreign proper names and in words derived from the 
Greek : 

Achas pronounce A kas ; first a as ah, as as 

king of Judea. as. 

Michel-Ange " x Mikel- 2 Ange ; 1 mi as in mid, kel 

celebrated painter with el as in bell, 

and sculptor. 2 An as in want n 

mute, ge with g 
soft as j?' in bijou, 
e silent. 



a as ah, i as in city. 



er as ere in there. 



* Observe that— Tr, dr, M, cl. pi, cr are pronounced as if they were each one con- 
sonant forming a kind of diphthong. 

tMany, when they express the nasal sounds, pronounce AXG, ixg. ong, uxg ; but 
the student must, if he desires to have a good pkoxuxciatiox avoid that dis- 
agreeable and avroxg consonance, xot o.vly of the x, but also of the g. and 
pronounce strictly the NASAL of the souxd alone, cutting ax, ix, ox and UN 
short. This is an easy thing to do. 



14 



French Speaker. 



chaos 

chaos. 
archeologie 

archeology. 



pronounce ka o ; 

" ar ke o lo gie 



Gh sounds as g in game : 

Enghien pronounce En gi en 

name of a duke. 



Ghislain 

■proper name. 



Gi lain 



ka as ca in cat, o 
as in not. 
; ar as in parlor, e 
as a in fate, both 
o's as o in not, 
gie with ie as ee 
in free, having g 
soft as j in bijou. 

En as aw in want n 
mute, g as in game, 
i as in city combined 
with en as an in 
plank, n mute. 

Gil as gil in gild, caw as 
aw inp?awfc w mute. 



Gn is sounded as gn in mignonette and in dignity : 

expugnable pronounce eks pu gna bl ; eks with e as in net, 
expugnable. pic with u as in the 

alphabet, gn as in 
mignonette, a as 
in lad, bl sounded. 
; mi gnon ; mi as in mid, gnon 

with on as in monk, 
n mute, gn being 
sounded as above. 

Ph and th are always sounded as f and t respectively in 
French : 



mignon 

pretty, favorite. 



Pharaon 

king of Egypt. 
Athenes 

capital of Greece. 



pronounce Fa ra on 



A tai ne 



both a's as in cat, on as 
in monk, n mute. 

A as ah, tai with ai as ay 
in may, n sounded and 
e mute. 



SYLLABLES. 

As said above, a syllable is formed of letters, one, two, 
three or more, and it is the emission of a sound : 

pronounce a ; as ah. 



a 

have. 

du 

some. 



du; 



u as in the alphabet. 



French Speaker. 15 

bon pronounce bon ; on as in monk n mute. 

good. 

pain " pain : ain as an in thank n mute. 

bread. 

A word which has only one syllable is called a monosyl- 
lable : 

chat pronounce sha ; a as ah. 

cat. 

sans " san ; 5 hard, an as in want n mute. 

without. 

lait '• lai : ai as ay in may. 

milk. 

A word of two syllables is called a dissyllable : 
souris pronounce sou ri ; s hard, on as oo in too, ri as 

mouse. 

tableau " 

picture. 

papa " 

father. 

A word of three syllables is called a trisyllable : 

paradis pronounce pa ra di ; both a's as in cat, di as in 
paradise. dig. 

terrible " ter ri ble ; ter with er as ere in there, 

terrible. ri with i as English e, bl 

sounded, e final mute. 

A word formed of more than three syllables is called a 
polysyllable : 

humanite pronounce * u man i te ; a as in the alphabet, a 
huma.nity. as in cat, ni as in nick, 

eaain fate. 
tranquilite •• tran ki li te ; Iran with an as in want, 

tranquility. n mute, both t's as in 

city, eas« in fate. 





m rip. 


bio; 


a as ah, as in no. 


pa ; 


both a' s as in cat. 



Ii beginning words is often mute. It is always mute in the body of word; 



16 



French Speaker. 



DIPHTHONGS. 



A diphthong* is the combination of two vowels which, 
though pronounced by only one emission of the voice, com- 
bines two sounds : 



Ol 


pronounce 


wa ; 


ion 


" 


1-011 ; 


oui 




ou-i ; 


iome 




i-ome 


ie 




i-e ; 


iai 




i-ai ; 


iuim 




i-um ; 



as in was. 

i combined as in view, on as in monk, 

n mute. 
ou as oo in too, i as in city. 
i combined as in view, ome as om in Tom. 
i do., e as a in fate, 
i do., ai as ay in may. 
i do., um as in rum. 

Important Notice on the French Pronunciation. 
In French, each syllable must be pronounced distinctly 
and smoothly, unless the word ends in an e mute, in which 
case the last syllable is slightly more accented : 

ai as ay in may, ma with 
a as in lad, bl sounded. 

rai with ai as above, zo 
with o as in not, na 
with a as in lad, bl 
sounded. 

fa with a as in cat, li 
with i as English e, 
gue as g in fig, ue being 
mute. 
ACCENTS. 

There are in French three accents : The Acute ( ' ), the 
Grave ( v ) and the Circumflex ( A ) 

ACUTE ACCENT. 
The acute accent is used over the vowel e. 
When e has the acute accent, it sounds as a in fate : 



Aimable 


pronounce 


ai ma bl ; 


amiable. 






raison liable 


" 


rai zo na bl 


reasonable. 






fatigue 


u 


fa t i gue ; 


fatigue. 







Cafe 

coffee. 



pronounce ca ie 



in cat, e as a in fate. 



Nota BENE.— The use of the accents in French is one of the most important things, 
and it is to be observed particularly, because they give different sounds to the words, 
and even change their meaning. 

No one can be a good reader, if he neglects the accents, and anybody who learns 
French, must make the use of them a habit from the beginning, in order to make him- 
self understood. The same rnle exists with no less necessity for a writer. 



French Speaker. 



17 



chastete 


pronounce shas te te ; 


shas with as as in mass, e as a 


chastity. 




in tub, c as a in fate. 


verite 


" ve ri te ; 


both e's as a in fate, ri as in 


tt nth. 




rick. 


aime 


" ai me ; 


ai as in mail, e as a in fate. 


loved. 






donne 


" do ne 


o as in not, e as above. 


given. 






parle 


" par le 


par as in parlor, e as above. 


S})oken. 






cree 


" cree ; 


both &s as o in fate, and 


created. 




sounded separately. 



Remark. — The sound given above for the acute accent is 
the most general. 

E having- the acute accent has the sound more as a in 
made in the verbs of the first conjugation when conjugated 
interrogatively, in the indicative mood, present tense, first 
person singular : 



Aime-je ? 

do I love ? 

porte-je ? 

do I bear? 



pronounce ai maije 



por taije 



1st ai as ay in may, 2d ai 
as a in made, j soft as 
in bijou, e mute. 

or as in porter ; ai as 
above, j and e idem. 



In the verbs of the third conjugation, devoir (to owe), 
pouvoir (to be able), avoir (to have) and in etre (to be) this of 
the fourth conjugation, when they take the form of the im- 
perfect subjunctive in the first person singular, in order to 
express an exclamation, e sounds the same : 



Dusse-je ! pronounce du saije ; 

must I be compelled .' 



pusse-je ! 

may 1 be able ! 
eusse-je 
might I have ! 

fusse-je ! 

might I be. 



pu saije ; 
u saije ; 

fu saije ; 



u as in the alphabet, s 
hard, ai as a in made, 
j soft and e mute. 

as above. 

u as in the alphabet, 
s hard, the rest as 
given above. 

u as in the alphabet, 
the rest as above. 



18 



French Speaker. 



The same sound for e with the acute accent is kept before 
ge ending words : 
Privilege pronounce pri vi laige 

privilege. 

solfege " 

solfeggio. 



sacrilege 

sacrilege. 
Liege 

city of Belgium. 

Je protege 

I protect. 



quej assiege 

that I may besiege. 



privi as in English, 
aige as aije above, 
sol faige ; sol with ol as oil in 

doll, the rest as 
above. 
sa cri laige ; sacri as in English, 

the rest as above. 
Li aige ; i as in view, combined 

with the rest as 
above. 

1 Je 2 pro taige, 1 j soft as in bijou, e as 
u in tub, 2 pro as in 
protect, ai as given 
with g soft as j in bi- 
jou, e silent. 

ike 2 jas si aige ; x e as u in tub, 2 j soft, 
as with 5 hard, si as 
ci in city, i being 
combined with aige 
as above. 



GRAVE ACCENT. 

The grave accent is used over the vowel a, u and e. 
It is used over the vowel a in : 

a pronounce a; as in cat — (in order to dis- 

to. tihguish it from a (has). 



ca ' 


sa; 


do., with 5 hard as in sun. 


that. 






deca " 


de sa ; 


e as u in tub, sa as above. 


on this side. 






deja " 


deja ; 


e as a in fate, j soft as in bi- 


already. 




jou, a as ah. 


dela ' 


de la ; 


e as u in tub, a as above. 


on this side. 






la 


la; 


a as above. 


there. 






hola 


ho la ; 


h aspirate, o as in no, a as 


stop ! enough ! 




above. 


voila " 


voi la ; 


voi with oi as wa in was, a 


there is, there are. 




as above. 



French Speaker. 



19 



jusqu'a • pronounce jus ka 

till there, till then. 



qua 

only. 



ka 



j soft as in bijou, u as in the 
alphabet, 5 sounded, a as 
above. 

« as above. 



and in some compound words. 
The grave accent is used over the vowel u in : 

ou pronounce ou ; as oo in too (in order to distinguish it from 
where. on (or). 

Fkom what precedes, we learn that the grave accent does 
not change the sound of the vowels a and u. 

When e having the grave accent precedes the ending syl- 
lables le, te and ire and the ending consonant s, it has re- 
spectively the sound of e in bell and e in net : 

Paralelle pronounce pa ra lell 
parallel. 

" com plet 



complete 

complete. 

secrete 

secrete. 

metre 

meter. 

apres 



se cret ; 



metr ; 



a pres 



both d's as in cat, ell as 
in bell. 

07)i as on in monk, m si- 
lent, et as et in net. 

s hard with e as u in tub, 
the rest as above. 

e as in net, tr sounded. 

a as in cat, e as e in net, s 
silent. 



When e having the grave accent precedes s ending Span- 
ish names, and the finals bre, ce, de, gle, gne, gre, gue, me, ne } 
que and se, it has the sound of a in late : 



Juares pronounce Ju a raiz ; 

Juarez, a Mexican. 



Mercedes 

Spanish princess. 



Mer se daiz 



j soft as in bijou, u as 
in the alphabet, a 
as in cat, ai as a 
in late, z sounded. 

er as ere in there, se 
with 5 hard as in 
son and e as a in 
fate, the rest as 
given above. 



20 



French Speaker. 



celebre 

celebrated. 



se lai bre ; 



Lucrece " 


Iju crais ; 


celebrated Roman 




woman. 




je possede " 


x je 2 pos saicle 


Ipossess. 




regie " 


rai gle ; 


rule, a ruler, 




statutes. 




regne " 


rai gne ; 


reign. 




allegre " 


a laigre ; 


lively. 




j'allegue " 


ja laig ; 


I allege. 




theme " 


tai me ; 


theme. 




carene " 


ca rai ue ; 


the keel of a ship. 




Seneque " 


Se uaik ; 


Nero's preceptor. 




il pese " 


HI 2 paize ; 


he weighs. 





se with s hard as in 

son and e as a in 

fate, ai as a in 

made, br sounded, 

e silent. 
u as in the alphabet, 

ai as a in made, 

s sounded. 
x j soit as in bijou, e 

as u in tub ; 2 pos 

asinpossess, saide 

as said, 
ai as given, gle with 

gl sounded and e 

silent. 
ai as a in made and 

gn sounded as in 

mignonette, emute. 
a as a, lai as lay, gr 

sounded, e silent. 
j soft as in bijou, a 

and lai as above, 

g sounded as in 

big. 
ai as a in made, m 

sounded and e si- 
lent. 
a as in cat, ai as 

given, n sounded, 

e silent. 
S hard, e as a in fate, 

ai as a in late, k 

sounded. 
l il as ill, 2 ai as a in 

made, z sounded 

and e silent. 



e having" the grave accent and preceding- final che sounds 
as e in flesh : 

pronounce il pesh ; as in flesh and il as ill. 



il peche 

he sins. 
fleche 

arrow. 



flesh 



as in English. 



French Speaker. 



21 



In verbs, e having- the grave accent and preceding" the 
ending- me or ment, ne or nerd, the combinations erne, ement, 
hie and enent, sound the consonants m and n as in the al- 
phabet, but a little strong-er ; e and ent final are mute : 



je seme 

I SOIV. 



pronounce \je 2 seme 



ils promenent ' 
they take a xualk. 



m 2 pro menent ; 



H soft as in bijou, e as u 
in tub, leme as the con- 
sonant m with s hard. 

HI as ill, Zpro as in 
proper, enent as the 
consonant n. 



When e having a grave accent precedes the final re and 
rent, ere and erent sound as ere in there, in where, keeping- 
e and ent silent : 



Pere 

~f ft t fl 4XY* 




pronounce 


pere ; 


ere as ere in there. 


J Lb I fits 1 • 

mere 




a 


mere ; 


do. 


mother. 










frere 




" 


frere ; 


do. 


brother. 










amere 




(( 


a mere ; 


a as in eat, the rest 


bitter. 








as above. 


chere 




a 


shere : 


as above. 


dear. 










flere 




ti 


fl ere ; 


i combined with ere 


proud. 








sounded as ere in 

there. 


ils parlerent 


" 


HI 2 par lerent ; 


Hi as in mill, 2 par as 


they iv ere 


speaking. 




in parlor, erent as 










ere in there. 



CIRCUMFLEX ACCENT. 

The circumflex accent is used over the vowels a, e, i, o, u. 

The circumflex accent is used over the vowels a, i, o, u 
without changing their sound, but generally makes them 
longer : 

Tacher pronounce ta che ; a as in rabbit, in father, 

to try. eh as sh, e as a in fate. 



22 



French Speaker. 



with earn as in beam. 
6 as in no, e as a in fate. 



dime pronounce deam ; 

American coin. 

chomer " sho me ; 

to be out of work. 

nous fumes " !nou 2 fum ; l ou as oo in too, %il as 

we were. u in the alphabet, m 

sounded. 

The sound of a, t, u preceding tes and t in verbs, is no 
longer : 

Vous donnates pronounce *vou 2 do nat ; x ou as oo in too, 2 o 
you gave. as in not, a as ah, 

t sounded. 

ivou 2 fl nit ; x do. ; 2 both i's as in 
city, t sounded. 

J vou 2 resut ; ido. ; 2 e as u in tub, 
s hard, u as in 
the alphabet, t 
sounded. 

ivou 2 vendit ; ido. ; %en as an fh 
want n mute, i 
as in city, t 
sounded. 

!kil 2 pri a ; *as fo'M ; 2 i as in 
city, a as ah. 

ikil 2 o be i ; ^o. ; 2 o as in not, 
e as a in fate, i 
as in city. 

ikil 2 pu ; !do ; 2 u as in the 

alphabet. 

ikil 2 com pri ; *as kil I ; torn as on 
in monkm mute, 
i as in city. . 

E having- the circumflex accent and preceding me and n 
final, sounds about as a in ?a/e : 
Merae pronounce mai m ; ai as a in late, m sounded. 

same. 

chene " shai n ; do., n sounded. 

oak. 

supreme " su prai m ; it as in the alphabet, ai as 

supreme. a in late, m sounded. 

creme " crai m ; ai do., m sounded. 

cream. 



vous unites 

you finished. 
vous refutes 

you received. 



vous vendites 

you sold. 



qu'il priat " 

that he might pray. 
qu'il obeit " 

that he might obey. 

qu'il put " 

that he might be able. 
qu'il comprit " 

that he might understand. 



French Speahm\ 23 

When e having- the circumflex accent is followed by t and 
que final, it sounds as e in net : 
Arret pronounce a ret ; a as in cat, e as in net, t silent. 

arrest, decree. 

foret " fo ret ; o as in not, do do. 

forest. 

pret " pret ; e as in net, t silent. 

ready. 

eveque " e vek ; e as a in fate, e as in net, k 

bishop. sounded. 

When e with the same sign is followed by che, te and tre, 
it sounds as ay in may : 

J'empeche pronounce jan paish ; j soft, an as in ivant, n mute, 

I prevent. ai as ay in may, sh sounded. 

il preche " il praish ; il as ill, prai as pray, sh do. 
he preaches. 

tete " tai te ; ai as above, t sounded, e mute. 

head. mute. 

fete " fai te ; ai as above, t do., e do. 
feast. 

pretre " prai tre ; ai as above, tr sounded, e 

priest. mute. 

When the vowel i having the circumflex accent is followed 
by le, me, ne and te final, it has respectively the sound of 
ee in feel, of ea in beam, of ea in bean, and of ee in feed : 

lie pronounce eel ; as English eel. 

island. 

abime " a beam ; a as in cat, beam as English 

abyss. beam. 

je dine " ye 2 dean ; ij soft as in bijou, e as u in 

I dine. tub, %s English dean. 

gite " geet ; g soft as j in bijou, eet as in 

home, quarters. feet. 

o having* the circumflex accent and being- followed by le, 
me, ne, te and tre final, has respectively the sound as in pole, 
as in home, as in bone and as in both : 

Role pronounce role; ole as in pole. 

roll, list. 

tole " tole ; do. 

sheet-iron. 



24 



French Speaker. 



dome 




pronounce 


dome ; 


ome as in home. 


round top. 
prone 


.i 


prone ; 


one as in bone. 


sermon, 
note 


lecture. 


note ; 


h mute, oas in both, t sound- 


guest. 
votre 




„ 


votre ; 


ed and e mute. 
o as in both, tr sounded, e 


yours. 
notre 




u 


notre ; 


mute, 
do., do. 



The circumflex accent over the vowel u is generally used 
in order to distinguish words from others, but does not 
chang-e the sound of u : 



Aout pronounce 

August {the month of). 



era 

grown. 

du 

owed. 

flute 

flute. 
gout 
taste. 
jeime 

fasting. 



mur 

ripe. 

mure 

■mulberry. 
sur 

sure, certain. 



pronounce cru 



du; 



flute 



Sou 



jeune 



as oo in too. 

u as in the alphabet. In 
order to distinguish it 
from cru (believed). 

u as in the alphabet. In 
order to distinguish it 
from du (of the, from the). 

u as in the alphabet, I 
sounded, e mute. 

r/asin game, ou as oo in too. 

j soft as in bijou, en as u in 
tub, n sounded, e mute. 
In order to distinguish it 
from je«me (young). 

u as in the alphabet, r rolled. 
In order to distinguish it 
from mur (wall). 

as above. 

s hard, ur as above. In or- 
der to distinguish it from 
sur (on, upon), and from 
sur (sour, acid). 



French Speaker. 



25 



CEDILLA. (J 

The cedilla concerns the pronunciation, and like the ac- 
cents, must be carefully observed. 

It is placed under the consonant c, and gives to this letter 
the hard sound of s in sea, in sun, before the vowels a, o, u : 



Facade 

front. 
le^on 

lesson. 

receipt. 



pronounce fa sad 



le son 



first a as in cat, s hard, sec- 
ond a as in lad, d sounded. 

e as u in tub, s hard, on as 
in monk, n mute. 

e as u in tub, s hard, u as in 
the alphabet. 



APOSTROPHE ( ' ) AND ELISION. 
The apostrophe is a sign which replaces the vowels a, e, i, 
when these vowels are elided. * 

Observe that : The apostrophe giving no sound at all, and 
the vowels a, e, i, having disappeared, the remaining part 
of the word is sounded with the first syllable of the follow- 
ing word : 

lak san : 



1 accent 

the accent. 



V estime 

the esteem. 
s' il arrive 
if he arrives, 
if it occurs. 
V honneur 
the honour. 
j' etais 
I was. 

n' avoir rien 

to hare nothing. 



pronounce 



les time 



isil 2 a riv 



je tai 



!iia voir 2 rien 



a as in cat, k sound- 
ed, s hard as in 
sea, an as an in 
want, n mute. 

les as less, ime as im 

in him. 
isil as in silk, %a as in 
cat , ri with i as En- 
glish e, v sounded. 

o as in not, eur as 
ur irs. fur. 

j soft as in bijou, e" 
as a in fate, %ai as 
a in late, 
hia with a as in cat, 
oi as wa in was, r 
sounded, %ri com- 
bined as -?n in ?n'ew, 
with en as an in 
sank, n mute. 



* The elision of the vowels a, e, i, occurs in certain words as je, T, me, me, te, thee. 
SE, him, she, que, than, quoiqtje. though, etc., when they are followed by a word 
beginning with a vowel or a mute h. 



26 



French Speaker. 



quelqu 'un 

somebody. 



jusqu 'a ell 

till her. 



lorsqu 'il fait 

when he does. 



puisqu 'elle vient 

since she comes. 



pronounce kel kuii 



ijus ka 2 ell 



Uors kil 2 fai : 



1 puis kell 2 vi en 



quoiqu 'il possede 

though he possess. 



grand' tante 

great aunt. 



grand' route 

highway. 



1 koi kil 2 po said 



L gran 2 tant 



x graii 2 rout 



kel with el as ell 
in bell, un as 
in hunter, n 
mute. 

!j soft as in bijou, 
u as in the al- 
phabet, s hard, 
ka as ca in cat, 
*ell as in bell. 

l ors as orse in 
morse, kil as 
kill, %/ai as in 
fail. 

i-ui as wi in wit s 
sounded, kell 
with ell as in 
bell, %vi com- 
bined as in 
view, with en 
as an in sank, 
n mute. 

x oi as if a in was, 
kil as kill, 2 o 
as in not, said 
as said. 
both an's as in 
want, n mute, 
both Vs sound- 
ed. 
an as above, out 
as oot in foot. 



Remark : The final e of quelque (some) is never elided, 
except before un (one), une (one), and the e of contre (ag-ainst) 
never ; they write : 



Quelque autre but pronounce kel kotr ; 
some other. 



contre ordre 

counter order. 



contr ordr 



kel with el as ell in 
bell, o as in both, 
tr sounded. 

on asin monk, 71 mute 
and tr sounded, or 
as in north, dr 
sounded. 



French Speaker. 27 

DUERESIS. 

The diaeresis is used over the vowels e, i, when these 
vowels do not coalesce with the preceding- vowel. "When e, 
i have the diaeresis, they begin a new syllable which, of 
course, is pronounced separately : 
Noel pronounce No el ; o as in not, el as in 

Christmas. bell. 

hair " ha ir ; h aspirate, a as in 

to hate. cat, ir as ere in 

here. 
Sinai " Si na i ; Si as ci in city, a as 

mountain of Judea. in cat, i as English 

e. 
aigue* " ai gu e ; ai as ay in may, g 

acute. as in game, u as 

in the alphabet, e 

sounded as w final 

in English. 

egoist e " ego iste ; e as a in fate, g as 

selfish. in game, o as in 

not, iste as ist in 
fist. 

Remark : When i having- the diaeresis precedes an r final, 
or an r beginning a final mute syllable, it has the sound of 
English e ; it has the same sound at the end of nouns : 
Ouir pronounce ou ir ; ou as oo in too, 'ir as 

to hear. ere in here. 

ils hairent " Ml 2 ha ir ; HI as in will, 2 h aspi- 

they hated. rate, a as in cat, ir 

as ere in here. 
Mastai " Mas ta i ; Mas as mass, ta with 

•prominent Italian family. a as in cat, i as En- 

glish e. 

In other cases, i with the diaeresis sounds as i in city : 
Je hais pronounce x je 2 ha i ; \j soft as in bijou, e as 

I hated. u in tub, 2 h aspirate, 

a as in cat, % as i in 

* As UE is generally mute in words ending in gue, the diaeresis on the e final of a few 
of them, indicates the cases in which u must be sounded. Without the diaeresis on the 
e of gcte, this final combination would sound as G in FIG— e final sounds as w final in 
English. 



28 



French Speaker. 



il haissait 

he hated. 



heard. 



pronounce ^\\ 2 ha is sai 



Hll as in will, *h aspi- 
rate, a as in cat, is 
as iss in miss, sai 
with 5 hard, and ai 
as a in wade. 
om as oo in too, i as i 
in e££y. 



When having- the diaeresis, e is followed by me and fe final, 
it sounds the consonant m long before me, and as a in fa/e 
before te : 

po em ; o as in ?io£, em as the conso- 

nant m, but longer. 
po et ; o as above, et as ate in late. 



Poeme * 


pronounce 


poem. 




poete 


u 


poet. 





HYPHEN. 

The hyphen is placed between words in order to show 
their connection : 

x parl - 2 til ? 



parle-tf-il 

does he speak ? 

arc-en-ciel 

rainbow. 



chef-de' oeuvre 

masterpiece. 



pronounce 



*ar 2 kan 3 siel 



!she 3 doeuvr 



x par as in parlor, 
I sounded, Hit 
as till. 

x ar as in arche- 
ology, 2 an as in 
tv ant, n mute, 
3 si as ci in city, 
combined with 
el as ell in bell. 

x e as in net, %oeu 
as u in but, vr 
sounded. 



*Many write poeme and poete and these are pronounced the same. 

f This t is a euphonical letter placed after the vowels e and a ending 
the third person singular of the present and of the preterit definite 
(indicative mood) of the verbs of the first conjugation, conjugated 
interrogatively: donne-t-il? (does he give?) marcha-t-il? (did he 
walk?). The four conjugations have a euphonical t in all verbs at 
the same person of their future tense when conjugated in the same 
manner: mangera-t-il ? (will he eat?) finira-t-il ? (will he finish?) 
percevra-t-il ? (will he perceive?) fera-t-il? (will he do?). 



FRENCH SPEAKER. 



HOW TO PKONOUNCE, HOW TO BEAD. 



DIFFERENT SOUNDS OF VOWELS AND OBSERVATIONS. 



a as in lad. 



When the vowel a precedes the syllables be, de, ge, ble, bre, 
dre, gue, vre and ve final, it sounds as a in lad broad: 



Arabe pronounce 


a rabe ; 


first a as in cat, second a as 


Arabian. 




in lad, with final e mute. 


parade " 


pa rade ; 


first a do., the rest as above. 


parade. 






cage " 


ca ge ; 


a as in lad, with g soft as j 


cage. 




in bijou, e mute. 


esclave " 


es clave ; 


es as in esteem, the rest as 
above. 


table " 


ta ble ; 


a as in the rule, bl sounded, 


table. 




e naute. 


Calabre " 


Ca la bre ; 


a as in cat, labre with a as 


Calabria. 




in lad, br sounded, e mute. 


*Paques " 


Pak ; 


(/ as in lad. 


Easter. 






cadre " 


cadre ; 


a as in lad, dr sounded, e 


frame, cadre. 




mute. 


fbague " 


bague ; 


as bag, e silent. 


ring. 






cadavre " 


ca davre , 


a as in cat, da with a as in 


corpse, dead body. 




lad, vr sounded, e mute. 



*« preceding que sounds generally short as in cap; Pdques has a 
long on account of its circumflex accent. 
I u after g and q is generally silent. 

(29) 



30 



French Speaker. 



ABBREVIATIONS. 



mas. or m. 


masculine. 


pas. v. 


passive verb. 


fem. or f. 


feminine. 


imp. v. 


impersonal verb. 


sing, or s. 


singular. 


ind. m. 


indicative mood. 


pi. or p. 


plural. 


cond. m. 


conditional mood. 


art. 


article. 


imp. m. 


imperative mood. 


elid. 


elided. 


subj. m. 


subjunctive mood 


prop. n. 


proper noun. 


inf. m. 


infinitive mood. 


com. n. 


common noun. 


pres. or pr. 


present. 


det. adj. 


determinative ad- 


imp. 


imperfect. 




jective. 


p. def. 


preterit definite. 


dem. adj. 


demonstrative ad- 


fut. 


future. 




jective. 


pret. ind. 


preterit indefinite. 


pos adj. 


possessive adjective 


pluperf. 


pluperfect. 


qual. adj. 


qualifying adjec- 


pret. ant. 


preterit anterior. 




tive. 


fut. ant. 


future anterior. 


ind. adj. 


inefinite adjeciive. 


past. 


past. 


pers. pron. 


personal pronoun. 


1st pers. or p. 


first person. 


pos. pron. 


possessive pronoun. 


2d pers. or p. 


second person. 


rel. pron. 


relative pronoun. 


3d pers. or p. 


third person. 


dem. pron. 


demonstrative pro 


pres. past. 


present participle. 




noun. 


past part. 


past participle. 


ind. pron. 


indefinite pronoun. 


adv. 


adverb. 


aux. v. 


auxiliary verb. 


prep. 


preposition. 


act. v. 


active verb. 


conj. 


conjunction. 


n. v. 


neutral verb. 


interj. 


interjection. 


pron. v. 


pronominal verb. 


der. 


derivatives 



French Speaker. 31 

When a is followed by I, le and lie, al, ale and alle sound 
as al in salvation : 

Mai pronounce mal ; as al in salvation. 

evil, bad. 

morale " mo ral ; do 

morality. 

balle " bal ; do. 

ball. 

Notice. — In the Reading Exercises of the First Part, the words are 
given by syllables and by sounds connected by hyphens. 

Each syllable and each sound must be pronounced smoothly, keeping 
the same level in the voice for all the sounds. 

Of course, in many words, as for instance those ending in able : aim- 
able, this last sound appears naturally to be a little more accented. 

What should be said about mute letters in the Observations given 
below the Reading Exercises, must be observed. 

Further, see the linking of consonants, Second Part, page 104. 

READING I— (LECTURE I). 
La parade se fait sur la place. Les A-rabes sont un peu- 
ple de no-mades. La cage de ce se-rin est trop pe-tite. 
L'homme est es-clave de ses pas-sions. La Ca-labre et le 
Texas ont la re-pu-ta-tion d' etre des pays 1 de bri-gan-dage. 
La table de la-salle est ronde. La Paques des Juifs rap-pe- 
lait la sor-tie d' E-gypte, et la Paques des Chre-tiens ce-lebre 
la re-nais-sance du monde. Le cadre du por-trait de ma soeur 
est trop large. Le rnal, tant il est fre-quent, 2 semble etre 
V e-gal du bien. Cette bague d' or est riche. Les ca-davres 
de 1' ex-pe-di-tion Gree-ly furent trou-ves sur la plage de 
1' O-ce-an gla-cial. La ci-gale n' a-masse pas pour 1' hi-ver. 

Sounds Contained in this Exercise 

a as ah, and as in cat. an as an in want, n mute. 

a before be, ble, bre, de, dre, ge, ar as in bar with a shorter. 

gue, ques, tre, ve and vre as in as as as in Texas. 

lad. e in ce, de, le, se, and being the 

ai as ai in nail, or as ay in may. end of a first syllable, as u in 

al, all as al in salvation. tub. 

id' etre des pays : of being countries. 

2tant il est frequent, semble etre : as frequent as it is, seems to be. 



32 



French Speaker. 



e in des, est, les, ses as e in net ; s 

mute. 
e followed by consonants except 

m and n is sounded as e in net ; 

example : cet, cette. 
e as a in fate. 

ee as a in fate (in Greely). 
e as a in late. 
e as a in Za£e. 
em, en as cm in want, m and m 

mute. 
er as ere in i!/ie?*e in hiver. 
es as in esteem when in the body 

of words or beginning. 
eu as u in tub (in peuples). 
eur and oeur as ur in fur. 
i as in city. 
ial— diphthong— £ combined as in 

view with a? as in salvation. 
ie as ee in &ee. 
in as an in sank, n mute. 
ien — diphthong — i as in view, com- 
bined with en sounded as an in 

sank, n mute. 



ion when preceded by I and has 
the pronunciation sh in English, 
as for example in ambition, t 
sounds as 5 hard, and ti forms a 
diphthong with on, sounded as 
in monk, n mute. 

ion preceded by s. The 5 is sound, 
ed hard if it is preceded by a con ■ 
sonant or by an s. If between 
two vowels, it sounds as z, and 
sion forms a diphthong as above. 

o as in not. 

or as in nor. 

onime as om in Tom. 

on as on in monk, n mute. 

ou as 00 in too. 

our as oor in poor. 

u as in the alphabet. 

un as in hunter, n mute. 

ui as iv e, with i as in city. 

y as £ in city, in Egypte, and as En- 
glish e in Greely. 



Observation. 

e and es ending words are silent. 
st is silent in est, and e sounds as in net. 
ent is always mute at the end of verbs. 
h is silent in homme and in hiver. 

t in the conjunction et is always silent, and e is sounded as a in fate. 
il is sounded as ill in mill. 

ch. in riche is sounded as English sh, and as c or K in Chretiens. 
y in pays is used for two £'s ,■ one i makes a syllable with a, ai, and 
the second £ is sounded as in city ; s final is silent. 
u is silent after g and q. 

Remark. 

c before i or e has the sound of 5 hard as in sea ; it sounds as k in all 
other cases, except in second, infScond and in their derivatives, where 
it has the sound of g in game. 

g when before i or e, has the sound soft as;" in bijou : in other cases 
it sounds as in game, in gun, except when before n, where it sounds 
as in mignonette, in champaign, in dignity. 

s beginning words has always the sound hard as in sun, in sea. 



French Speaker. 



33 



Amasse, act . v . ind . m . pr 


gathers. 


hiver, prop n. m. s. 


winter. 


inf. amasser. 




homme, com. n. m. s. 


man. 


Arabes, prop. n. m. pi. 


Arabians. 


il, pers. pron. m. s. 3d pers. 


he. 


bague, com. n. f. s. 


ring. 


Juifs, prop. n. m. pi. 


Jews. 


bien, com. n. m. s. 


good. 


1', elided art. forle or la 


the. 


bri gandage, com . n . m . s 


. highway- 


la, art. fem. sing. 


the 




robbery. 


*large, qual. adj. (both 


broad, 


cadavres, com. n. m. pi. 


corpse, 


genders). 


wide, 




dead body. 




large. 


cadre, com. n. m. s. 


frame. 


le, art. m. s. 


the. 


cage, com. f. s. 


cage. 


les, art. m. and f. pi. 


the. 


Calabre, prop. n. f. s. 


Calabria. 


ma, pos. adj. f. s. 


my. 


ce, det. adj. mas. sing. 


that, this. 


mal, com. n. m. s. 


bad, ill, 


celebre, act. v. ind. m. pr 


. celebrates. 




evil. 


inf. celebrer. 




monde, com. n. m. s. 


world. 


cette, det. adj. f. s. 


that, this. 


n\ adv. for ne 


no. 


Chretiens, com. n. m. pi. 


Christians. 


nomades, qual. adj. pi. 


nomad. 


cigale, com. n. f. s. 


grasshop- 


(both genders). 


wander- 


d\ prep, (for de) 


per, 
of. 


Ocean, prop. n. m. s. 


ing. 
Ocean. 


de, prep. 


of. 


ont, aux. v. ind. m. pr. inf 


have. 


des, cont. art. for de les 


of the. 


avoir. 




du, cont.art.m.s.fordeleof the. 


or, com. n. m. s. 


gold. 


egal, com n. m. s. 


the same, 


Paques, prop. n. f. pi. 


Easter. 




all one. 


parade, com. n. f . s. 


parade. 


Egypte, prop. n. f . s. 


Egypt. 


pas, adv. (second part of 


not. 


esclave, com. n. m. s. 


slave. 


the negation ne pas) 




est, aux. v. ind. m. pr. inf. 


is. 


passions, com. n. f. pi. 


passions. 


etre. 




pays, com. n. m. s. 


country. 


et, conj. 


and. 


petite, qual. adj. f . s. 


small, 
little. 


etre, aux. v. inf. m. 


to be. 










peuple, com. n. m. s. 


people. 


expedition, com. n. f. s. 


expedition. 


place, com. n. f . s. 


place. 


fait, act. v. ind. m. pr. inf. 


does, 










plage, com. n. f. s. 


shore. 


faire. 


makes. 




beach 


frequent, qual. adj. m. s. 


frequent. 


portrait, com. n. m. s. 


portrait. 


furent, aux. v. ind. m. 


were. 




picture. 


pret. def . inf. etre. 




pour, prep. 


for. 


glacial, qual. adj. m. s. 


glacial. 


rappelait, act. v. ind. m. 


was re- 


Greely, prop. n. 


Greely 


imp. inf. rappeler. 


member- 




(American 




ing. 




naval offi- 


renaissance, com. n. f . s. 


regenera- 




cer). 




tion. 



* Adjectives ending with e are written the same for the masculine 
as for the feminine. 



34 



French Speaker. 



reputation, com. n. f 


s. 


reputa- 
tion. 


sont, aux. v. ind. m. 
iuf. etre. 


pr. 


are. 


riche, qual. adj. (both 




rich. 


soeur, com. n. f. s. 




sister. 


genders). 






sortie, com. n. f. s. 




going out. 


ronde, qual. adj. f s. 




round. 






departure. 


salle, com. n. f. s. 




room, 


sur, prep. 




on, upon. 






parlor. 


table, com. n. f. s. 




table. 


se, pers. pr. s. 3d pers. 




him, him- 


tant, adv. 




as much, 


(object). 




self, she 






so. 






herself. 


Texas, prop. n. m. 




Texas. 


semble, act. v. ind. m. 


pr. 


seems. 


trop, adv. 




too much. 


inf. sembler. 






trouves, past part. 


m. pi. 


found. 


serin, com. n. m. s. 




canary 


inf. trouver. 










bird. 


un, num. adj. or det 


. m. s 


one, a. 


ses, pos. adj. pi. (both gen- 
ders). 


his, hers. 









a as in bar. 

When a is followed by r, rd, re and rt final, it sounds as 
in far, in bar : 



Par 


pronounce 


par ; 


as in bar. 


by. 








canard 


a 


ca nar ; 


ca as in cat, ar as in bar 


duck. 








avare 


" 


a var ; 


a as ah, ar as in bar. 


miser, avaricious. 






part 


" 


par ; 


as in bar. 


part. 








art 


" 


ar ; 


as in bar. 


art. 









See for nasal sounds am and an, page 154, Second Part. 



a as in ram and in fan. 

When a is followed by me and ne and by mm and by nn, 
it sounds as am and an in ram and in fan ; but a is pro- 
nounced in all cases broad as in French : ah, making- m and 
n heard in the pronunciation. The sound of ah is a little 
longer when a has the circumflex accent : 

pronounce am ; as in ra.m, with d as ah a 

little longer. 



ame 
soul. 



banane 

banana. 

ane 

ass. 

can 

duck, female. 

blame 

blam*. 

y enflamine 

I inflame. 

banniere 

banner. 



French Speaker. 35 

pronounce ba nan ; first a as ah, an as in fan. 
" an ; as in fan, but a little longer. 

" can ; do., a broad. 

" blam ; do. ram, but a is longer. 

" jeri flam ; j soft as in bijou, en as an 

in want, n mute, am as 
in ram. 

" ban i er ; ban with an as in fan, i as 

in city combined with 
er as ere in there. 



a as ah long. 

a having" the circumflex accent sounds always as ah, but 
longer, or as a in father : 



pate 


pronounce pat ; 


d longer than ah, 


past. 




or as in father, t 
is sounded. 


maratre 


" ma ra tr ; 


first a as in cat, d 


stepmother. 




as long ah, tr 
sounded. 


matin 


" ma tin ; 


d as ah long, in as 


mongrel dog. 




an in sank, n 
mute. 


Je tate 


" ijestat; 


!j soft as in bijou, e 


I feel. 




as u in tub ; M 
as ah long, t 
sounded. 


Je me hate 


" ! Je 2 me 3 hate ; 


x and 2 c as u in tub, 


I make haste. 




M as ah long, e 
mute. 


Je batis 


" iJe 2 bati ; 


x e as u in tub, M as 


I build. 




ah long, i as in 
city. 



Tobe observed : j in French has always the soft sound as in bijou. 



36 



French Speaker. 
a as ah. 



But when a, in verbs, takes a circumflex accent merely 
on account of the conjugation, it has the sound of ah broad: 



nous demandames pronounce *nou 2 de man dam 

we asked. 



vous priates 

you prayed. 

qu 'il demandat 

that he might ask. 



qu 'il osat 

that he might dare. 



ivou 2 pri at 



ikil 2 de man da 



ikil 2 o za 



; 'om as oo in 
too, 2<? as 
u in tub, 
an as in 
want, n 
mute, am 
as said. 
x ou as above, 
H as in city, 
dt as at. 
1 k i I as kill ; 
*de with e as 
win tub, an 
as in viant, 
n mute, d 
as ah. 
ikil as kill ; 2 o 
as in no, a 
as a/i. 



READING II— (LECTURE II). 

Le bar-bare At-ti-la re-trai ta de 1 Rome a la pri ere du pape 
Le on le-Grand. Le ca-nard est un oi-seau ap-pa-rem-ment 
lourd, mais il a un ex-cel-lent ins-tinct. Beau-coup de rois 
de France ont pro-te-ge les arts et les sci-ences. La ba-nane 
est un fruit mal-sain. Ma-rie An-toi-nette e-tait dou-ee d' une 
grande ame. Le naphte s' en-flamme fa-ci-le-ment. Le ma- 
re-chal Lannes se dis-tin-gua a Mon-te-bel-lo. L' ane est 
moins noble que le che-val. Une fille fo-latre de-vient bien- 
tot un su-jet de me-pris. II fal-lut que Na-po-le on de-man- 
dat a-sile a 1' An-gle-terre pour que celle-ci, en traitre, 2 1' en- 
voyat mou-rir sur un ro-cher de-sert. 

iretraita de : retreated from. 
2 en traitre : treacherously. 



French Speaker. 



37 



Vocabulary of the Sounds. 



a as ah. 

ain as an in sank, n mute. 

ame as am in dram with a longer 

than ah. 
ane as an in/an with a longer than 

ah. 
ane with a as ah, n sounded, .e 

mute, 
amine with a as ah, mm sounded, 

e mute. 
anne with a as ah, n sounded, e 

mute. 
ar as in bar, but shorter in bar- 
bare, which has are longer. 
are as ar in bar. 
ard as ar in bar, d mute. 
at as ah. 

first e as a in fate in Mont eb ell o. 
ee, first e as a in fate, the second 

e slightly accented as final c in 

see. 
eau as o in no. 
elle as e?Z in bell. 
em, en as an in want, m and n mute. 



er as a in fate in rocher. 

ere as ere in Me?*e. 

ert as ere in there, t mute. 

ette as et in ne^. 

in as an in sank, n mute, s sound- 
ed in instinct. 

in do. do. ct final mute in 
instinct. 

ien — diphthong — en as an in want, 
n mute in sciences. 

ien — diphthong — en as an in sank, 
n mute in devient and bientot. 

ille as ee in free, in fille. 

ir as e?*e in here. 

ome as om in Tom. 

on as on in monk, n mute. 

oi as wa in was. 

oin as o combined with an in sanfc, 
n mute. 

6t as o in no. 

nit as we, t mute in fruit. 

une — u as in the alphabet, n 
sounded, e mute. 



Observations. 

e, es final are mute, except in de, le, etc. 

e is sounded as e in net, in des, ses, etc. ; 5 is mute. 

d final is mute, s idem, p idem, ts idem — st is not sounded in est. 

Naphte pronounce naf-t ; with a as in cat and. ft sounded. 

asile " a zil ; il as ill in will. 

oiseau " oi zeau ; oi as wa in was and zeau with eau 

as o in no. 
Two Vs are sounded in Montebello. 



38 



French Speaker. 



Vocabulary. 



a, aux. v. ind. m. pr. inf. 

avoir, 
a prep. 

ame, com. n. f. s. 
ane, com. n. m. s. 
asile, com. n. m. s. 
arts, com. n. m. pi. 
apparement, adv. 
Attila, prop. n. m. 

banane, com. n. f. s. 
barbare, com. n. m. s. 
beau coup, adv. 
bientot, adv. 
canard, com. n. m. s. 
celle-ci, dem. pron. f. s. 
cbeval, com. n. m. s. 
demand at, act. v. subj. 

m. imp. inf. deman- 

der. 
desert, qual. adj. m. s. 
devient, act. v. ind. m. 

pr. inf. devenir. 
distingua (se), pron. v. 

ind. m. pret. def. inf. 

se distinguer. 
douee, past part, f . s. inf. 

douer. 
en, prep. 
enflamme (s'),pron. v. 

ind. m. pres. inf . s' en- 

flammer. 
envoy at, act. v. subj. m. 

imp. inf. envoyer. 

etait, aux. v. ind. m. imp. 

inf. etre. 
excellent, qual. adj. m. s. 
facilement, adv. 
fallut, imp.v. ind. m. pret. 

def. inf. falloir. 



has. 


fille, com. n. f. s. 


daughter, 
girl. 


to. 


folatre, qual. adj. (both 


wanton. 


soul. 


genders). 




ass. 


France, prop, n f . 


France. 


asylum. 


fruit, com. n. m. s. 


fruit. 


arts. 


grande, qual. adj. f. s. 


high, great- 


apparently 


instinct, com. n. m. s. 


instinct. 


King of 


Lannes, prop. n. m. 


marshal of 


the Huns. 




France. 


banana. 


Leon le Grand, prop. 


Pope Leo 


barbarous. 


n. 


the Great. 


much. 


lourd, qual. adj. m. s. 


heavy. 


soon. 


mais, conj. 


but, 


duck. 


malsain, qual. adj. m. s. 


unhealthy. 




marechal, com. n. m. s. 


marshal. 


this one. 






horse. 


Marie Antoinette, 


Queen of 


that he 


prop. n. 


France, 
beheaded 


might ask. 




in 1793. 




mepris, com. n. m. s. 


contempt, 


desert. 




scorn, 


becomes. 




disregard. 




moins, adv. 


less. 


distin- 


Montebello, prop. n. 


place of a 


guished 




battle in 


himself. 




Italy. 


endowed. 


mourir, n. v. inf. m. 


to die. 




naphte, com. n. m. s. 


naphta. 


as. 


Napoleon, prop. n. 


Napoleon, 


sets on fire. 




first Em- 
peror of 
France. 


that he 


noble, qual. adj. (both 


noble. 


might 


genders.) 




send. 


oiseau, com. n. m. s. 


bird. 


was. 


pape, com. n. m. s. 


pope. 




priere, com. n. f . s. 


prayer. 


excellent. 


protege, past part. m. s. 


protected. 


easily. 


inf. proteger. 




it was nec- 


que, conj. 


than. 


essary, 






needed. 







French Speaker 



39 



retraitra, n. v. ind. m. retreated. 

pret. def. inf. retrai- 

ter. 

rocber, com. n. ra. s. rock. 

rois, com. n. m pi. kings. 

Rome, prop. n. f. Rome, city 
in Italy. 



sciences, com. n. f. pi. sciences. 

sujet, com. n. m. s. subject. 

traitre, qual. adj. (both treacher- 

g-enders). ous. 

line, num. adj. f. s. one, a. 



a as ah, as in cat. 

In the otlier cases, a is sounded as ah, as in cat, in rat, in 
gap : 



cabas pronounce 


ca ba ; 


«'s as in cat. 


rush, basket. 






papa " 


pa pa ; 


a's as in cat. 


father. 






Arabie " 


A ra bie ; 


«'s as in cat, ee as in bee. 


Arabia. 






amour " 


a mour ; 


a as ah, our as oor in 


love. 




poor. 


vanite ' ' 


va ni te ; 


a do., i as in city, e as a 


vanity. 




in fate. 


patte " 


pat; 


a as in rat, t sounded. 


leg of animal. 






quatre " 


katr ; 


a as in cat, tr sounded. 


four. 






valet " 


va let ; 


a as in cat, e as in net, t 


footman. 


a silent. 


mute. 



A is not sounded in : 

Saone pronounce Sone ; 

river of France. 

Aout " Ou ; 

August. 

curacao " cu ras so 

Frencli liquor. 



aoriste 

aorist. 
toast 

speech. 



onst : 



tost ; 



one as one ine bone. 
as oo in too. 

u as in the alphabet, ras 
as ras in rascal, o as 
in no. 

o as in not, rist as in 
aorist. 

as toast in English. 



40 




French Speaker 
a sounded. 


But it is sounded 


in: 


aouter 


pronounce a ou te ; 


to ripen. 






aouteron 




" a ou tron ; 


reaper. 






caoutchouc 




" ca oat shou ; 


India-rubber. 






aerostat 




" a e ross ta ; 


air balloon. 






aerolithe 




" aero lit ; 


aerolite. 






aerieu 




" aeri en ; 


aerian. 







a as ah, oti as oo in too, 

e as a in fate, 
a as ah, ou as oo in too, 

tr sounded, on as in 

monk, n mute. 
ca as in cat, ou as oo in 

too, t sounded, ou final 

as oo in too. 
a as ah, e as a in fate, 

ross as in rossel, a as 

ah. 
a as ah, e as a in fate, o 

as in not, lit as litt in 

little, 
a, as ah, e as a in fate, ri 

with i as in ?u'ew and 

combined with en, 

sounded as in sank, n 

mute. 



READING- III— (LECTURE III). 

La qua-li-te de va-let sous le re gime fe-o-dal, qui de-signe 
au-jour-d' hui un do-mes-tique de bas e-tage, 1 e-tait don-nee 
aux pages du sei-gneur, quoi-qu' ils fussent nobles comme le 
sei-gneur lui-meme. Ce que la ma-man ap-prend pre-mi-ere- 
ment a pro-non-cer a son en-fant, c' est 2 pa-pa. Le mois 
d' Aout est en-core une e-poque d' o-rages. L' o-deur du ca- 
outchouc est de-sa-gre-able et mal-sai-ne. II est a pre-sent 3 
d' u-sage de por-ter des toasts dans les as-sem-blees et aux 
re-pas. II pa-rait pro-bable que 1' on pour-ra di-ri-ger les 
a-e-ros-tats. 



!de bas etage : of a low condition. 

2c' est : it is. 

311 est a present : It is now. 



French Speaker. 



41 



Vocabulary of the Sounds. 



a, a as ah, and as a in cat. 

able, a as in lad. 

age, a as in lad. 

ai as ax in nail, or as ay in may. 

al as in salvation. 

an as rm in want, n mute. 

au as o in no. 

e as m in tub. 

e as a in fate. 

e as a in male. 

ee, e as a in fate, e accented as final 

e in bee. 
ei as h in tiei, in seigneur. 
em, en as an in want, m and n 

mute. 
ere as ere in there. 
est, e as in net, st mute. 
et — conjunction — e as a in fate, t 

mute. 



et — valet — e as in net, t mute. 

i as in city. 

iere — diphthong — i as in view, 

combined with ere as ere in there. 
il as ill. 

ime as im in him. 
o as in woi, or as in porter. 
oi as wa in was. 
on as on in monk, n mute. 
onn as English on, in donnee 
ou as oo in too. 
our as oor in poor. 
u as in the alphabet. 
ui as we. 

un as in hunter, n mute. 
nue, u as in the alphabet, n 

sounded, e mute. 



Observation. 

a, e, es, s, t, z, x ending words are mute, and r in porter, pronon- 
cer and diriger, where er sounds as a in fate. 
u following g is mute also, and it is the same for ts ending aerostats. 
a is silent in aotlt and in toasts. 
ent ending f assent is silent. 



Vocabulary. 



aerostats, com. n. m. pi. 
Aout, prop. n. m. s. 
apprend, act. v. ind. m. 

pr. inf. apprendre. 
a present, adv. locution 
assemblies, com.n.f .pi. 
aujourd' hui, adv. 
aux, cont. art. (for a les) 

(both genders). 
c% (lor ce) dem. pron. 
caoutchouc, com. n. m. s 

comme, conj, 
dans, prep. 



aerostat. 
August, 
learns. 


desagreable, qual. adj. 

(both genders). 
designe, act. v. ind. m. 

pr. inf. designer. 


disagree- 
able, 
designates. 


now. 


diriger, act. v. inf. m. 


to manage, 


meetings, 
to-day. 
to the. 


domestique, com.n.m.s 
donnee, past part f . s. 


to direct, 
domestic, 
servant, 
given. 


that. 
India 


inf. donner. 
enfant, com. n. m. s. 


child. 


rubber. 


encore, adv. 


yet, more, 


as. 

in, into. 




still, 
encore. 



42 



French Speaker 



epoque, com. n. f. s 
bas-etage, com. n. m. s. 

feodal, qual. adj. m. s. 
fussent, aux. v. subj. m. 

imp. inf. etre. 
ils, pers. pron. mas. pi. 3d 

pers. 
1', (before on) euphonical 
lui-meme, pers.pron.m.s. 
malsaine, qual. adj. f. s. 
maman, com. n. f . s. 

meme, adv. 
mois, com. n. m. s. 
nobles, qual. adj. (both 

genders), 
odeur, com. n. f. s. 

orages, com. n. m. pi. 
pages, com. n. m. pi. 
papa, com. n. m. s. 
porter, act. v. inf. m. 



epoch. 


premierement, adv. 


first. 


low con- 


pourra, act. v. fut. inf. 


will be 


dition. 


pouvoir. 


able. 


feudal. 


probable, qual. adj. 


probable. 


that they 


(both genders). 




might be. ■ 


qualite, com. n. f. s. 


quality. 


they. 


qui, rel. pron. (both gen- 
ders and numbers). 


which. 


letter. 


quoiqu\ (for quoique) though. 


himself. 


conj. 




unhealthy- 


regime, com. n. m. s. 


system, 


mamma, 




rule. 


mother. 


repas, com. n. m. (both 


meals. 


same.even. 


numbers). 




month. 


seigneur, com. n. m. s. 


lord. 


noble. 


son, pos.adj.m.s.(for sa) 


* her. 




sous, prep. 


under. 


odour, 


toasts, com. n. m. pi. 


toasts. 


smell. 


usage, com. n. m. s. 


use, usage, 


storms. 




custom, 


pages. 




habit. 


father. 


valet, com. n. m. s. 


servant. 


to bear. 


pron oncer, act. v. inf. m 


to pro- 
nounce. 


1 


i 




e as u 


in tub. 





When e is the only vowel in a word of two letters, it has 
the sound of u in tub : 



ce pronounce fee ; 

this, that. 

de " de ; 

of, from. 

je » je; 

I. 

le " le ; 

the, him. 

me " me; 

me. 



e as u in tub. 
do. 
do. 
do. 
do. 



*For euphony, the possessive adjectives ma, ta, sa, my, thy, his or 
her, are written in the masculine form, mon, ton, son before feminine 
nouns beginning with a vowel or a mute h. 

f c before e and i is sounded as s hard, as in sea, in sun, etc. 



French Speaker. 



43 



ne pronounce 


ne ; 


e as m in tub. 


not. 






se " 


se ; 


do. 


himself, herself, 






themselves. 






te " 


te; 


do. 


thee. 







e ending" the following- words sounds also as u in tub : 

j soft as in bijou, a as in 
the alphabet, with s 
sounded, e as u in tub. 



jusque pronounce juske; 

till, until. 



lorsque 


" lors ke ; 


ors as in horse, e as above. 


when. 






presque 


" pres ke ; 


pres as press, e as above. 


almost. 






pnisque 


" puiske; 


ui as wi in wit with .s 


since. 




sounded, e as u in tub. 


que 


ke ; 


e as m in tub. 


what, that. 






quelque 


" kel ke ; 


el as in &eZZ, e as w in £?<?>. 


some, avy. 






quoique 


" koi ke ; 


oi as wa in was, e as r* in 


though. 




«t*6. 



When e placed after a first consonant or ending- a first syl- 
lable lias no accent, it sounds generally as u in tub : * 



besoin 

need. 

ceci 

this. 

demander 

to ask. 

femelle 

female. 

Geneve 

Geneva. 

lecon 

lesson. 



pronounce be zoin ; 

" ceci; 

" de man de 

" fe mell ; 

" Ge ne ve ; 

" le con ; 



e as u in tub, o combined 

with in, sounded as an 

in sauk, n mute, 
c soft as s hard, e as u in 

tub, ci as in city, 
e as u in tub, an as in want, 

n mute, e as a in fate, 
e as u in tub, ell as in bell. 

g soft as j in bijou, e as u 
in tub, e as a in made, v 
sounded and c mute. 

e as m in tub, c (see ce- 
dilla), on as in monk, n 
mute. 



* When e ends French words, it is always mute. 



44 



French Speaker. 



melon pronounce me Ion 

melon. 



neveu " 


ne veu ; 


■nephew. 




petit " 


peii; 


small. 




refaire " 


re fair ; 


to make again. 




semence " 


se men ce 


seed. 




tenir " 


te nir ; 


to hold. 




velours " 


ve lour : 


velvet. 





e do., on as in monk, n 

mute. 
e do., eu as between u in the 

alphabet and u in tub. 
e do., i as in city. 

e do., fair as fair. 

e do., en as an in want, n 
mute, c soft as hard s, e 
mute. 

e do., ir as ere in here. 

e do., our as oor in poor. 



e sounded as in net. 



When e is followed by consonants other than m and n, 
and forms a sound with them, the combinations are pro- 
nounced as in neck, in effect, in egg, in bell, in net, etc. : 



Bab el Mandeb pronounce 
strait in Arabia. 



bee 

beak, nib. 

sec 

dry. 

chef 

chief. 

effectif 

effective, force. 



reflet 

reflexion, reflex. 

mettre 



Ba bel Man deb ; a as in cat, bel as 
bell, an as in 
wem£, n mute, 
deb as in debt 
with 6 sounded. 

bek ; ek&seckinneck. 



sek ; 


do. 


shef ; 


ef sounds the 




consonant/. 


effek tif ; 


ef as in effort, 




fek with ek as 




eck in wec&, tif 




as a^f. 


re flet ; 


e as u in tub, flet 




with e as in we< 




and £ silent. 


metr ; 


e as in we£, tr 




sounded. 



French Speaker. 



45 



ecclesiastique pronounce ek cle zias tik 

ecclesiastical. 



effacer 

to efface. 



ellipse 

ellipse. 

essence 

essence. 



examen 
examination. 



extreme 
extreme. 



exhortation 

exhortation. 



e fa ce 



el lips ; 



es sen ce 



eg za men 



" eks trem 



zor ta sion 



ek as in neck, eas 
a in fate, i com- 
bined with as 
sounded as as, 
tik as tick. 

e as in net, a as 
in cat, c as s 
hard, e as a in 
fate. 

el as ell in bell, 
lip as lip, s 
sounded. 

ess as in essence, 
en as an in 
want, n mute, 
c as «s hard, e 
mute. 

eg as egg, a as ah, 
en as an in 
plank, n mute. 

eks with e as in 
neck, and h 
sounded, e as 
a in made, m 
sounded. 

eg as egg, or as 
in nor, a as ah, 
s as in sea, i 
combined asin 
view with on 
sounded as in 
monk, n mute. 



See the sound of em and en, nasal sounds, Second Part, 
pages 154 and 155. 



READING IV— (LECTURE IV). 

Le est un ar-ticle, ce et quel-que sont des ad-jec-tifs, de est 
une pre-po-si-tion et ne un adverbe ; le est aus-si un pro-nom 
com-ple-ment. Je, me, te, se, sont des pro-noms per-son-nels, 
Jus-que est aus-si une pre-po-si-tion et pres-que un ad-verbe. 



46 



French Speaker. 



Done, lors-que, comme puis-que, que, quoi-que sontdes con- 
jonc-tions. 

On ne peut pas tou-jours con-ten-ter ses be-soins. Une 
de-mande po-lie doit tou-jours etre con-si-de-ree. Ge neve 
est re-nom-mee pour son hor-lo-ge-rie. L' ad-ver-si-te donne 
des le-cons aus-si sa-lu-taires que celles 1 de la sci-ence. Un 
e-te sec n'amene pas 2 la chere-te. Les noms des chefs de 
dy-nas-ties re-pre-sentent tou-jours des homines ce-lebres. 
Le ca-rac-tere du mi-nis-tere ec-cle si-as-tique ex-ige notre 
res-pect. 

Sounds Contained in this Exercise. 



a as ah, as in cat. 

ad as in addition. 

ai as ay in may, air as in fair. 

an as an in want, n mute. 

nor, h mute, or as in nor (hor- 
logerie). 

i as in city. 

ie as ee in bee. 

if as if. 

as as as (dynasties). 

e as u in tub. 

e as a in fate. 

e as a in made, in Geneve and celc- 
bres. 

e as a in declare, in cherete, in car- 
actere, in ministere. 

ec, e as in neck, c sounded as k in 
neck, c and t final mute in res- 
pect. 

ee, & as a in fate, e slightly ac- 
cented. 

ef, e as in net, f sounded. 
el as ell in bell, elles do. 
en as an in want, n mute. 

er as ere in there when not final. 

er as a in fate when final. 

es when final is mute except in 



des, les, etc., where sounded as 
e in net with s mute, es as in es- 
teem at the beginning of "words 
or in their body. 

eu as between u in French and n 
of us. 

ige, i as English e, <j soft, e mute. 

ion— diphthong — on as in monk, n 
mute. 

o as in not. 

oi as wa in tvas. 

oin, combination with o and in as 
an in sank, n mute. 

om as on in monk, m mute. 

on do. 

omm as om in Tom. 

onn as English on. 

ors as orse in horse ; in lorsque. 

ou as oo in too. 

our as oor in poor. 

u as in the alphabet. 

uis as wis in wisdom, in puisque. 

un as in hunter, n mute. 

une, u as in the alphabet, n sound- 
ed, e mute. 

us do., s sounded in jusqiie. 

y as i in city. 



1 aussi salutaires que celles : as wholesome as those, 
^n' amene pas : does not bring. 



French Speah 



47 



Observations. 

Finals ct, in respect; e, n in un : es, s (except in des, ses, etc.) are 
mute, and ent ending the verb representent. C final in done sounds as 
k ; h is mute in homines, in horJogerie and u is kept silent after g. 



Vocabulary. 



adjectifs, com. n. m. pi. 
amene, act. v.ind. m. pr. 

inf. amener. 
article, com. n. m. s. 
adverbe. corn n. m. s. 
adversite, com. n. f. s. 



aussi, aav. 

besoiiis, com. n. m. pi. 
earaetere, com. n. m. s. 
ce, det. adj. m. s. 
chefs, com. n. m. pi. 
celebres, qual. adj. pi. 

(both genders). 
celles, dem. pron. f. pi. 
cherete, com. n. f . s. 

complement, com.n.m.; 



conjunctions, com. n. f. 

pi. 
contenrer, act. v. inf. m. 

consideree, past. part, 
f. s. inf. considerer. 
demande, com. n. f. s. 



des, cont.art.for de les pi. 
doit, act. v. ind. m. pr. inf. 
devoir. 

done, conj. 

donne, act. v. ind. m. pr. 

inf. donner. 
dynasties, com. n. f. pi. 
ecclesiastique, qual. 

adj. s. (both genders>. 



adjectives. 


ete, prop. n. m. s. 


summer. 


leads. 


etre, aux. v. inf. m. 


to be. 




exige, act. v. ind. m. pr. 


requires, 


article. 


inf exig'er. 


demands. 


adverb. 


Geneve, prop. n. 


city of 


adversity, 




Switzer- 


misfor- 




land. 


tune. 


homines, com. n. m. pi. 


men. 


also. 


horlogerie, com. n. f. s. 


clock- 


needs. 




work. 


character. 


Je, pers. pron. 1st pers. s. 


I. 


that. 


(subject!. 




chiefs. 


j usque, prep. 


to, as far 


celebrated. 


la, art. fern. sing. 


as, until, 
the. 


those. 


1', elided art. (for le or la) 


the. 


high 

prices. 

comple- 


lecons, com. n. f. s. 
les, art pi. (both genders i 
lorsque, conj. 


lessons. 

the. 

when. 


ment, 


me, pers. pron. 1st pers. s. 


me. 


object. 


(object i. 




conjonc- 


mini st ere, com. n. m. s. 


ministry. 


tions. 


n\ adv. (for ne) 


no. 


to satisfy, 


ne, adv. 


no. 


to content. 


noras, com. n. m. pi. 


nouns. 


consid- 


on, ind. pron. s. (both gen- 


they, one. 


ered. 


ders) (subject). 




question, 


pas, adv. (part of the ne- 


not. 


request. 


gation ue pas). 




of the. 


prep isition, com. n. f. s. 


prepo- 


must. 




sition. 




personnels, qual. adj. 


personal. 


then. 


m. pi. 




gives. 


presque, ad v. 


almost. 




peut, act. v. ind. m. pr. inf 


can, is 


dynasties. 


pouvoir. 


able. 


ecclesias- 


polie, qual. adj. f. s. 


polite. 


tical. 


pour, prep. 


for. 



48 



French Speaker. 



pronom, com. n. m. s. 
puisque, conj. 
quelque, det. adj. s. (both 

genders). 
quoique, conj. 
renommee, com. n. f. 
representent, act. v. ind. 

m. pr. inf. represen- 

ter. 
respect, com. n. m. s. 
salut aires, qual. adj. pi. 

(both genders). 



pronoun. 


se, pers. pron. (object) s. 


himself. 


since. 


or pi. (both genders). 




some. 


sec, qual. adj. m. s. 


dry. 




ses, pos. adj. pi. (both gen 


- his, hers 


though. 


ders). 




fame. 


son, pos. adj. m. s. 


his, her.* 


represent, 


sont, aux. v. ind. m. pr. 


are. 


show. 


inf. etre. 






science, com. n. f. s. 


science. 


respect. 


te, pers. pron. (object) s. 


thee, 


whole- 


(both genders). 


to thee. 


some. 


tonjours, adv. 


always. 



Obseeve that : e in the following- words, is still sounded 
as in net, and the s following it, or final, is silent : 



ces pronounce 


ses ; 


s 


hard, e as in net, s final 


these, those. 






mute. 




des " 


des ; 


e 


as in net, 


s mute. 


from the, of the. 










les " 


les ; 


e 


do. 


s do. 


the, them. 










mes " 


mes; 


e 


do. 


.5 do. 


my. 










tes " 


tes ; 


e 


do. 


s do. 


thy. 











his, her. 

desdits " des di ; 

from the said, of the said. 
desquels pronounce des kel 

from which, of which, whose. 
lesdits pronounce les di ; 

the said. 

lesquels " les kel ; 

the ones which. 

Remark: Ex is sounded as egs when it is followed by 
a vowel or a mute h ; when it is followed by a consonant it 
sounds as eks. But when ex is in the body of words, it 
sounds generally as eks, though followed by a vowel : 

*Son is used for sa before feminine nouns beginning by a mute h or 
a vowel. 



5 hard, e do. s do. 

e as in net, s mute, di with 

i as in city, 
e as in net, s mute, kel 

with el as ell in bell, 
e as in net, s mute, di with 

i as in city. 
e as in net, s mute, kel 

with el as ell in bell. 



French Speaker. 49 

Alexandre pronounce A lek san dr ; A as in cat, e as in net, 



Alexander 



Mexique 

Mexico. 
vexer 

to vex, 

to torment. 



Mek sik 
vek se ; 



k sounded, s hard, an 

as in want, n mute, dr 

sounded. 
Mek with c as in neck, k 

sounded, sik as sick, 
vek with e as in neck, k 

sounded, s hard, e as a 

in fate. 



When e is followed by r in the beginning' or in the body 
of words, er sounds exactly as ere in there, but shorter : 



erreur 

error. 

perte 

loss. 
adversite 

adversity. 

merci 

thank. 
pervers 

perverse 
offert 

offered. 



pronounce er reur ; 

" pert ; 

" ad ver si te 

" mer ci ; 

" per ver ; 

" o fer ; 



er as in perfect, second 
r sounded, ear as ur 
in fur. 

er do., t sounded. 

ad as in advance, er as 
in perfect, si as ci in 
city, e as a in fate. 

er as in perfect, ci as in 
city. 

er's as ere in there ; the 
last longer. 

o as in not, er as ere in 
there. 



There are only a few words whose ending- er is sounded 
as ere in there. When a word ends with ers or ert, er sounds 
the same and 6- and t are silent : 



Ab del Kader pronounce Ab del Ka der ; abas, in abduction, del 



JSmir of Algeria. 



amer 

bitter. 
cher 

dear. 



a mer 
sher ; 



with el as ell in bell, 
ka as ca in cat, der 
.with er as ere in 
there. 

a as ah, er as ere in 
there. 

er as ere in there. 



50 



French Speaker. 



cancer pronounce 


can cer ; 


c as k, an as an in 


cancer. 






ivant, n mute, c as s 
hard, er as ere in 

there. 


enfer 


a 


en fer ; 


en as an in want, n 


hell. 






mute, er as ere in 
there. 


fer 


a 


fer; 


er as ere in there. 


iron. 








fler 


a 


fl er ; 


i combined as in view, 


proud. 






with er sounded as 
ere in there. 


hier 


a 


hi er ; 


do., A mute. 


yesterday. 








hiver 


" 


i ver ; 


i as in city, er as ere 


winter. 






in there. 


Mammer 


" 


Ma mer ; 


Ma as in madam, er 


bishop of Vienna, 


France 




as ere in there. 


mer pronounce 


mer ; 


er as ere in there. 


.sea. 








couvert 


" 


cou ver ; 


on as oo in too, er as 


covered. 






ere in there. 


pater 


a 


pa ter ; 


pa as inpaternal, er as 


Lord's prayer. 






ere in there. 


offert 


ii 


o fer ; 


o as in wo£, er as ere 


offered. 






in there. 


vers 


a 


ver; 


er as ere in there. 


towards, about. 








ver 


a 


ver; 


do. 


worm. 








vert 


a 


ver ; 


do. 


green. 








divers 


" 


di ver ; 


i as English e, er as 


diverse, different. 






above. 


envers 


" 


en ver ; 


en as an in want, n 


towards, about. 






mute, er as above. 


Nevers 


" 


Ne ver ; 


e as u in £w&, er as ere 


city of France. 






in there. 


Univers 


". 


U ni ver ; 


u as in the alphabet, 


Universe. 






m as in universe, er 
as above. 


ouvert 


« 


ou ver ; 


ou as oo in too, er as 


open. 






ere in there. 



French Speaker. 



51 



READING V (LECTURE V). 

II est des gens des-quels les er-reurs et la per-ver-si-te e' ef- 

facent trop fa-ci-lement 1 par la con-di-tion so-ciale qu'ils oc- 

cupent. Le fer de Su-ede est su-pe-rieur a ce-lui des autres 

pays. L' e-veque Mam-mer de Yienne (France) e-ta-blit les 

pro-cessions. Ab-del Ka-der e-tait un chef fier et cou-ra-geux. 

Le ver-a-soie est tres cul-ti-ve en France. So-yez res-pec-tu- 

eux en-vers votre pere et votre mere, aux-quels Dieu a don-ne 

ses pou-voirs sur la terre. II ne faut sou bai-ter que ce que 

1' on peut a-voir et par-ler avec mo de-ra-tion. Don-nez mais 

que votre main gauche i-gnore ce que vous don-nez de la 

droite. 

Vocabulary of the Sounds. 



a as a in cat, as nh. 

ab as in abduce. 

ai as ay in may. 

ain as an in sank, n mute. 

am as in ram in Mummer. 

an as an in want, n mute. 

e as u in tub. 

e as a in fate. 

e as e in net in pere, in mere, as 

a in made in Suede. 
e as e in net (eveque). 
ef as in effect. 
el as ell in bell. 
en as an in want, n mute. 
ent mute in s J effacent and. occu- 

pent. 
ere and erre as ere in there. 
er as a in fate, in purler and sou- 

huiter, r mute. 
er as ere in there, infer, Mummer, 

Kuder,fier, ver and envcrs, this 

s final mute. 
es as e in net. In est, des, les, 

ses, st and 5 are mute ; es is 

sounded in respectueux. 
eu as between u in the alphabet 

and u of us. 



eur as ur in fur. 

ez as u in fate, z mute. 

i as in city. 

ial— diphthong — ul as in sulvution. 

ier — diphthong — er as ere in there. 

ieu — diphthong — eu as between n 

(alphabet) and u of us. 
ieur — di phthong — eur as ur in fur. 
ienn — diphthong — enn as enn in 

Penn (Vienne). 
ill as ill. 
ion — diphthong — on as in monk, n 

mute. 
o as in not. 

on as in monk, n mute. 
onn as English on. 
ou as 00 in too. 
oi as wu in w as. 
oir, combination of o with ur as in 

bar. 
ore as ore {ignore). 
u as in the alphabet. 
ui as we. 
y as i in city (pays). 



1 s' effacent trop facilement : are too easily forgotten. 



52 



French Speaker. 



Observations. 

e, n, p, s, t, x final are silent ; et has the t always mute, and its e i; 
sounded as a in fate. 

gn as in mignonette in ignore. 

s in the body of desquels is mute. 

x is silent in auxquels. 

y is used for two i's in pays ; the first forms a syllable with a : ai 
and the second i is sounded as in city, s final mute. 

e is silent in soie. 



Vocabulary. 



Ab del Rader, prop n. 


Emir of 




Algeria. 


a doime, act. v. pret. ind. 


has given. 


inf. donner. 




auxquels, rel. pron. m. p] 


. to which, 




to whom. 


autres, adj. pi. (both gen- 


others. 


ders). 




avoir, aux. v. inf. m. 


to have. 


avec, prep. 


with. 


ce, dem. pron. s. 


that. 


celui, dem. pron. m. s. 


who. 


chef, com. n. m. s. 


chief. 


condition, com. h. f. s. 


condition. 


courageux, qual.adj.m.s 


. brave. 


cultive, (est) pas. v. ind. 


is culti- 


m. pr. inf. etre cul- 


vated. 


tive. 




desquels, rel. pron. m. pi 


from 




whom, 




from 




which. 


donnez, act. v. imp. m. 


give. 


inf. donner. 




droite, qual. adj. f. s. 


right. 


s' effacent, pron. v. ind. 


are 


m. inf. s' effacer. 


forgotten. 


en, prep. 


in. 


envers, prep. 


towards. 


etablit, act. v. pret. def. 


estab- 


inf. etablir. 


lished. 


erreurs, com. n. f. pi. 


errors. 



eveque, com. n. m. s. 
facilement, adv. 
faut (il), imp. v. ind. m. 
pres. inf. falloir. 

fer, com. n. m. s. 
fler, qual. adj.m. s. 
France, prop. n. f . 
gauche, qual. adj. s. 

(both genders). 
gens, com. n. m. pi. 
ignore, act.v. subj. m. inf. 

ignorer. 
main, com. n. f. s. 
inais, conj. 
Mammer, prop. n. 

mere, com. n. f. s. 
moderation, com. n. f. s. 

occupent, act. v. ind. m. 

pres. inf. occuper. 
on, ind. pron. sing, (both 

genders). 
par, prep. 
parler, n. and act.v.inf.m. 

pays, com. n. m. s. 
pere, com. n. m. s. 
perversite, com. n. f. s. 
pent, act. v. ind. m. pres. 
inf. pouvoir. 



bishop, 
easily, 
one must, 
it is neces- 
sary, 
iron, 
proud. 
France, 
left. 

people, 
may not 
know, 
hand, 
but. 

bishop of 
Vienna, 
mother, 
modera- 
tion. 

have, keep, 
occupy, 
one, they. 

by. 

to talk, 
to speak, 
country, 
father, 
pervei'sity 
can, is 
able to. 



French Speaker. 



53 



pouvoirs, com. n. m. pi. 
respectueux, qual. adj. 

m. pi. or s. 
sociale, qual. adj. f. s. 
souhaiter, act. v. inf. m. 
soyez, aux. v. imp. m. inf. 

etre. 
Suede, prop. n. f. s. 
superieur, qual. adj. m. s. 



powers. 


sur, prep. 


on, upon 


respectful. 


terre, com. n. f. s. 


earth. 




tres, adv. 


very. 


social. 


trop, adv. 


too much. 


to wish. 


ver-a-soie, com. n. m. s. 


silkworm. 


be. 


Vieime, prop. n. 


Vienna. 




voire, pos. adj. s. (both 


3' our. 


Sweden. 


genders). 




superior. 


vous, pers. pron. 2d p. pi. 


you. 


e as a in fate. 





e followed by r and being- the end of the present of the in- 
finitive mood of all the verbs of the first conjugation, sounds 
with r (this consonant being- mute) as a in fate : 



parler 

to speak. 
donner 

to give. 
deraander 
to ask. 

souhaiter 

to wish for. 

travailler 

to work. 



pronounce par le ; 

" do ne ; 

" de man de 

" sou ai te ; 

" tra va ie : 



par as in parlor, e as 
in fate. 

o as in not, e as a in 
fate. 

e as u in tub, an as in 
want n mute, e as a 
in. fate. 

sou as soo in soot, ai as 
ay in may, e as a in 
fate. 

tra as in track, va as 
in vacation, i com- 
bined as in view, 
with (g, which sounds 
as a in fate. 



er ending- nouns, preceded or not by the vowel i, sounds 
also as a in fate. When er follows the vowel i, ier is a diph- 
thong as it is in English in the word vieiv. R final is always 
silent : 



Doulanger pronounce bou Ian ge 
baker. 



boucher 

butcher. 



bou she 



ou as oo in too, an as 
in want n mute, g 
soft as j in bijou, e 
as a in fate. 

ou as oo in too, e as a 
in fate. 



54 



French Speaker. 



patissier pronounce pa tis sie ; 

confectioner, 
pastry cook. 



metier 


K 


me tie ; 


trade. 






carossier 


u 


ca ros sie 


carriage-maker. 







sellier " sel ie 

saddler. 



pa as in Patrick, tis as 
in satisfaction, sec- 
ond s hard, i com- 
bined as in view 
with e, which sounds 
as a in fate. 

e as a in fate, t as t, i 
combined as in view 
with e, which sounds 
as a in fate. 

ca as in cat, ros as in 
rossel, s hard with i 
combined as in view 
with e, which sounds 
as a in fate. 

sel as in seldom, i com- 
bined with e as 
above. 



e followed by z is always sounded as a in fate, and z is 
mute: 



assez 


pronounce 


as se ; 


as as ass, s as in sea, e 


enough. 






as a in fate. 


fez 


" 


fe; 


e as a in fate. 


Turkish cap. 








chez 


n 


she ; 


e do. 


a£. 








nez 


u 


ne ; 


6 do. 


wo.se. 








vous donnez 


a 


J vou 2 done ; 


l ou as oo in too, 2 o as 


2/o?t r/i-ye. 






in «of, e as a in/a£e. 


recevez 


a 


re ce ve ; 


both e's as -« in <w6, c 


receive. 






as 5 hard, £ as a in 

fate. 


flnissez 


a 


fi nis se ; 


fi as in finish, nis as iss 


finish. 






in miss, s as in sea, 
e as a in/a^e. 


rendez 


(< 


ren de ; 


ew as aw in tuant, n 


£rive back. 






mute, e as a in /a£e. 



E in et (and) conjunction, has also the sound as a in fate. 
Its £ is always mute. 



French Speaker. 



55 



e ending* Latin words used in French is still sounded as a 



in fate : 



ave 

ave. 
fac-simile 

facsimile. 

miserere 

miserere. 



pronounce a ve ; 

" fak-si mi le : 

" mi se re re ; 

e mute. 



a as ah, e as a in fate. 

fak as in fact, both i's 
as in city, e as a in 
fate. 

i as in city, e as e in 
net, both e's as « in 
fate. 



E between </ and a and o is mute. The use of this c is to 
make g soft as j in &t/ow before the vowels a and o : 



il raangea 

Ae ate. 

affligeant 

afflicti>ig. 

Je dirigeai 

I directed. 



menageons 

let us manage. 

esturgeon 

sturgeon. 



pronounce *il 2 man ja 



HI as ill, 2 an as in want 
n mute, j soft as in 
bijou, a as ah. 

a as ah, fli as in flit, j 
as above, an as in 
want, n mute. 
H soft as in bijou, e as 
u in tub, 2 both i's as 
in city, j as above, ai 
as a in made. 

e as a in fate, na as in 
nap, ^ as above, cm 
as in monk, n mute. 

es as in esteem, u as in 
the alphabet, r 
rolled, j as in bijou, 
on, as in monk, n 
mute. 

i as in c?7i/, / as above, 
on as in monk, n 
mute. 

When e in the body of words is followed by a consonant 
and does not belong- to a first syllable, it is g-enerally mute, 
except where before the double consonants bl, br, dr, etc. : 
doucement pronounce dous man. ; ou as oo in loose, s 

sweetly, softly. sounded hard, an as 

in want, n mute. 



pigeon 

pigeon. 



a fli j an ; 



x je 2 di ri jai 



me najon 



es tur jon 



pi j on 



56 



French Speaker. 



emmener pronounce em m ne 
to take away. 



vivement 

lively, quickly. 



achetons 

let us buy. 
vous appelez 
you call. 



vi v men ; 

ash ton ; 
von 2 zaple 



e ending- French words is always 

horame pronounce hom ; 

man. 

femme " fam ; 

woman. 

" per ; 



mer ; 



frer ; 



pere " 

father. 

mere " 

mother. 

frere " 

brother. 

poire " 

•pear. 

pomme " 

apple. 

peche " 

peach. 

lampe " 

lamp. 

es mute. 

Observe that : When s has been 
in order to make them plural, both 



em as an in want, m 
sounded, ne with e* 
as a in fate. 

viv with i as English 
e and v sounded, 
men with en as an 
in want, n mute. 

ash as ash, on as on in 
monk, n mute. 
1 ou as oo in too, 2 z pro- 
nounced with a as 
in cat, pie with e" as 
a in fate. 
mute : 

07n as in Tom ; broad. 
am as in ram ; broad. 
er as ere in there, 
er do. 



e?* d< 



poir ; 


oir, o combined with 




ar as in bar. 


pom; 


om as in Tom ; broad. 


pe sh ; 


£■ as e in flesh. 


lamp ; 


am as an in want m 



mute, p sounded. 

added to e ending words 
e and s are kept silent. 



READING VI— (LECTURE VI). 

Le bou-lan-g-er et le bou-cher four-nissent le pain et la vi- 
ande, et le pa-tis-sier nous pro-cure le des-sert. Les ma-la- 
dies du nez ont sou-vent des ef-f ets de-sas-treux parce qu'elles 
de-fi-g-urent. II est bien des liommes ce-lebres qui n' ont pu 



French Speah 



57 



lais-ser uu fac-si-mi-le de leur e-cri-ture. Le " Mi-se-re-re du 

Trou-vere " est une rne-lo-die su-blinie. Nous me-na-geons 
nos pa-rents en ne les af-fli-geant pas par line mau-vaise con- 
duite. II faut re-pri-rnan-der douce-ment, c' est le moy-en 
d' ob-te-nir la crainte et le res-pect 



Vocabulary of the Sounds. 



a as ah, as in eat. 

ai as ay in may. as ai in mail. 

ain as an in sank, n niute. 

an as an in /rant, n unite. 

ar as in bar. 

as in pas as a in cat, s mute, 

as in desastreiix, as in disaster-. 

an as o in no. 

e as u in tub. 

e uiute in affligeant asid menogeons, 
to make g soft. 

e as a in fate in facsimile and in 
//use re re. 

e as a in /ate. 

e as a in made in eelebres. as e in 
£Aere m Trouvtre. 

ef as in effect. 

ell as in 6eZ?. 

en as cwj in want, n mute. 

en in moyen as aw in sank, n mute. 

ent in fournissent js mute, ent is 
sounded in souvent as <-//? in 
a- ant, nt mute. 

er in boulanoer, boucher. laisser. 
re-primandsr. as a in .rate, r 
mute, and the same in patissier. 

ert as ere in there. 

ere as ere in there. 

es mute in maladies, elles, hom- 
ines, e&lebres. 

es as ess in ??.$.?. in respect and 
dessert. 



est, e as in ne;", ,sf mute. 

en as between u in French and m 
of us. 

eur as i*r in/«r — broad. 

ez as a in fate, z mute. 

i as in city. 

ian — diphthong — an as in want, n 
mute. 

ie as ee in bee. 

ien — diphthong — -'/!as «/* iiiM/i/;, 
n mute. 

ime as im in him. 

ir as ere in here. 

is as i'.?.s in miss. 

o as in »o£. 

ob as in obtain. 

omm as om in Tom — broad. 

on as on in monk, n mute. 

on as oo in too. 

oy as 10a in was in moyen. 

n as in the alphabet. 

nite as wit in conduit e. 

ur. u as in the alphabet, r rolled. 

un as in hunter, n mute. 

une, u as in the alphabet, n sound- 
ed, e mute. 

yen. y for two fs in moyen. oi as 
wa in. was ; and ien, diphthong 
with en as an in sank, n mute. 



5& 



French Speaker. 
Observation. 



Finals e, es, (except in le, etc., in les, etc.,) n, t, s, x are silent — et 
final of respect is silent. 

Vocabulary. 



Men, adv. 

boucher, com. n. m. s. 
boulanger, com. n. m. s. 
c\ dem. ind. pron. (for ce) 
celebres, qual. adj. pi. 

(both genders). 
conduite, com. n. f. s. 
crainte, com. n. f. s. 
d', prep, (for de) 
deflgurent, act. v. ind. 

m.pres.inf . defigurer. 
desastreux, qual. adj. 

(both numbers). 
dessert, com. n. m. s. 
doucement, adv. 

ecriture, com. n. f. s. 
effets, com. n. m. pi. 
elles, pers. pron. 3d p. f . pi. 
en, prep. 
est, aux. v. ind. m. pres. 

inf. etre. 
fac-simile, com. n. m. s. 
faut (i'l), imp. v. ind. m. 

pr. inf. falloir. 

i'ournissent, act. v. ind. 

m. pr. inf. fournir. 
homines, com. n. m pi. 
laisser, act. v. inf. m. 
leur, pos. adj. sing, (both 

genders). 



well. 


maladies, com. n. f. pi. 


maladies. 


butcher. 




illness. 


baker. 


mauvaise, qaal. adj. f. s 


. bad. 


that. 


melodie, com. n. f. s. 


melody. 


celebrated. 


menageons, act. v. ind. 


we are 




m. pr. inf. menager. 


careful 


conduct. 




for. 


fear. 


Miserere du Trouvere 


, French 


of. 


compound prop. n. m. 


melody. 


disform, 


moyen, com. n. m. s. 


mean. 


disfigure. 


n', adv. (for ne) 


not. 


disastrous. 


nez, com. n. m. s. 


nose. 




nous, pers.pron.lstp.pl. 


we, us. 


dessert. 


obtenir, act. v. inf. m. 


to obtain. 


sweetly, 


out, aux. v. ind. m. pres. 


have. 


softly, 


inf. avoir. 




gently. 


parents, com. n. m. pi. 


parents. 


writing. 


par, prep. 


by. 


effects. 


parce que, conj. 


for, 


they. 




because. 


in. 


pas, adv. 


not. 


is. 


patissier, com. n. m. s. 


confec- 
tioner. 


fac-simile. 


procure, act. v. ind. m. 


procures, 


it must, 


pr. inf. procurer. 


secures. 


it is nec- 


qui, rel. pron. m. pi. ors. 


who. 


essary. 


reprimander, act. v. 


repri- 


furnish. 


inf. m. 


mand (to). 




respect, com. n. m. s. 


respect. 


men. 


souvent, adv. 


often. 


leave. 


sublime, qual. adj. (both 


sublime. 


their. 


genders^. 






viande, com. n. f . s. 


meat. 



French Speaker. 59 

I. 

i as English e. 

i followed by de, ge, Me, bre, gre, gue, se, re, r, vr and vre 
final, has the sound of the English e : 



avide pronounce 


a vid ; 


a as ah, i as English c, d 


greedy. 




sounded. 


prestige " 


pres tige ; 


pres as press, i as English 


prestige. 




e, g soft as j in bijou, e 
mute. 


nuisible " 


iiui zibl ; 


ui as we, i as above, bl 


hurtful^ prejudicial. 




sounded. 


libre 4i 

free. 


libre ; 


i as English e, br sounded, 
e mute. 


tigre " 


tigre ; 


i as above, gr sounded, e 


tiger . 




mute. 


prodigue " 


pro digue ; 


pro as in prodigal, i as 


prodigal. 




above, g as in fig, ue 
mute. 


eglise .' " 


e glize : 


e as a mfate, i as English 


church. 




e, z sounded, e mute. 


rire " 


rire ; 


ire as ere in here. 


to laugh. 






lire " 


lire ; 


do. do., do. 


to read. 






fltiir " 


ft nir ; 


i as in city, ir as ere in here. 


to finish. 






venir " 


ve nir ; 


e as u in tub, ir as above. 


to come. 







i followed by e ending" words is pronounced as the first e 
in bee, and e final, which is said to be mute in French, is ac- 
cented as the last e in this word bee, or as in see : 



bougie 


pronounce 


bou gie ; 


bou with ou as oo in too, g 


a wax candle. 






soft as j in bijou, ie as ee 
in bee. 


jolie 


a 


jo lie ; 


j soft as in bijou, o as in 


pretty, fine. 






not, ie as ee in bee. 


cherie 


" 


she rie ; 


e as a in fate, ie as above. 


dear. 








Broglie 


" 


Bro glie ; 


o as in not, ie as above. 


French statesman. 







60 



French Speaker. 



When i is followed by lie ending- words, the sound of 
double 11 disappears, or is said to be liquid ; and there is 
only the sound of ee in bee, in see left to be sounded: 



pronounce fa mee 



fee: 



gen tee ; 



!il 2 bree ; 



a as in cat, ee as in see. 

ee as ee in bee. 

g soft as j in bijou, en as 
an in want,n mute,ee as 
above. 
1-il as ill, 2 ee as above. 



famille 

family. 
filJe 

daughter, girl 
gentille 

genteel, pretty 

il brille 

he s/nnes. 

Further see 11, liquid, Third Part (il, ille). 

READING VII— (LECTURE VII). 

On doit etre a-vide de bien faire, 1 mais il ne faut pas 
1' etre 2 de ri-chesses. Le ser-pent et le tigre sont des a-ni- 
maux nui-sibles. Li-be-ral et pro-digue qui si-g-ni-fient tous 
deux 3 don-ner, ne sont pour-tant point sy-no-nymes. On 
peut etre jo-lie et de-tes-table a la fois. 4 Tout ce qui brille 
n' est pas or. Le vrai pres-tig-e est un dia-mant de grand 
prix. La dy-nas-tie des Oa-pet fi-nit avec Lou-is XVI. 
L' A-ca-de-mie Fran-caise est le plus beau mo-dele de g-out du 
g-enre hu-main: elle con-serve, en-ri-chit et u-ni-fie la plus 
belle langue du monde. Laide et g-en-tille en-g-endrent des 
g-races re-elles. 



Vocabulary of the Sounds. 



a as in cat, as ah. 

a as ah, but longer (graces). 

able, a as in lad, bl sounded, 

mute. 
ai as at in nail. 



air as in fair. 
al as in salvation, 
e an as an in -want, n mute. 
as (dynastic), s sounded. 
au as o in no. 



1 On doit etre avide de bien faire : One must like to do well. 

2 mais il ne faut pas 1' etre : but one must not be so. 

3 tous deux : both. 

^ a la fois : at the same time. 



French Speaker. 



61 



e as m in tub. 

e as a in fate. 

ia — diphthong — a as ah. 

ide, i as English e, e mute. 

ie as ee in bee, in see. 

ien — diphthong — i as in view, en 

as an in sank, n mute (bien). 
ige, £ as English e, g soft as /, e 

mute. 
igr, i do., gr as in great. 
igue, i do., # as in fig, ue silent. 
il as ill. 
ille as ee in bee ; in brille, in #ew- 

ZiZte. 
eau as o in no. 
el as eZZ in bell. 
ell as e?Z in bell. 
en as an in want, n mute. 
er (donner) as a in /ate, r mute. 
er (serpent, conserve) as ere in 

there. 



es (detestable, prestige) as in es- 
teem. 

ess as in tes.5. 

est, e as in weZ, st mute. 

eu as between u in French and u 
of us. 

i as in city. 

o as in not. 

oi as wa in ?#as. 

oin as o combined with a?? as in 
sank, n mute. 

on as in monk, n mute. 

onn as English on. 

ou as oo in too. 

our as oor in poor. 

on as oo in teo. 

or as in nor. 

vl as in the alphabet. 

ui as we. 

uu as in hunter, n mute. 

y as i in city. 



Observations. 

e, s, t and x final mute, and nt in signifient. 

ent in engendrent is mute also. 

XVI pronounce seize; s hard, ei as ay in may, z sounded, e mute- 



Vocabulary. 



a, prep. 


to. 


Academie Francaise, 


French 


prop. n. f . s. 
animaux, com. n. m. pi. 


A cademy 
animals. 


avec, prep. 

avide, qual. adj. s. (both 


with, 
greedy. 


genders) . 
beau, q«al. adj. m. s. 


nice, fine 


belle, qual. adj. f . s. 


nice, fine. 


bien, adv. 


well. 


brille, n. v. ind. m. pr. inf 


shines. 


briller. 





Capet, prop. n. m. pi. 



French 
dynasty. 



that, 
keeps. 



of. 



ee, dem. ind. pron. s. 
conserve, act. v. ind. m. 

pr inf. conserver. 
de, prep. 
des, cont.art.(for de les) of the. 

pi. (both genders). 
detestable, qual. adj. s. detestable, 

(both genders). wretched. 

deux (tous), card. adj. both. 



62 

diamant, com. n. m. s. 
doit (on), act. v. ind. m. 

pr. inf. devoir, 
doimer, act. v. inf. m. 
du, cont. art. (for de le) 

m. s. 
dynastie, com. n. f . s. 
elle, pers. pron. 3d pers. 

sing. fern. 
engendrent, act. v. ind. 

m.pr.inf. engendrer. 
enrichit, act. v. ind. m. 

pr. inf. enrichir. 
faire, act. v. inf. m. 
faut (il Tie faut pas), 

imp. v. ind. m. pr. inf. 

falloir. 
Unit, act. v. ind. m. pr. 

inf. finir. 



French Speaker. 



diamond, 
one must. 

give, 
of the. 

dynasty. 

she. 

produce, 

show. 

enriches. 

to do. 
one must 
not. 

finishes. 



fois (a la), adv. location 


at once, 




at the 


francaise, qual. adj. f. s 


same time 
French. 


genre, com. n. m. s. 


gender, 


gentille, qual. adj. f. s. 


sort, kind, 
genteel, 


gout, com. n. m. s. 


pretty, 

elegant. 

taste. 


graces, com. n. f. pi. 


graces. 


grand, qual. adj. m s. 


big, great 


humain, qual. adj. m. s. 


large, 
human. 


il, pers. pron. 3d pers. s. m 


he. 


jolie, qual. adj. f . s. 


pretty, 


la, art. f. s. 


nice, fine, 
the. 



1\ pers. pron. s. (for le, 

direct object). 
le, art. m. s. 
liberal, qual. adj. m. s. 
Louis XVI, prop. n. 

mais, conj. 
modele, com. n. m. s. 

monde, com. n. m. s. 
n\ adv. (for ne) part of 

the negation ne pas 
nuisibles, qual. adj. pi. 

(both genders). 
or, com. n. m. s. 
ou, conj. 
peut (on), act. v. ind. m. 

pr. inf. pouvoir. 
plus (le,) adv. 
qui, rel. pron. (subject) 
reelles, qual. adj. f. pi. 
richesses, com. n. f. pi. 
serpent, com. n. m. s. 
signiilent, act. v. ind. m. 

pres. inf. signifler. 
sont, aux. v. ind. m. pr. 

inf. etre. 
synonymes qual. adj. pi. 

(both genders). 
tigre, com. n. m. s. 
tout, ind. pron. m. s. 
un, det. adj. m. 
unifie, act. v. ind. m. pr. 

inf. unifier, 
vrai, qual. adj. m. s. 



it. 

the. 

liberal. 

Louis the 

Sixteenth. 

but. 

model, 

pattern. 

world. 

not. 

hurtful. 

gold. 

or. 

one can. 

the most. 

which. 

real, true. 

richness. 

snake. 

signify. 



synony- 
mous, 
tiger. 

everything 
one, a. 
unifies. 

true, 
genuine. 



i as in mill. 
Exception is made for the following words, in which the i 
does not combine with U, and this double consonant is 
Sounded as 1 ; e final is mute, and the vowel i has the sound 
as in mill : 



French Speak 



',■(■)-. 



63 



*vill ; as in mill. 

mill ; as mill. 

trail kill ; an as in want, n mute, 

kill as English kill. 
pupill ; u as in alphabet, the 

rest as in mill. 
Trou vill ; Trou as troo in troop, 

ill as above. 
Ju pill ; J soft as in bijou, u as 

in alphabet, ill as 

above. 



ville pronounce 

city, town. 

mille " 

thousand. 

tranquille " 

quiet, peaceful 
pupille " 

pupil, ward. 
Trouville " 

French town. 
Jupille " 

Birth-place of Charles- 
t he-Great, in Belgium. 

For i followed by m and n, or forming- nasal sounds, see 
Second Part, page 169. 



1 as e m we. 



When i preceded by u is the final letter, or when ui is fol- 
lowed by le, d, and s and t final, it sounds as toe : 



autrui 


pronounce 


au trui ; 


au as o in no, ui as we. 


others, neigh 


bor. 








lui 




u 


lui ; 


ui as we. 


him. 










muid 




a 


inui ; 


ui £js we. 


hogshead. 










huile 




n 


weal , 


as in English. 


oil. 










tuile 




" 


tAveel*; 


as in English. 


me. 










je suis 




" 


a je 2 sui ; 


1 j soft, e as u in tub, 2 sui 


I am. 








as swee in sweet. 


je reduis 




a 


x je 2 re dui ; 


\je as above, 2 c as a in 


I reduce. 








fate, ui as we 


bruit 




a 


brui ; 


ui as we. 


noise. 










seduit 




u 


se dui ; 


s as in sea, 6 as a in 


seduced. 








fate, ui as we. 


nuit 




a 


uui ; 


ui as we. 


night. 











*The same pronunciation occurs in all nouns ending in ville. 



64 French Speaker. 

Exception to the rule above is made for the words whose 
ui is preceded by o, and for the number huit (eight); the ui 
is sounded as wi in wit : 

rejoui pronounce rejou i; e as a in fate, j soft, 

rejoiced. oui, o accented as oo 

in too,ui as wi in wit. 

oui " oui ; as wi in wit. 

yes. 

oui " ou i ; ou sounded as oo in 

heard. too, i as i in city. 

huit* " wit; as English wit. 

eight. 

READING VIII— (LECTURE VIII). 

II est 1 peu de con-trees aussi tran-quilles que la Suisse. 
La ville de Pa-ris est 1' e-crin de 1' u-ni-vers. Pour bien fi-nir 
untra-vail, il faut 2 bien le com-men-cer. Lire est ins-truc-tif, 
mais beau-coup de livres, sont tres souvent nui-sibles. 
Le-glise chre-tienne a faitdes 3 chosesdu monde ce que fait 
le jo-ail-lier avec 1' or, lors-qu' il le fait passer au creu-set. 
Les rives du Saint-Lau-rent sont ad-mi-rables en ete. Pour. 
suivre un but sans re-fiex-ion n' est point du tout sage. On 
montre ce que 1' on est soi-meme en par-lant d' au-trui. Le 
faux se-duit au grand pre-ju-dice du vrai. Le bruit dans les 
villes ma-ri-times est ge-ne-rale-ment plus grand que ce-lui 
des villes de 1' in-te-rieur du pays. 

Vocabulary of the Sounds. 

a as in cat, as ah. ail as the pronoun I, but shorter 

able, a as in lad, bl sounded, c in travail and in joaillier, Zand 

mute. II being liquid 

ai as ay in may. ain as an in sank, n mute. 

*The t in huit and in compound numbers is sounded when numbers 
are expressed alone,or when they are followed by words beginning by 
a vowel or a mute h. Followed by words beginning by a consonant, 
t in huit is mute. 

1 il est : there is. 

2 il faut : it is necessary. 

3 des, for ; avee, tvith. 



French Speaker, 



65 



age, a as in lad, g soft, e mute. 

al as in salvatioyi in geueralement. 

an as an in want, n mute. 

ar as in parlor. 

au as o in no. 

as as as in passer. 

e as u in tub. 

e as a in /a£e. 

e as a in made, in meme. 

eau as o in w,o. 

ee,eas ain/ate, e slightly accented. 

en as an in want, n mute. 

er as a in fate, r mute in commen- 

cer, joailler, passer. 
ers as ere in there — univers. 
est, e as in net, st mute. 
es as ein net, s mute, in les, des, etc. 
et in creuset ; as e in wc<, f mute. 
eu as between u, alphabet, and u 

of us in pen. In creuset, eu 

sounds as a in tub. 
ex as e&s, with e as in wec&, or as 

ex in except. 
i as in ciYy. 
ible, £ as English e, 6£ sounded, e 

mute. 



ieur — diphthong— i combined with 

eur as ur in fur, broad. 
ier do., er as a in fate, r mute. 
il as ill. 

ille as ill — tranquilles, villes. 
in as an in sank, n mute. 
ion — diphthong — i combined with 

on as in monk, n mute. 
ir as ere in here. 
ise as eese in geese — eglise. 
ive, i as English c, v sounded, c 

mute (rives). 
ivre, i as above, vr sounded, e 

mute (livres). 
oin : wan, an sounded as in sank, 

n mute. 
omm as om in Tom — broad. 
on as in monk, n mute, 
ou as oo in too. 
our as oor in poor. 
or as in nor. 

ors as orse in horse, in lorsquil. 
u as in alphabet. 
ui as we. 

ui as wi in ?<nY in Suisse. 
un as in hunter, n mute. 



Observations. 
d ; e, es, (except in le, les, etc.,) n, p, s, t, x euding words are mute. 
Last e in contrees is slightly accented, but s is mute. 
t is sounded in but. 
u is silent after g. 
y as two i's sounded as tin city, in pays — pai-i. 

Vocabulary. 
admirables, qual.adj.pl. admirable. I beaucoup, adv. 

i bien, adv. 
I bruit, com. n. m. s. 



(both genders). 
a fait, act. v. ind. m. pret. has done 

ind. inf. faire. 
avee, prep. with. 

au, cont. art. (for a le) to the. 

m. s. 
autrui, ind. pron. designs others. 

m. and f., s. and pi. 
aussi, adv. also. 

E 



but, com. n. m. s. 
ce, dem. pron. m. s. 
celui, dem. pron. m. s. 
choses, com. n. f. pi. 
creuset, com. n. m. s. 

dans, prep. 



much. 

well. 

noise. 

aim. 

that, this. 

the one. 

things. 

melting 

pot. 

in, into. 



66 



French Speaker. 



d', prep, (forde) 


of. 


de, prep. 


of. 


du, cont. art. (for de le) 


of the. 


m. s. 




ecrin, com. n. m. s. 


jewel box 


eglise, com. n. f. s. 


church. 


en, prep. 


by. 


ete, prop. n. m. s. 


summer. 


est, aux.v. ind. m. pres.inf 


is. 


etre. 




exces, com. n. m. s. 


excess. 


fait, act v. ind. m. pres.inf . 


does. 


faire. 




faut (il), imp. v. ind. m. 


it is nec- 


pres. inf. falloir. 


essary. 


faux, qual. adj. m. s. 


false. 


finir, act. v. inf. m. 


to finish. 


geiieraienient, adv. 


generally. 


grand, qual. adj. m. s. 


great. 



il, pers. pron. m. 3d 

pers. sing. 
interieur, com. n. m. s. 
joaillier, com. n. m. s. 
la, art. f. s. 
1' (for le or la), elid. art. 

m. or f . s. 
1', euphonical before pron. 

on. 
le, art. m. s. or pers. pron. 

m. s. 
lire, act. v. inf. m. 
livres, com. n. m. pi. 
lorsqu' il, lorsqu' for 

lorsque, conj. 
mais, conj. 
maritimes, qual. adj. pi. 

(both genders). 
monde, com. n. m. s. 
montre, act. v. ind. m. 

pres. inf. montrer. 
n' (for ne), adv. part of 

the negation ne point : 

n' est point. 



high, big. 
he. 

interior, 
jeweler, 
the. 
the. 



the, him, 

it. 

to read. 

books. 

when he. 

but. 
maritime. 



world, 
shows. 



not. 
is not. 



nuisibles, qual. adj. pi. 

(both genders). 
on, ind. pron. m. or f. s, 
or, com. n. m. s. 
Paris, prop. n. 
parlant, pres. part. inf. 

parler. 
passer, n. v. inf. mood. 
peu, adv. 
pays, com. n. m. s. 
pour, prep. 
plus, adv. 

point, adv. — ne point, 
poursuivre, act.v.inf.m. 
que, conj. 

que, rel. pron. (object). 
reflexions, com. n. f . pi. 

rives, com. n. f . pi. 
sage, qual. adj. s. (both 

genders) s. 
Saint-Laurent, prop. n. 



sans, nrep. 

sednit, act. v- ind. m.pr. 

inf. seduire. 
sont, aux. v. ind. m. pres. 

inf. etre. 
soi-meme, pers. pron. 3d 

pers. sing. 
Suisse, prop. n. fern. 

tranquilles, qual. adj. 

pi. (both genders). 
travail, com. n. mas. s. 
tres, adv. 
tout (du).adv. 
un, num. or det. adj. m. 
Univers,prop. n. m. sing. 

ville, com. n. fern. sing. 
vrai, qual. adj. m. sing. 



hurtful. 

they, one. 
gold. 
Paris, 
speaking. 

to pass, 
little, 
country, 
for. 
more, 
not. 

to pursue, 
than, 
which, 
reflec- 
tions, 
shore. 
wise. 

St. Law- 
rence 
river. 

without, 
seduces. 



himself, 
herself. 
Switzer- 
land, 
quiet. 

work, 
very, 
at all. 
one, a. 
universe, 
world. 
towu,city. 
true, gen- 
uine. 



French Speaker. 67 

i as e in wit. 
When i preceded by u is followed by <le, te and tre final, 



ui has the sound as in wit 
fluide pronounce fluid ; 
fluid. 

fuite " fuit ; 

flight. 

truite " truit ; 

trout. 

huitre " uiti*; 

oyster. 

reduite " reduit 

reduced. 



ui as wi in wit, d sounded. 

ui as wi in wit, t sounded. 

ui do., t do. 

ui do., tr sounded. 

e as a in fate, ui as wi in iuit, 
t sounded. 



i having- the circumflex accent sounds as ea in beam, in 
bean, as ee in feel, and as ea in beat : 

abime pronounce abeam ; a as ah,beam as in English. 

abyss. 



je dine " 


ye 2 deau 


; V soft as in bijou, e as u in 


I dine. 




Uib, -dean as English 
dean. 


gite 


geet ; 


g soft as j in bijou, eet as 


home quarters. 




in/eetf. 


ile 


eel ; 


as English ee?. 


is?a?io*. 






presqu'ile " 


pres keel 


; pres as press, eeZ as En- 


peninsula. 




glish eel. 


Axe excepted : 






epitre pronounce 


e pi tr ; 


e as a in /a£e, jpl as in pit, tr 


epi's^e. 




sounded. 


huitre " 


ui tr ; 


ui as wi in ?t'i7, tr sounded. 


oyster. 






In all other cases, i 


' sounds as in big, in sick, in if, in mill, 


in K???, in in, in city, 


etc, : 




bigot pronounce 


bigo; 


6ias in bigamous, gas in 


bigoted. 




game, o as in not. 


bigame " 


bi gam ; 


bi as above, g do., am as 


bigamous. 




in ram, broad. 


trafic " 


tra flk ; 


tra as in travel, i as in 


trade. 




si'cA;, k sounded. 


Alaric " 


A la rile ; 


both a's as ah, rik with i 


king of Visigoths. 




and k sounded as \xxfik 



above. 



French Speaker. 



offensif pronounce 


often sif ; 


off as in offensive, en as 


offensive. 




an in want, n mute, si 
as ci in city,/ sounded. 


attentif " 


a ten tif ; 


aa,sah,en as an in want, 


attentive. 




n mute, £i/as tiff. 


critique " 


cri tik ; 


cri as in critical, tile as 


critical, criticism. 




tick. 


immortel " 


im mor tel ; 


im as im in him, mor as 


immortal. 




in 7nortal, tel as tell. 


imagination " 


imagi nation 


; ima as in imagination, 


imagination. 




g soft as j in bijou, i as 
in city, na with a as 
ah, t&ss hard as in sea, 
i as in view, combin- 
ed with an as in monk, 
n mute. 


inhuraain " 


i mi main ; 


i as English c, u as in al- 


inhuman. 




phabet, main with ain 
as an in plank, n mute. 


inhabile " 


i na bill ; 


i as English e, na with 


unfit. 




a as ah, bill as En- 
glish bill. 


innocent " 


i no cent ; 


i as English e, o as in not, 


innocent. 




c as s hard, en as in 
ivant, nt mute. 


utile " 


u till; 


u as in alphabet, till as 


useful. 




English till. 


inutile " 


i nu till ; 


i as English e, u as in 


useless. 




the alphabet, till as in 
English. 


poll " 


poli; 


o as in not, i as in city. 


polite. 






esprit " 


es pri ; 


es as in esteem, pri as in 


spirit. 




prick. 


profit " 


pro ft ; 


pro as in f> ro fit, i as in 


profit. 




city. 


joli 


jo li ; 


j soft as in bijou, o as in 


pretty. 




not, i as above. 


maigri " 


mai gri ; 


mai as may, gri as in 


be lean, thin. 




gridiron. 


antiqnite " 


an ti kite ; 


an as an in want, n 


antiquity. 




mute, both i's as in 
city, e as a, in fate. 



French Speaker. 69 

READING IX~(L,ECTURE IX). 

Les mots out, non et si pro-duisent, quoi-que tres pe-tits, 
de grandes joies et d'ac-ca-blantes tris-tesses. Les en-vi- 
rons de Terre-Neuve sont des a-bimes pour la na-vi-ga-tion. 
Le pied des arbres n'est pas un gite sur en temps d'o-rage. 
L'Aus-tra-lie est la plus grande ile du monde. Qui dit bi- 
got, dit sou-vent hy-po-crite. Le tra-fic des negres est un 
blas-pheme contre l'es-prit de la cre-a-tion. Le loup, pousse 
par la faim, 1 est a-gres-sif, mais le tigre de-chire sans ne- 
ces-si-te ses vic-times. Ce-sar, Ohar-le-magne et Na-po- 
le-on ont con-quis des noms im-mor-tels- Le res-pect de la 
bonne mode, de la pu-deur, de la li-ber-te etdes con-vic-tions 
d'au-trui, sont tous les e-le-ments de la vraie po-li-tesse. 

Vocabulary of the Sounds. 

a as in cat, as ah. erre as ere in there. 

ac — accablantes — as in active. es as e in net and s sounded in 

age as in lad, g soft, e mute. esprit, agressif, nScessite, res- 

ai as ai in may. pect. 

aim as an\r\.sank,mm.x\te,\i\faim. es as e in net, s mute, in tres. 

an as an in want, n mute. eur, as ur in fur — broad. 

ar in arbres and in Charlemagne, euve, eu as u in tub, v sounded, e 

as in parlor. mute — Terre-Neuve. 

ar as in bar, in par and in Cesar, i as in city. 
as as as — blaspheme. i as English e in liberie. 

au as o in no, s sounded in Aus- ied, diphthong — i as in view with 

tralie. ed, as a in fate, d mute. 

e as u in tub. igre,i as English e,emute — {tigre. ) 

e as a in fate. ile, as eel. 

e as in net in ire's. im as im in him — (victimcs). 

e as a in made in negres. im as earn in beam — (abt?nes.) 

e as rtin made, in blaspheme. ire as ere iu here — (dec/iire.) 

ect as e in net, ct mute in respect, is as iss in miss, in tristessc 
ed, e as a in fate, in pied. ite as eat. 

els as ell in bell. o as in not. 

em as an in want, m mute. od, o as in both — mode. 

en as an in xvant, n mute — sou- oi as wa in was. 

vent, elements. om as on in monk, m mute. 

pousse par la faim : very hungry. 



70 



French Speaker. 



on as on in monk, n mute. 
onn as English on. 
ou as oo in too. 
xx as in alphabet. 



xxx as we, but out sounds wi in 

wit. 
un as in hunter, n mute. 
up, il as u in the alphabet, r rolled. 



Observations. 

e, es (except in des, les etc.), ct (in respect), p, ps, m, n, s, t, ts 

ending words are silent, and the same for ent in produisent. — C and 
/ending respectively trafic and agressif, are sounded. 

joies is pronounced as if it was written joi, with oi as wa in tvas. 

xx is silent after q. 



Vocabulary. 



accablantes, qual. adj. 


very 


esprit, com. n. m. sing. 


spirit, 


fem. pi. 


heavy, 




means. 




trouble- 


et, conj. 


and. 




some. 


faim, com. n. fem. sing. 


hunger. 


ablmes, com. n. m. pi. 


abyss. 


gite, com. n. m. sing. 


home, 


agressif, qual. adj.m.sing. 


agressive. 




quarter, 


arbres, com. n. m. pi. 


trees. 




shelter. 


Australie, prop. n. fem. 


Australia. 


grandes, qual. adj.fem.pl 


great,big, 


autrui,ind. pron. s. designs others. 




large, 


both genders. 
bigot, qual. adj. or com. n 
m. sing. 


bigoted. 


ile, com. n. fem. sing-. 
immortels, qual. adj. m 


high. 

island. 

immortal. 


blaspheme, com. n. m. 
sing. 


blasphe- 
my. 


pi. 
joies, com. n. fem pi. 


joy ful- 


bonne, qual. adj. fem. sing. 


good. 




ness, JOJ'S 


Cesar, prop. n. 


Caesar. 


loup, com. n. m. sing. 


wolf. 


Charlemagne, prop. n. 


Charles 


liberte, com. n. fem. sing. 


liberty. 




the Great. 


mais, conj . 


but. 


conquis (ont), act. v.ind 


have con- 


mode, com. n. fem. sing. 


mode, 


m. pr. inf. conquerir 


quered. 




fashion, 

manners. 

words. 


convictions, com. n. fem 

pi. 
dechire, act. v. ind. m. pr 


convic- 
tions. 


mots, com. n. m. pi. 


tears in 


Napoleon, prop. n. 


Napoleon 


inf. dechirer, 


pieces. 


navigation, com. n. fem 


navy, nav- 


dit, act. v. ind. m. pres. inf 

dire, 
elements, com. n. m. pi. 
en, prep. 
environs, com. n. m. pi. 


. says. 

elements, 
by. 

environs, 
vicinity. 


sing. 
necessite,com.n.fem.sing 

negres, com. n. m. pi. 
noms, com. n. m. pi. 
non, com.n.m.sing. oradv 
oui, com.n.m. sing, oradv 


igation, 
necessity 
negroes, 
names. 
. no. 
yes. 



French Speaker. 



71 



orage, com. n. m. sing-. 


storm. 


si, conjunction or com.n.m. 


if. 


par, prep. 


by. 


sont, aux. v. ind. m. pres. 


arc. 


petits, qual. adj. m. pi. 


small. 


inf. etre. 




pied, com. n. m. sing-. 


foot. 


souvent, adv. 


often. 


plus (la), adv. 


the most. 


sur, qual. adj. mas. sing. 


sure 


politesse, com.n.fem.sing 


politeness 


temps, com. n. m. sing. 


time. 


pousse, past. part. m. inf. 


pushed. 




weather. 


pousser 




Terre-Neuve, prop. n. 


Terre- 


pour, prep. 


for. 




Neuve. 


produisent, act. v.ind. m 


produce. 


tigre, com. n. mas. sing-. 


tiger. 


pres. inf. produire 




tous, det. adj. mas. pi. 


all. 


pudeur, com. n. fern sing 


modesty, 


traflc, com. n. m. sing. 


traffic, 




decenc}', 




trade. 




bashful- 


tres, adv. 


very. 




ness. 


tristesses, com. n. fem. pi 


sadness, 


qui, rel. pron. m. or f. sing- 


who. 




griefjnel 


er pi. 






ancholy. 


quoique, conj. 


though. 


un, det. or num.adj m. 


one, a. 


sans, prep. 


without. 


victimes, com. n. fem. pi 


victims. 


ses, pos. adj. pi. (both gen- 


his hers. 


vraie, qual. adj. fem. sing-. 


true, gen 


ders). 






uine. 



o. 

o as in rock, in stock. 

o followed by c, ck, and que final, is sounded as in rock 
roc pronounce rok 

rock. 
soc 

ploughshare. 
dock " 

dock. 

defroque " 

old clothes. 
reciproque 
reciprocal. 

o as in fog, in log. 

When o is followed by cjue final, it sounds as in fog : 
pirog-ue pronounce pir og : i as English e, og as in 



rok ; 


as in English. 


sok ; 


do. 


dok; 


do. 


de frok ; 


eas a in fate, the rest do. 


re <*i jirok ; 


e as above, ci as in city, the 




rest do. 



canoe. 

demagogue 

demagogue. 



fog, in log. 
de ma gog; as a in fate, a as in cat, 
g as in game, og as in 
log. 



72 



French Speaker. 



astrologue pronounce as tro log ; as as ass, tro with o as 

astrologer. in no£, Zogr as in En- 
glish. 

decalogue " de ca log ; e as a hi fate, ca.&s in 

decalogue. cat, log as in English. 

analogue " a na log ; both a's as ah, log as in 

analogous, similar. . English. 
o as in doll. 

When o is followed by I, 11, the combinations ol, oil, are 
sounded as in doll : 



il vole pronounce 


ill 2 vol ; 


1 il as ill, 2 ol as oil in 


he flies. 






doll. 


sole 


a 


sol ; 


as oil in doll with s 


sole. 






hard as in son. 


molleton 


n 


mol ton ; 


ol as in doll, on as in 


cotton flannel. 






monk, n mute. 


collision 


" 


col li zion ; 


colli as in collision, zi : 


collision. 






i combined with on 








sounded as in monk, 
n mute. 


folle 


a 


fol; 


ol as in doll. 


fool, lunatic. 








il colle 


" 


Ml 2 col ; 


HI as ill, 2 ol as in doll. 


he sticks. 








solfege 


" 


sol fai je ; 


sol as in soldier, ai 


solfeggio. 






as ay in may, j soft 
as in bijou, c mute. 


vol 


ti 


vol ; 


as in doll. 


stealing, flight. 


o as in pole, in 


hole. 


When 6 having 


the ( 


circumflex accent is followed by I I 


has the sound of ole in 


pole : 




role prom 


3unce 


role ; 


ole as in pole. 


roll, list. 








mole 


" 


mole ; 


do. 


mole. 








pole 


a 


l^ole ; 


do. 


pole. 








tole 


" 


tole; 


do. 


sheet-iron. 








drole 


li 


drole ; 


do. 


funny. 









French Speaker. 73 

o as in Tom, in on. 

Whtin o precedes m and n, these consonants being fol- 
lowed by another m or n, and when the vowel o is followed 
by mme and nne, the combinations omm, onn, omme, <>in«', 
sound as om in Tom, broad, and as English on — on has the 
same sound when it is followed by h : 
pronounce an torn ; 



aatoinnf 
fall. 

sommeil 

sleep. 



commercial 

commercial. 



comiexite 

connection. 

sonnette 

bell. 

homme 

man. 

pomme 

apple. 

bonne 

good. 

je don ne 

I give. 

bouheur 

liajypiness. 

il tonne 

it thunders. 



so meil ; 



co iner cial ; 



co nek ci te : 



om me ; 
pom me ; 
bon ne ; 
je 2 (lon ne 
bo near ; 



an as o in no, out as m 
Tom broad — n is 
mute. 

s as in so?i, o as in not, 
eil as eye ; sound the 
first e of eye as c in 
net. 

o as in not, mer with 
er as in perfect, c as 
s hard, ial — diph- 
thong — al as in sal- 
vation. 

co with o as in not, nek 
as neck, ci as in city, e 
as a in fate. 

s hard, o as in not, 
nettc as net, c final 
mute. 

as om in Tom — broad. 

omme as om in Tom — 

broad. 
onne as English on. 



2 onne as above, 1 / soft as 
in bijou, eas it in tub. 
o as in not, eur as ur 
in fur — broad. 
!il 2 ton ne ; !as ill : 2 onne as on, c . 

mute, 
o as in home, in bone. 

o having the circumflex accent, followed by me and ne final, 
sounds as in home, as in hone : 



arome 

aroma. 



pronounce a rome ; 



a as ah, 6mc 

}>,omc. 



74 



aumone 

alms. 
dome 

dome. 

fantome 

phantom. 

trone 

throne. 

Rhone 

River of France. 



French Speaker 

pronounce an inone ; 
" dome ; 

" fan tome ; 



Rone ; 



au as o in no, one as 

one in bone. 
6me as ome in home. 

aw as in want, n mute, 

ome as above. 
one as in bone. 

one as in bone. 



For nasal sounds formed with o, om 
Part, page 184. 



and 



see Second 



o as in nor. 



o before r, re, rd, rds, rps, rs, rt and r 
of o in nor, in which cases e, d, ds, ps, 
mute: 



ts final, has the sound 
s, t and ts final are 



cor 


pronounce 


cor ; 


or as in nor. 


corn, cornist. 








Baltimore 


" 


Bal ti mor ; 


Bal with al as in sal- 


city of United St 


aies. 




vation, ti as in tip, 
mor as more. 


abord 


" 


a bor ; 


a as ah, or as in nor. 


access. 








encore 


" 


en cor ; 


en as an in want, n 


yet, still, encore. 






mute, or as given. 


nord 


" 


nor ; 


or as in nor. 


north. 








mords 


" 


mor ; 


do. 


jaw, chop. 








corps 


" 


cor ; 


do. 


corpse. 








je dors 


" 


je dor ; 


j soft as in bijou, e as 


I sleep. 






u in £i*&, or as above. 


mort 


" 


mor ; 


do. 


dead, death. 








lors 


c« 


lor ; 


do. 


then. 








accord 


" 


a cor ; 


a as <xA, or as in »o?\ 


accord, convention. 







French Speaker. 75 

READINO X— (LECTURE X). 

On con-si-dere le roc comme la meil-leure fon-da-tion et 
comme don-nant 1' eau la plus pure. Les docks des ports 
d' An-vers et du Havre n' ont pas 1' a-bord aussi fa-cile que 
ceux 1 de New-York. Un bieu-fait re-ci-proque est de de- 
voir, 2 mais le mal en re-ci-proque 3 ne me-rite que le blame. 
La doc trine du de-ma-gogne n' est pas con -forme 4 a l'es-prit 
du De-ca-logue. Chretien et cha-ri table sont a-na-logues. 
Le vol de 1' oi-seau, le vol du lar-ron et la vole du jou-eur, 
sont choses toute dif-fe-rentes : le pre-mier de-vore 1' es-pace, 
le deu-xieme de-robe le bien d' au-trui, et la troi-sieme est 
du res-sort des cartes. 5 Les col-li-sions sont des co-hues 
hor-ribles oil la mort, en bri-g-and, 6 sans coeur ni pi-tie, se 
paie le tri-but sans sou-ci du 1 ne-cro-log-e. On explore la 
zone e qua-to-riale, mais per-sonne n' a en-core at-teint le pole 
nord. 

Vocabulary of the Sounds. 

a as in cai, as a/*. ei in meilleur as e in net corn- 
able, a as in lad, bl sounded, e bined with Hear sounded yeur ; 

mute. eur as ur in fur, broad ; 11 is li- 

ace — espace — a as ah long, c as s quid. 

hard, e mute. ein as an in sayik, n mute. 

ai as ay in may. en as an in want, n mute. 

al as in salvation. er in personne as ere in there. 

an as an in want, n mute. ere as ere in there. 

avre, d as a in lad, vr sounded, e ers in Anvers as ere in there, s 

mute— Hdvre. sounded or not (optional). 

au as o in no. es in esprit and in ressort — e as 

e as u in tub. in net, s and ss hard. 

eau as o in no. eu as between u, alphabet, and u 

e&s a in fate. of us. 

1 Aussi facile que ceux : as easy as those. 

2 est de devoir : is an obligation. 

3 le mal en reciproque : the reciprocity in evil. 

4 n' est pas con forme : does not agree. 

5 est du ressort des cartes : belongs to the cards line. 

6 en brigand : as a burglar. 

7 sans souci de : without care for. 



76 



French Speaker. 



eur, oeur as ur in fur— broad. 
ew _ A Y ew Yor k— as ew sounded 
between u, alphabet, and u of us. 
i as in city. 
ial— diphthong — combined with 

al as in salvation. 
ible, i as English e, 6£ sounded, e 

mute, 
ien— diphthong— i combined with 

en as art in sank, n mute, 
ie— di ph thong— i combined with 

e as a in fate. 
ier— diphthong— i combined with 
er sounded as e above, r mute. 
i£ me - diphthong — i combined 
with e as a in made, m sounded, 
e mute. 
il as ill. 
ion— diphthong— i combined with 

on as in monk, n mute. 
o as in not. 

obe, o as in fog, b sounded, e 
mute — derobe. 



oc, as oek in rock. 

oeur as ur in fur — broad. 

oge, o as in fog, g soft, e mute. 

ogue as og in fog, u and e mute. 

ol as oil in boll. 

die as ole in pole. 

omm as om in Tom, or as um in 

rum — broad. 
on as in monk, n mute. 

onn as English on. 

one as one in bone. 

ord as ore. 

ore as ore. 

ort as or in nor 

ose as in nose. 

ou as oo in £oo. 

u as in the alphabet. 

ue,w as in the alphabet, but deeper, 
e sounded as w final in English. 

ure, u as in the alphabet, but 
deeper, r rolled, e mute. 

ut, u as in the alphabet, t mute in 
tribut. 



a, e (e except in le 
ts final, are mute. 
u is silent after g and after q 



Observations. 

de, ne, etc.), es, n, r,(r only in premier), s, st,t, 



Vocabulary. 



a, aux. v. ind. m. pres. inf. 

avoir, 
a atteint, act. v. pret.ind. 

inf. atteindre. 
abord, com. n. m. s. 
Anvers, prop. n. 
analogues, qual. adj. 

pi. (both genders). 
aussi, adv. 
bien, adv. 
bienfait, com. n. m. s. 



has. 

has 

reached, 
access. 
Antwerp, 
analog-ous. 

also, 
well. 

g-ood office, 
favor, gift. 



blame, com. n. m. s. 


blame. 


brigand, com. n. m. s. 


burglar, 




plunderer. 


cartes, com n. fern. pi. 


cards. 


ceux, dem. pron. m. pi. 


those. 


charitable, qual. adj. 


charitable. 


sing, (both genders). 




choses, com. n. f. pi. 


things. 


Chretien, qual. adj. m. s 


Christian. 


comme, conj. 


as. 


coeur, com. n. m. s. 


heart. 


cohues, com. n. f. pi. 


rout. 



French Speak* 



collisions, com. n. f. pi. 
conforme, qual. adj. s. 

(both genders . 
considere, act. v. ind. m. 

pres. inf. considerer. 
Decalogue, prop. n. m. s. 

demagogue, com. n. 

sing both genders). 
Aerobe, act. v. ind. m. 

pres. inf. derober. 
devoir, com. n. mas. s. 
deuxierne, ord. adj. s. 

(both genders^. 
devore, act. v. ind. m. 

pres. inf. devorer. 
differ entes, qual. adj. 

fern. pi. 
docks, com. n. m. pi. 
doctrine, com. n. f. s. 
dormant. pres. part. inf. 

donner. 
eau. com. n. f . s. 
en, prep. 
encore, adv. 
esprit, com. n. m. s. 

explore, act. v. ind. m. 

pres. inf. explorer, 
equatoriale, qual. adj. 

fern. sing. 
facile, qual. adj. s. both 

genders) . 

fondation.com. n. f. s 

Havre (Le). prop. n. 
horribles, qual. adj pi. 

(both genders) . 
joneur, com. n. m. s. 
larron. c<~>m. n. m. s. 



collisions. 


mal, com. n. m. s. 


evil. 


conform. 


mais, conj. 


but. 


alike. 


merite, act. v. ind m. 


deserves. 


consider. 


pres. inf. merit er. 






mort, com. n. f s. 


death. 


Deca- 


necrologe, com. u. m. s. 


register 


logue. 




of deaths. 


dema- 


New York, prop. n. 


New York 


gogue. 

steals. 


nord, quai. adj. m. s. 
ou. conj. 


north, 
or. 




oil, adv. 


where. 


duty. 


paie (se), pron. v. ind. 


pays her- 


second. 


m. pres. inf. se payer. 


self. 


eats up. 


personiie. ind. pron. s. 
(.both genders.) 


no body 


different. 


pitie, com. n. f . s. 
pins (la), adv. 


pity, 
the most. 


docks, 
doctrine. 


pole, com. n. m. s. 
ports, com. n. mas. pi. 


pole. 

ports, 

harbors. 


giving 


premier, ord. n. m. s. 


first. 


water. 


pure. qual. adj. f. s. 
que. conj. 


pure, 
than. 


as. 

yet, still. 


reciproque(en),adv. lo- recipro- 

cution. cally. 


spirit. 


ressort, com. n. m. s. 


line. 


meaning. 


roc. com. n. m. s. 


rock. 


explore. 


sans, prep. 


without. 




sunt. aux. v. ind. m. pr. 


are. 


equatorial. 


inf. etre. 






toute, adv. 


entirely. 


easy, 


tribut, com. n. m s 


tribute, 

tax. 


facile, 
founda- 


troisieme, ord. adj. s. 
(both genders . 


third. 


tion. 


an, det. adj or card. ,m. 


one, a. 


Le Havre 
horrible. 


vol. com. n. m. s. 
vol. com. n. m. s. 


flying. 
robbery. 


player. 


vole, com. n. f. s. 


all the 

tricks. 



thief. 



78 



French Speaker. 
o as in nor, but shorter. 



o followed by r, the or being- a syllable, or part of a sylla- 
ble beg-un with another letter, is sounded as or in nor, but 
shorter, in the beginning- or in the body of words : 



corde pronounce 


cord ; 


or as in nor but shorter, 


string, cord. 




d sounded. 


Bordeaux " 


Bor do : 


or as above, 6 as o in no. 


city of France. 






ordinaire " 


or di nair ; 


or as above, di as in or- 


ordinary. 




dinary, air asin/m'r. 


immortel " 


im mor tel ; 


im as im in him, mor 


immortal. 




with or as in nor, but 
shorter, tel as tell. 


Normandie " 


Nor man die ; 


Nor as nor, but shorter, 


country of France. 




an as in to ant, minute, 
ie as ee in bee. 


porcelaine " 


por ee lai n ; 


por as in porcelain, c 


porcelain, china. 




as s hard, e as u in 
tub, ai as ay in may, 
n sounded. 


orgue " 


org:; 


or as in organ, g as in 


organ. 




fog. 


morceau " 


mor so ; 


or as in nor but shorter, 


piece. 




s hard, 6 as o in no. 


ordre " 


or dr ; 


or as in order, dr 


order. 




sounded. 


Majorqne " 


Ma jork ; 


a as ah, j soft as in bijou, 


Majorca. 




ork as in for k. 


forgeron " 


for ge ron ; 


for as in fortune, g soft 


smith. 




as j in bijou, e as u in 
tub, on as in monk, n 
mute. 


sorte " 


sort , 


sor with or as in fork, t 


sort, kind. 




sounded. 



o as in no. 



O ending- words, whether it has the circumflex accent or 
not, has the sound as in no : 



veto 

veto. 
Rio 

Rio (Spanish 

name for rivers). 

Po 

Po (river in Italy) 



French Speaker. 

pronounce ve to; e as a hi fate, o as in no. 

" Rio; i as in rip, o as in no. 



79 



Po; 



o as in no. 



When o having- the circumflex accent is followed by f, it 
has the same sound ; and when o is followed by s final, it 
sounds also generally as o in no : 



depot pronounce de po ; 

depot, deposit. 

suppot " su po ; 

agent, instrument. 

dispos " dis po ; 

cheerful, well. 

repos " re po ; 

rest. 



e as a in fate, o as o in no. 

u as in alphabet, o as 

given. 
dis as in disp>osition, o as 

above. 
e as u in tub, o as above. 



But o preceding t final, sounds as in not when it has not 
the circumflex accent. 



4 



Exception is made to the rule above for o followed by s 
final in the following- words, where it sounds as o in not : 



dos 


pr 


onounce 


do; 




o as in not. 


back. 












nos 




<< 


no ; 




do. 


our. 












vos 




a 


vo ; 




do. 


your. 












rhinoceros 




« 


ri no 


ce ross ; 


i as in rip, 


rJiinoceros. 










as s hard, 



ross with oss as in loss. 

There are some other words Avhich follow the exception 
above. 

When o is preceded by de, ge and se final, it sounds as in 
mode : 






French Speaker. 




mode 


pronounce 


mode ; 


as in English. 


mode. 








methode 


" 


me tode ; 


e as a in fate, ode as 


method. 






above. 


Limoges 


" 


Li moge ; 


li as in lip, o as in mode, 


city of France. 






g soft, e mute. 


necrologe 


" 


ne cro loge : 


; e&s a in fate,o &s in not, 


list of the dead. 






oge as in Limoge 
above. 


dose 


" 


dose ; 


as in English. 


dose. 








je suppose 


a 


1 je 2 supose ; 


\j soft as in bijo u, e as u 


/ suppose. 






in tub ; 2 s hard and 
u as in alphabet, ose 
as in nose. 



READING XI— (LECTURE XI). 
La pomme, le ser-pent, Eve et le pre-mier homrae ont ete 
les ac-teurs de la pre-miere tra-ge-die du monde. De-po-sez 
votre au-mone au pied du trone de la Provi-dence, mais que 
cha-cun i-gnore votre ge-ne-ro-si-te. Le vin de Bor-deaux est 
la bois-son or-di-naire de beau-coup de po-pu-la-tions de 
France et de Bel-gique. La Nor-man-die est ce-lebre par 
son cidre. Les por-ce-laines de Sevres oc-cupent un rang 
de pre-mier ordre. Le co-losse de Rhodes semble ap-par- 
te-nir a la fable. 1 Les ca-ba-rets sont une sorte d' en-tre-pots 
de l'en-fer dont les clients forment le de-pot, et les ca-bare- 
tiers sont les sup-pots de Sa-tan. Plu-sieurs com-bats ce-le- 
bres ont eu lieu 2 sur le P6. Le droit de ve-to est une belle 
pre ro-ga-tive du sou-ve-rain pou-voir. 



a as in cat, as ah. 

able, a as in Lad, bl sounded 

mute. 
ai as ai in may. 
ain as an in sank, n mute. 
air as in fair . 



Vocabulary of the Sounds. 

an as an in want, u mute. 
ar — par — as in bar. 
au as o in no. 
e as u in tub. 
e—veto — as a in fate. 
eau as o in no. 



Semble appartenir a la fable : seems to be a fable. 
2ont eu lieu : have taken place. 



French Spt ah r. 



81 



ieur — diphthong — i combined with 

eur as c.r in fur. 
in as an in sank, n mute. 
ion — diphthong — i combined with 

on as in monk, n mute. 



e — cel&bre, Sevres, Eve — as a in 

made. 
ed — pxed — as a in fate, d mute. 
el as ell in bell. 
em as an in wont, m mute. 
en — clients — as on in want, but ir as ere in here. 

n and ts are mute. ive. i as English e, w sounded. 

eat— oecupenty/orment — er*/ mute. mute. 
er—enfer — as ere in there. o as in not. 

et — cabarets — e as in wef, f.s mute, o — wefo — as in »<>. 
en as between u, alphabet, and u 6 as in no. 

of us. 
eur as ?<r uifur — broad. 
ez as a in fate, z mute. 
i as in city. 
idre, i as English e, dr sounded. 

e mute. 
ie as ee in bee. 
led — diphthong — i combined with one as (me in bone. 

ed : e as a mfate, d mute. or — Bordeaux— or as in fork. 

ier — diphthong — i combined with ore as ore. 

er : e as a in fate, r mute. oss — colosse — as in loss. 

iere — diphthong — i combined with 6t. 6 as in no, t mute. 

ere as ere in there. on as oo in ^oo. 

ieu — diphthong — i combined with une, a a*= in alphabet, n sounded, e 

eit, as between u, alphabet, and silent. 

u of us. 



ode as in mode. 

oir — <7/- of car, proceeded by w, 

war will give oir. 
ois — boisson — oi as in was. 

hard. 
omm as 07W in Tom, broad. 
on as on in monk, n mute. 



and 



55 



Observations. 

e (except in le, de, etc.), es (except in les, etc.), >j, », p 
er and cobo.retiers) s, t, is, x and z final are mute. 



r, and rsfin 



Vocabulary. 



a, prep. 

acteurs, com n. m 



Pi 
v. inf. 



to. 

actors, 

players. 



appartenir, n. v. inf. to belong 
mood. to. 

an. cont. art. rn. sing-, for to the. 
a le). 

auni6ne.com. n. fern. sing', alms. 

beaucoup, adv. much. 

Bel<jiquf\ prop n f< j m. Belgium. 

belie, qual. adj. fern. King nice. tine. 



boisson, com.n.fem. sing, drink. 
Bordeaux, prop. n. city of 

France. 
cabarets, com. n. mas.pl. tavern. 
cabaretiers, com.n. mas. tavern. 



Pi. 
celebre, qual. adj. both 

genders. 
eidre, com. n. m. sing. 
clients, com n. m. pi. 



keeper, 
celebrated. 

cider. 

clients, 

crstomerp. 



82 



French Speaker. 



colosse. com n. m. sing-, 
combats, com. n. m. pi. 

deposez, act. v. imp. m. 

inf. depose r. 
depot, com. n. m. sing 

dont, rel. pron. both gen- 
ders, refers to enfer. 

droit, com n. mas. sing. 

du, cont. art. m. sing (for 
de le). 

fable, com. n. fem. sing 

forment, act. v ind. m. 
pres. inf. former. 

France, prop, n. fem. 

generosiie, com n. fem. 
sing. 

horn me, com. n.mas.sing. 

ignore,act.v.subj.m. pres. 
inf. ignorer. 

lieu, com. n. mas. sing. 

mais. conj. 

monde, com. n. m. sing. 

Normandie, prop n.fem. 



occupent, act. v. ind. m. 
pres. inf. occuper. 

ont, aux. v. ind. m. pres. 
inf. avoir. 

ont eu lien, n. v. ind. 
m. pret. ind. inf. avoir- 
lieu. 

ordinaire, qual. adj.fem. 
sing, (both genders). 

ordre, com. n. m. sing. 

par, prep. 

pied, com. n. m. sing. 



colossus. 


plusieurs, det. md. adj 


several. 


battle, 
fight. 


both genders and plura 
porarae, com.n. fem. sing 


1. 

. apple. 


lay down, 


populations, com. n. 


popula- 


put down, 
warehouse 
depot 
whose, of 
which. 


•fem. pi. 
porcelaines, com. n f .pi 
pouvoir, com. n. m. sing 
premier, ord.adj.m.sing 
premiere, ord. adj. fem. 


tions. 

porcelains. 

power. 

first. 

first. 


right, 
of the. 


sing. 
prerogative, com. n.fem 


preroga- 




sing. 


tive. 


fable, 
form. 


P6, prop. n. mas. 
que, conj. 


river in 

Italy. 

than. 


France. 


rang, com. n. m. sing. 
Rhodes, prop. n. 


rank, 
island in 


generosity. 




Meditera- 
nean sea. 


man. 


Satan, prop. n. 


devil. 


does not 
know. 


semble, act. v. ind. m. 
pres. inf. sembler. 


seems. 


place. 

but 

world. 


serpent, com. n. m. sing. 
Sevres, prop. n. 


snake. 
French 
town. 


Norman- 


*son, pos. adj. mas. sing. 


his, her. 


dy, coun- 


sorte, com. n. fem. sing. 


sort, kind. 


try of 
France. 


suppots, com. n. m. pi. 


agents, in- 
struments. 


occupy. 


souverain, qual. adj. m. 


leading. 


have. 


Sing. 
sur, prep. 


on, upon. 


have taken 


tragedie, com. n. fem. 
trone, com. n. m. sing. 


tragedy, 
throne. 


place. 


un, det. adj. or card, mas 


one, a. 


ordinary. 


sing, 
une, det. or card, adj.fem. 


one, a. 


common. 


veto, com. n. — Latin. 


the right of 


order, 
by. 




stopping a 
bill. 


foot. 


vin, com. n. m. sing. 


wine. 



*Non, ton, sou, are used instead of ma, ta, sa (ray, thy, Ins, her), 
before feminine words (adj. or nouns), when these begin with a 
vowel or a mute h. 



French Speaker. 
o as in both. 



83 



When 6, with the circumflex accent is followed by te and 
tre final, it sounds as o in both : 



cote 


pronounce 


co te ; 


die as oat in boat. 


hilly coast. 










note 




" 


ho te ; 


do 


guest, landlord. 








apotre 




" 


a potre ; 


a as ah, 6 as in no, tr 


aj)ostle. 








sounded, e mute. 


notre 




" 


no tre ; 


das above, tr sounded, 


ours. 








e mute. 


votre 




« 


vo tre ; 


do. do. 


yours. 











o as in loss, in cost. 

When o is followed by s, this consonant preceeding- 
another s or another consonant, the vowel o has the sound 
as in loss, as in cost : 



costume pronounce cos tu me 

costume, dress. 



cosse 

pod, shell. 
ecossais 

schotch. 



pit, hole, grave. 
hostile 

adverse, hostile. 
mosquee 

mosque. 

nostalgie 

homesickness, 
nostalgia. 

ossements 
bones. 



cosse , 
e cossai ; 



hos tile; 
mos kee ; 

nos tal gie ; 
oss man ; 



cos as in cost, u as in 
alphabet, m sound- 
ed, e mute. 

osse as oss in loss, e 
mute. 

S as a in fate, oss as in 
loss, ai as a in made. 

osse as oss in loss, e 
mute. 

os as oss above, tile as 
till. 

mos as ?noss, e as a in 
fate, e final slightly 
accented. 

nos with os as oss in 
loss, al as in salva- 
tion, g soft as ; in bi- 
jou, le as ee in bee. 

oss as in loss, an as in 
want, n mute. 



84 



French Speaker. 



ostentation pronounce 
ostentation, show. 



os ten ta tion 



post ; 



os as oss above, en as 
an in wanton mute, a 
as ah, t in tion as s 
hard, i combined 
with on sounded as 
in monk, n mute. 

ost as in cost. 



poste " 

post, station. 

When there are two o's folio wing- one another in the body 
of words, they are sounded almost separately and each as o 

in not : 



alcool pronounce 


al co ol ; 


al as in alcohol, oo both 


alcohol. 




sounded as o m not, 
I sounded. 


coordonne " 


co or do ne ; 


all o's as o iu not, e as 


coordinated. 




a in fate. 


cooperation " 


co o pe ra tion 


; oo as above, e as a in 


cooperation. 




fate, a as ah, t as 5 
hard, i combined 
with on as in monk, 
n mute. 


zoologie " 


zoo lo gie ; 


all o's as in not, g soft 


zoology. 




as j in bijou, ie as ee 
in bee. 



00 ending" words sounds as o in no 

pronounce Wa ter loo ; 



Waterloo 

Waterloo. 
Venloo 

town in Holland 



Ven loo ; 



Wa as in was, er as ere 

in there, oo as o in no. 

en as in pen,oo as above. 



In all other cases, o is sounded as in mother, as in not 



abricot 

apricot. 

not re 

our. 

votre 

your. 

Droaot 



French general. 
idiot 

idiot. 



pronounce a bri c > 
" notre ; 

" votre ; 

Drou o ; 
i <li o ; 



pronounce 



a as ah, bri as in brick, 

o as in not. 
o as in not, tr sounded, 

e mute, 
do. do do. 

ou as oo in (oo, o as in 
not. 

i as English e, di with 
?! as in view, com- 
bined with o, as in 
not. 



French Speaker. 



85 



Herodote pronounc 
Greek historian. 

quolibet " 

low joke. 

sofa " 

sofa. 

OS 

bone. 



e rn dot ; 


A is mute, gas a \nfate, 




both </s as in not, t 




sounded. 


ko li bet ; 


o as in not, H as in lip, 




tict with 6 as in we/, 




< silent. 


so fa ; 


s hard, o as in not, a 




as a in cat. 


o ; 


as in ?io^. 



silent. 
o is silent in the following- words 

pronounce fan : 
" Ijan ; 



faon 

young deer. 

Laon 

city of France. 

paon 

peacock. 



pan 



an as in want, n mute, 
do. 
do 



READING XII— (LECTURE XII). 

L' homme pro-pose et Dieu dispose. Je-sus-Christ, bote 
du plia-ri-sien, dn pauvre et du le-preux, fut le pre-mier 
a-potre de la vraie ci-vi-li-sa-tion. L' e-glise Sainte-So-phie 
a. Cons-tan-ti-nople fnt chan-gee en 1 mos-quee par Ma-ho-met 
II. Dieu ay-ant fait la pre-raiere femme d' line cote du pre- 
mier homme, A-dam s ; e-veil-la et dit: " voi-la 2 1' os de mes 
os et la chair de ma chair." Paris a une rue qui porte le 
nom du ge-ne-ral Drou-ot. L' al-co-ol, qui a de bonnes pro- 
prie-tes, co-o-pere pour-tant a 1' a-nar-chie, et au mal-heur 
hu-main. II n'y a que 3 le sot e-go-iste qui ne res-pecte pas 
la con-vic-tion ou la re-li-gion d 5 au-trui : le me-pris de 1' o-pi- 
nion du pro-chain de-note une in-tel-li-gence e-troite. 

1 fut changee en : was changed to. 

2 voila : there is. 

3 II n' j a que : There is only. 



86 



French Speaker. 



Vocabulary of the Sounds. 

ien, i combined with en as an 
pharisien. 



m 



a as in exit, as ah. 

ai as ai in may. 

air as in fair. 

ain as aw in sank, n mute. 

am as om in want, m mute. 

an as an in want, n mute. 

ar — anarchie — as in farmer, but 

shorter. 
au as o in no. 
e as u in tub. 
e as a in fate. 

ee, e as a in fate, e slightly accented. 
ei — s' eveilla — ei as e in net, lla as 

2/a in yacht. 
el as e££ in bell. 

emme—femme — as in ram — broad. 
en as an in want, n mute. 
er— premier — i combined with er 

as a in fate, r mute. 
ere — coopere — as ere in there. 
es — mes — e as in net, s mute. 
et — (conjunction) — e as a in J ate, t 

mute. 
et — Mahomet — e as in net with t 

silent. 
eur as ur in fur, broad. 
i as in city. 
ie as ee in bee. 
ie — proprietes — i combined with 

e as a in fate. 
ier, combination as in premier 

above. 
iere, £ combined with ere as ere in 
there. 

Observations. 

The following letters ending words are mute: 
in nom), n, r (r in premier), s, (st in Christ) t 
in mes, where e sounds as in net, and s is mute. 

e in the word et is sounded as a in fate, and /" is mute. 

e final in vraie, cliangee, mosquee, is slightly accented ; in rue, this 
vowel sounds as in hoe, or as w final in English. 

II after Mahomet is pronounced deux : en as between n, alphabet, 
and u of us ; x is silent. 



sank, n rnute- 
ieu — Dieu — i combined with en as 

between u, alphabet, and u of us. 
ion, i combined with on as in 

monk, n mute. 
is — dispose — ego'iste — as iss in 

miss. 
ist — Tesus- Christ — st mute and i 

as in city. 
o as in not. 
oo—alcool, coopere — o repeated, as 

o in not. 
o in in as om in Tom — broad. 
on as on in monk, n mute. 
ople — Constantinople — * as in not, 

pi sounded, e mute. 
os — mosquee — os as'in moss. 
os — os — o as in not, s silent. 
ore as ore. 
ote with o as o in both, t sounded, 

c mute. 
otre with o as o in both, tr sounded, 

e mute. 
ou as oo in too. 
our as oor in poor. 
u as in the alphabet. 
ue, u as in the alphabet but deeper, 

e as w final in English. 
ui as we. 
y as English e. 



e, m (min Adam and 
and x ; and es except 



French Speaker. 



87 



Vocabulary. 



a, aux. v. ind. m. pres. inf. 

ayoir. 
a, prep. 
Adam, prop n. 



alcool, com. n. m. s. 

anarchie, com. n. f. s. 

apotre, com. n. m. s. 

autrui, ind. pron. s. de- 
signs (both genders). 

bonnes, qual. adj. f. pi. 

chair, com. n. f. s. 

changee (fut), pas. v. 
pret. def. inf. etre- 
change. 

civilisation, com. n. f. s. 

Constantinople, prop.n. 
conviction, com. n. f. s. 



coopere, n. v. ind. m. 
pres. inf. cooperer. 

cote, com. n. f. s. 

denote, act. v. ind. m. 
pres. inf. denoter. 

Dieu, prop. n. m. s. 

dispose, act. and n. v. 
ind. m. pres. inf. dis- 
poser. 

dit,act.v. ind. m. pret. def. 
inf. dire. 



has. 



to. 

Adam, our 

first 

father. 

alcohol. 

anarchy. 

apostle. 

neighbor, 

others. 

good. 

flesh. 

was 

changed. 



tion. 

capital of 
Turkey, 
convic- 
tion, inti- 
mate idea, 
co-ope- 
rates, 
rib. 
shows. 



God. 
disposes. 



said. 



Drouot, prop. n. 




French 
general, 
first em- 
pire. 


eglise, com. n. f. s. 




church. 


egoiste, qual. adj. s 




selfish. 


(both gendei's). 
etroite, qual. adj. f 


s. 


narrow. 


eveilla (s'), pron. v. 


pret. 


he awoke 


def. inf. s' eveiller. 





femme, com. n. f. s. 


woman. 


fiit, aux. v pret. def. inf. 


was. 


etre. 




general, com. n m s. 


general. 


nomine, com n. m. s. 


man. 


note, com. n m s. 


guest. 


humain, qual. adj m. s. 


human. 


intelligence, com n. f. s 


intelli- 




gence. 


Jesus-Christ, prop. n. 


Jesus 




Christ. 


lepreux, com. n. m. s. 


leprous. 


ma, pos. adj. f. s. 


my. 


Mahomet II, prop. n. 


Turkish 




emperor. 


malheur, com. n. m. s. 


misfor- 




tune. 


mepris, com. n. m. s. 


contempt. 


mes, pos. adj. pi. (bo h 


my. 


genders). 




mosquee, com. n. f. s. 


mosque. 


opinion, com. n. f. s. 


opinion. 


os, com. n. m. pi. or s. 


bone. 


ou, conj. 


or. 


par, prep. 


by. 


pauvre, com. n. s. (both 


poor. 


genders). 




pharisien, com. n. m. s. 


Pharisee. 


porte, com. n. f. s. 


door. 


pourtant, adv. 


neverthe- 




less. 


proprietes, com. n. f. pi. 


proprie- 




ties. 


propose, act. v. ind. m. 


proposes. 


pres. inf, proposer. 




prochain, com. n. m. s. 


neighbor, 




others. 


que, conj. 


than. 


qui, rel. pron. both gen- 


who, 


ders, refers to alcool. 


which. 


religion, com n. f. s. 


religion. 


respect, com. n. m. s. 


respect. 


rue, com. n. f. s. 


street. 



F rend i Speaker 



Saints-Sophie, prop 



Ste Sophia, 
mosque in 
Constanti- 
nople. 



sot, com. n. m. s. dolt, fool, 

vraie, qual. adj. f . s. true. 

y, adv. there. 



U. 
Remark and Theory. 

This vowel has not an equivalent sound in English, but 
by placing- the lips as if about to whistle, and the tongue 
close to the lower teeth, leaving the aperture very small, 
then trying to utter u as in circus, the sound produced will 
come from the extremity of the mouth and is the French 
sound of u. 

Many people pronounce u as if it was a diphthong com- 
bined with i, and form therefore a liquid sound — U must be 
sounded dry without the introduction of any liquid sound. 

U has only one sound, the result of the theory above : 



du 
of the. 
je fus 

I was. 

tu recus 

thou receivedst. 

illut 

he read. 

institution 

institution. 



humanity 

humanity. 

punir 

to punish. 



pronounce 



du 



je 2 fu 



H\x 2 reQu 



ill 



1I1S t| tu tion 



hn ma 



pu 1111* 



u as given. 

l j soft as in bijou, e 
as u in tub. 2 do. 
klo. 2 e as u in tub, 

c as s hard, u as above. 
HI as ill ; %u as above. 

in as an in sank-,n mute, 
s sounded hard, ti 
as in tip, u as above, 
tion with t as s hard,?, 
combined with on as 
in monk, n mute. 

h mute, u as given, a 
as ah, i as in nip, e as 
a in fate. 

u as given, ir as ere in 
here. 



But the sound of u is deeper when it is followed by be, 
de, e, se, r, re and ve final, and when it has the circumflex 
accent : 



French Speaker 



89 



tube pronounce 


tub ; 


u as given in the rule, f> 


pipe, tube. 






sounded. 


multitude 


n 


multi tude; 


mul with u as in alpha- 


multiiude. 






bet, ti as in tip, tude 
with u as in the rule, 
(I sounded, c mute. 


tortue 


" 


tortue ; 


tor with or as in /or A, u 


turtle. 






as given, e sounded as 
in hoe, or as w final 
in English. 


confuse 


" 


confute ; 


on as in monk, n mute, 


con/used. 






u as given, z sounded, 
e mute. 


Vesuve 


" 


Ve su ve ; 


e as a in fate, s as z,u as 


Vesuvius. 






given, v sounded, e 
mute. 


flute 


" 


flute ; 


it as given, / sounded, 


flute. 






e mute. 


sur 


a 


sur ; 


u as given in the rule, 


on, upon, so u 


r, acid. 




r rolled. 


dure 


" 


dur ; 


u do., r do. 


hard, cruel. 









But u. having the circumflex accent in the conjugation of 
verbs, keeps the sound, resulting from the theory given for 
the pronunciation of u : 



nous fumes 
we were. 
vous f utes 

that he might perceive. 

du 

owed. 



mou 2 fum ; x ou as oo in too ; ^u as 

given, m sounded. 
!vou 2 f tit ; Wit as oo in too : 2 ii as 
u above, t sounded. 
du ; u as given. 



For nasal sounds formed with u, nm, un, see Second Part, 
page 199, and also for u followed by m and n preceding e. 



In most cases u is silent after g and q 
pronounce brik ; 

critik ; 

frekan te : 



brique 

brick. 
critique 

critical, criticism. 
frequenter 

to frequent. 



as in English, 
as in English. 



both e's as a in fate, an 
as in want, n mate. 



90 



French Speaker. 



question pronounce kes tiou 

question. 



quart " 


kar ; 


quarter, fourth. 




quarante " 


ka rant ; 


forty. 




quantite " 


kan ti te ; 


quantity. 




quatre " 


ka tr ; 


four. 




quinze " 


kin ze ; 


fifteen. 




consequence " 


con se kance 


consequence. 





Ague 

fig- 

prodigue 

prodigal. 

fatigue 

fatigue. 

intrigue 

intrigue. 

Guillaume 

William. 



guillemet 

sign for quotation. 



fig; 
prodig ; 

fa tig ; 
in trig ; 
Gi yaume ; 

gi ye met ; 



es as in esteem, t as t, 
i combined with on 
as in monk, n silent. 

as car . 

ka as ca in cat, an as 

in want, n mute, t 

sounded. 
an as in want, n mute, 

ti as in tip, e as a in 

fate, 
a as ah, tr sounded. 

in as an in sank, n 
mute, z sounded, e 
mute. 

on as in monk,n mute, 
s hard, & as a in fate, 
an as in want, n 
mute, c as s hard, e 
mute. 

as in English, but 
with i as English e. 

idem, but with ig as 
in fig above. 

fa as in fat, ig as 
above. 

in as an in sank, n 
mute, ig as above. 

gi as in gig, y as in 
yard, combined 
with au as o in no, 
m sounded, c mute. 

gi as above, ye as in 
eye, combined with 
met,\\hose e sounds 
as in net and t is 
mute. 



Exception — u is sounded in the following- words after q 
and after g and when this vowel has the diaeresis : 



Speaker, 



91 



equateur 
' o r. 



equation 

equation. 



pronounce e kwa teur 



e kwa t ion 



quia 

for (Lat). 
quadrupede 
■footed. 



quoi 

quinto 

in Jifth order (Lat). 

Quirinal 

Quirin al. 



quarto 

in fo a rth o rder ( Lat) . 



qumquagenaire 
quinquagenarian. 



kwi a : 

kwa dm pe d 

kwa : 
kwin to : 
( t »wi ri nal : 



kwar to : 



kwin kwa ge zim 



quatuor 

quartet. 

quartz 

quartz. 



kwa tu or 



quartz 



i as a m /ate, 
wa as in 
ettr as ur in 

/'"'.//• broad. 

£ fcwa with "■'( 
as in wa 
above, t as * 
hard. ion with 
i combined 
with o;i as in 
monk, n mnte. 

kwi a> gut in 
quick, a as ah. 

wa as in was, m 
u as in alpha- 
bet, g as a. in 
m a d e . d 
sounded. 

wa as in was. 

wvn as mjmi . " as 

in no. 
Qui as grtti in 

quick, having 
tas English e, 
ri as in rip, 
o2 as in salva- 
tion. 

war "with ar as 
in bar, bni 
shorter. •• as 
in no. 

win with in as 
an in sank, n 
mute, ira as 
in u; a*, 
soft as j in W- 
.. •' as a in 
/aie, zim with 
£m as in him. 

wa as in vox, 
u as in alpha- 
bet, or as ore. 

as in English. 



92 



quassia 

quassia. 



quantum 

quantum. 

quaker 
quaker. 
quadruple 

quadrtiple. 



arguer 

to argue. 



aigue 

acute. 



cigue 

hemlock. 



French Speaker. 
pronounce kwa zi mo do 



" kwas sia ; 

" kwa a turn ; 

" kwa ker ; 

" kwa drupl 

pronounce ar gu e : 



Quasimodo pronounce jtwa zi mo ao ; wa as n 

Quasimodo. zi with i as in 

city, first o as 
in mother, o fi- 
nal as in no. 

was as was, s 
hard, % com- 
bined with a, 
as ah. 

wa?i as in want, 
n sounded, 
turn as Tom. 

wa as in tvas, 
ker as care. 

wa as above, u 
as in the al- 
pha bet, pi 
sounded. 

ar as in argu- 
ment, u as 
above, e as a 
in fate, (g is 
sounded as in 
game). 
ai gu w ; ai as ay in may, 

g as in game, 
u as above, w 
sounded as in 
English. 
ci gu w ; ci as in city, gu 

and w as above. 

The words in which u is sounded after q and after </, 
which are not mentioned above, are not often used. 

When u precedes m final, the combination um sounds as 
om in Tom, as um in rum : 

Forum pronounce Fo rum ; 

place in Rome. 

aquarium " a kwa rium 

aquarium. 



For as for, um as given. 



delirium 

delirium. 



de li rium ; 



both a's as in cat, the rest 
as given. Observe the 
diphthong. 

6 as a in fate, i as En- 
glish e, the rest as given 
above. 



French Speaker. 93 

READING- XIII (LECTURE XIII). 

La mul-ti-tude des lois et la Jon-gueur des pro-ce-dures 
sont les causes de la len-teur de la jus-tice. La tor-tue pour- 
rait etre ap-pe-lee le sym-bole de la len-teur. line bonne 
u-nion re-sume le seul par-fait bon-heur sur la terre. Les 
e-rup-tions du Ye-suve furent, de-puis l'ere chre-tienne, la 
cause de grands de-sastres. La Pro-vi-dence vous don-ne-ra 
tou-jours votre du si les liommes vous le re-fusent. J Charles- 
Quint f ut em-pe-reur en quinze cent-dix-neuf ; il ab-di-qua en 
fa-veur de son fils et mou-rut an mo-nas-tere de Saint-Just en 
quinze cent cin-quante liuit. L' intrigue est sou- vent le 
voile de la ruse. Le quas-sia est un ex-cel-lent to-nique. Le 
lau-da-num est un coin-po-se d' opium ; il calme les dou- 
leurs, mais il de-vient un poi-son violent si Ton en a-buse. 2 

Vocabulary of the Sounds. 

a as a in cat, as ah. etre, e as a in made, tr sounded, 

ai as ay in may. e mute. 

ain as an in sank, n mute. euf, eu as u in tub, f sounded. 

al as in salvation. eul, eu as u in tub, I sounded. 

an as in want, n mute. eur as ur in fur, broad. 

ar — par/ait — Charles — shorter ex, as in English. 

than in bar. i as in city. 

as — desastres — monastere — quas- ia — quassia — i combined with a 

sia — as as. as ah. 

an as o in no. ient — devient — i combined with 
e as u in tub. en as an in sank, n( silent. 

e as a in fate, ieiine — cliretienne — i as in view, 
ee, e as a in fate, e slightly combined with enne as enn in 

accented. Penn. 

el as ell in bell. iffue, i as English e, <j as in big, 
en as an in want, n mute. ue silent. 

ent— furent — refusent — ent silent, il as ill. 

ere as ere in there. Us— fils — i as in city, I mute, s 
erre as ere in there. sounded — as fis \nfist. 

est, e as in net, st mute. in as an in sank, n mute. 

isi les hommes vous le refusent : if men refuse it to you. 
2 si 1' on en abuse : if one abuses of it. 



94 



French Speaker 



io — violent — i combined with o as 

in not. 
ion, i combined with on as. in 

monk, n silent, 
ium, i combined with um SQunde<l 

as in rum. 
ix — dix — i as English e, x as z. 
o as in not. 
oi as wa in was. 
ole — symbol e — as oil in doll. 
on as in monk, n mute. 
on — bonheur — as English on. 
onn as English on. 
or— tortue — as in ore but shorter. 
ou as oo in too. 
our as oor in poor. 
suve ; s as 0, n as in alphabet, •<> 

sounded, e mute. 
u as in the alphabet. 



u — du — as in the alphabet. 

ue, u deeper than in alphabet, e 
as w final. 

ude, u deeper than in alphabet, d 
sounded, e mute. 

ui as rve — depuis. 

uit as wit — huit. 

ul, u as in alphabet, I sounded. 

um. as in ram. 

ur, n deeper than in the alphabet, 
r rolled. 

ure as above, with e mute. 

use, u deeper than in alphabet, * 
sounded as z, c mute. 

ust — Saint-Just — u as in alphabet, 
st sounded. 

ym as an in sank, m mute — sym- 
bol. 



Observations. 

The following letters ending words are mute : e (except in de, le, 
etc.), es (except in les, etc.), ds, I (in Jils), n, s and t. 
e final in appelee is slightly accented. 
huit has its h mute and uit is sounded as wit. 
x in dix is sounded as z, and i as English e. 
Ch in Charles as English sh. 
u in quassia is sounded. 
u is mute in Quint. 



Vocabulary. 



abdiqua, act. v: pret.de f. 

inf. abdiquer. 
abuse, act. and n. v. ind. 

m. pres. inf. abuser, 
appelee (etre), pas. v. 

inf. mood. 
bonheur, com. n m.sing, 
calme, com. n. m. sing-. 
cause, com. n. fern. s. 
Charles Quint, prop. n. 

cent, num. card adj. 



abdicated. 

abuses 

to be 

called. 

happiness 

calm. 

cause. 

Charles the 

fifth. 

hundred. 



cmquante, num. card, fifty. 

adj. 
chret'enne, qual. adj. Christian. 

fem. sing, 
compose, past. part. inf. composed. 

composer, 
des, cont. art. (for de les). of the. 
desastres, com. n. m. pi. disasters. 
devient, act. v. ind. m. becomes. 

pres. inf. devenir. 
depuis, adv. since. 

dix. num. card. adj. ten. 



French Speaker. 



95 



donnera, act. v. future 

inf. donner. 
douleurs, com. u. fem.pl. 
du, com. n. m. and past. 

part. inf. devoir. 
cmpereur,com.n m siug. 
en, prep. 

en, pers. pron. (ind. object). 
eruptions, com.n.fem.pl. 
est, aux. v. ind. pres. inf. 

etre 
ere, com. n. fern. sing. 
excellent, qual. adj. m. 

sing. 
faveur, com. n. fem.sing. 
furent, aux. v. pret. def. 

inf. etre. 
fut, aux. v. pret. def. inf. 

etre. 
grands, qual. adj m. pi. 
hommes, com. n. m. pi. 
il,pers.pron.3d pers.sing.m. 
intrigue, com. n. fem. 

sing. 
justice, com. n. fem. sing. 
laudanum, com. n. m. 

sing. 
lenteur, com. n.fem sing. 
longueur, com. n. fem. 

sing. 
mais, conj. 

monastere, com. n. m. s. 
mourut, n. v. pret. def. 

inf. mourir. 
multitude, com. n. f. s. 
neuf, num. card. adj. 
ou, conj. 



will give. 

pains, 
owed. 

emperor, 
in. 

of it. 
eruptions. 

is. 

era. 
excellent. 

favour, 
were 



great. 

men. 

he. 

plot,scrape 

intrigue. 

justice. 

laudanum. 

slowness, 
length. 

but. 

monastery. 

died. 

multitude. 

nine. 

or. 



opinion, com. n. f. s, 
parfait, qual. adj. m. s. 
poison, com. n. m. s. 
pourrait, act. v. cond. m. 

pr. inf. pouvoir. 
procedures, com. n. f. pi. 

Providence, prop. u. f. 

quassia, com. n. m. s. 
quinze, num. card. adj. 
refusent, act. v. ind. m. 

pres. inf. refuser, 
resume, act. v. iud. m. 

pres. inf. resumer. 
ruse ; com. n. f. s. 

Saint- Just, prop. n. 

seul, qual. adj. m.s. 

si, conj. 

son, pos. adj. m. s. 

sont, aux. v. ind. m. pres. 

inf. etre. 
souvent, adv. 
sur, prep. 

symbole, com. n. m. s. 
tonique, com. n. m. s. 
toujours, adv. 
tortue, com. n. f. s. 
union, com. n. f. s. 
Vesuve prop. n. m. 
violent, qual. adj. m. s. 
voile, com. n. m. s. 
votre, pos. adj. s. (both 

genders). 
vons, pers. pron. 2d p. pi. 



opinion, 
perfect, 
poison, 
could be. 

proceed- 
ings. 
Provi. 
dence. 
quassia, 
fifteen, 
refuse. 

sums up. 

deceit, ar- 
tifice. 
Saint- Just, 
alone, 
if. 

his, her. 
are. 

often. 

on, upon. 

symbol. 

tonic. 

always. 

turtle. 

union. 

Vesuvius. 

violent. 

veil. 

your. 

you. 



The general sound of y is as the English e or French i : 

y pronounce e ; as in English. 
there, to it. 



96 



French Speaker. 



y has this sound when, in beginning- words, it is followed 
by a consonant : 
Yvetot pronounce Yvto; Y as English e, v 

French town. sounded, o as in not. 

Ypres " Ypr; Y as English e, pr 

Belgian town. sounded. 

y has the same sound when it follows h or st beginning- 
words, or when, after any other consonant, it is followed by 

/e, re, se : 



hydrophobic pi 


•onounce 


e dro fo bie ; 


e as in English, both 


hydrophobia. 






o's as in not, ie as ee 
in bee. 


style 


a 


steel ; 


ee as English e. 


style. 








lyre 


.1 


leer ; 


eer as ere in here. 


lyra. 








martyr 


a 


marteer ; 


mar asin Martha, teer 


martyr. 






with eer as above. 


Satyre 


a 


Sa teer ; 


s hard, a asin cat, eer 


Satyr. 






as above. 


Cambyse 


<( 


Cam beeze , 


am as an in want, m 


King of Persia. 






mute, eeze as in 



/reeze. 

?/ sounds combined as in yard when it is followed by a 
vcwel : 

a as ah, k sounded. 



y combined with cic as 
between ic, alphabet, 
and a of us. 

as in English. 



As as as, ty as ^' in tip, 
y com bined with a as 
in Z«(i, (7 soft, e mute. 

y as i in city combined 
with on as in ?7ionk, 
n mute. 

When y is placed between two consonants, other than m 
aid n, it sounds as i in city ; and when it is followed by me, 



yacht pronounce 
y acht. 


yak ; 


yeux " 


ycu ; 


eyes. 




York 


York ; 


ci73/ of Pennsylvania 




and of England. 




Astyage " 


As ty age 


Asty age, 




King of Media. 




Lyon " 


Lyon ; 


city of France. 





French Speaker. 



97 



thus forming- yme, this combination yme is sounded as im 
in him. — See nasal sounds formed with y, Second Part, 
pag-e 179. 

When y is placed between a consonant and an n followed 
by a vowel, it has also the sound of i in city : 



cyclone pronounce 


ci clone 


ci as in city, one as in 


cyclone. 




bone. 


cynique " 


ci nik ; 


ci as in city, nik as 


cynic. 




nick. 


mythologie " 


mi to lo gie ; 


mitolo as in English, 


mythology . 




g soft,t'e as ee in bee. 


myosotis " 


mi o zo tiss ; 


mi as in mithology, 


myosotis. 




both o's as in not, iss 
as in miss. 


type " 


tip ; 


as in English. 


type. 






tyran " 


ti ran ; 


i as in city, an as in 


tyran. 




want, n mute. 


sy steme " 


sis tern ; 


sis as in sister, em 


system. 




sounding the conso- 
nant m. 


sybarite " 


si ba rit ; 


si as ci in city, a as in 


sybarite. 




cat, rit as rit in 
ritual. 


homonyme " 


o mo nime ; 


both o's as in not, ime 


homonymous. 




as im in him. 


synonyme " 


si no nime ; 


si as ci in city, o as in 


synonymous . 




not, ime as above. 



y between two vowels is equivalent to two i's, and the 
vowel before y and the one following- it, form sound as if they 
were each accompanied by i : 



pays 

country. 
royaume 

kingdom. 

royal 

royal. 



pronounce pai 1 ; 



roi mum 



roi ial 



a% as ay in may, i as 
in city. 

oi as wa in was, i com- 
bined with aum as 
ome in home. 

roi as above, i com- 
bined with al as in 
salvation. 



98 



French Speaker. 



moyen pronounce raoi ien ; 

means, way, 

medium. 

appuyer " a pul ie ; 

to support, to lean. 



Je voyais 

I saw. 



il essaya 

he tried. 



paysan 

countryman. 



ye 2 voi iais 



41 2 es sai ia 



pai 1 zan 



ox as wa in was, % com- 
bined with en as an 
in sank, n mute. 
a as ah, ui as ivi in wit, 
i combined with e" 
sounded as a in fate. 

y soft as in bijou, e as 
u in tub ; 2 oi as wa 
in was, i combined 
with ais, as a in 
made, s silent. 

HI as ill, 2 es as ess in 
less, sai as say, i 
combined with a 
as a h. 

pai as pay, » as in city, 
an as an in want, n 
mute. 



as i 



But sometimes ?/, although between two vowels, is sounded 
single forming- a diphthong with the following vowel. 



It occurs only after the vowel a and in a few words as 



Cayenne pronounce Ca yenne ; 

French possession. 



Mayence 

Mayence. 

mayonnaise 

mayonnaise. 



fayence 

earthenware. 

payen 

pagan. 
Bayeux 

French town. 

Bayonne 

French toivn. 



Ma yence ; 
ma yonaize 

fa yence ; 

pa yen ; 
Ba yeux ; 

Ba yonne ; 



a as in cat, y as said, 

enne sounding the 

consonant n. 
a as above, en as an in 

want, n mute, c as s 

hard, e mute. 
a as above, yo with o 

as in not, ai as in 

nail, z sounded, e 

mute. 
a do., en as an in want, 

n mute, c as s hard, 

e mute. 
a do., en as an in sank, 

n mute. 
a do., en as between 

French u and u in 

m.5, a; mute. 
rt do., onne as cm<? in 

6o?te. 



French Speaker. 99 

But when y preceded by a is followed by an e final and 

consequently mute, the combination ay is sounded as ay in 

may, and the e final is only slightly accented, as it is in see : 

La Haye pronounce La Haye ; a as ah, H aspirate, ay 

capital of Holland. as in may, e slightly 

accented. 
Biscaye " Bis kaye ; is as is, ay and e as 

country in /Spain. above. 

READING XIV— (LECTURE XIV). 

La bon-ho-mie des rois d' Yve-tot est pro-ver-biale. L' hy- 
dro-pho-bie est a pre-sent 1 gue-rie dans les "Ins-ti-tuts 
Pas-teur." L' arme fa-vo-rite des Es-pa-gnols est le sty-let. 
II y a au-tant de Sy-ba-rites de nos jours 2 que du temps des 
Grecs. Le type cir-cas-sien est le plus beau entre les races hu- 
maines. Le moy-en d' etre heu-reux, c' est d' etre un ci-toy-en 
ver-tu-eux. Ne-ron, char-ge de tous les crimes, voy-ait tout 
en noir. Louis XVI, fuy-ant la f u-reur du peuple, fut ar-re-te 
a Vin-cennes, et ce noble et roy-al pri-son-nier ne sor-tit de 
sa pri-son du Temple que pour etre mar-ty-ri-se a la rage 
ex-al-tee 3 d' une po-pu-lace en de-lire. Le jam-bon de Ma- 
yence a un fu-met ex-quis. 

Vocabulary of the Sounds. 

a, as in. cat, as ah. ar — arme, martyrise, charge — as 

ace — race— populace — as ass. in oar, but shorter. 

ai as ai in nail, as ay in may. as — Pasteur — as ass. 

aine, ai as above, n sounded, e au as o in no. 

mute. e as u in tub. 

age — rage — a as in lad, g soft, e e as a in fate. 

mute. eau as o in no. 

al as in salvation. ee,eas a in fate, e slightly accented. 

am, an as an in want, m and n ec — Grecs — s as in net, c as k, s 

mute. mute. 

1 apresent : now, at present. 

2 II y a autant de Sybarites de nos jours que : There are as much 
of Sybarites now as. 

3 a la rage exaltee d 1 une populace en delire : to satisfy the rage of 
a mad populace. 



100 



French Speaker. 



em as an in want, m mute. 

enn — Vincennes — as in Penn. 

en — Mayence, entre — as an in 
want, n mute. 

en — moyen, citoyen — as an in 
sank, n mute. 

er—pr over Male, vertueux — shor- 
ter than ere in there. 

es — les — e as in net, s mute. 

es — Espagnols — es as ess in less. 

et — stylet, fumet — e as in net, t 
mute. 

etre, e as a in made, tr sounded, e 
mute. 

eu — heureux, vertueux — eu as be- 
tween u, alphabet, and u of us. 

eu — peuple — eu as u in tub. 

eur as ur in fur — broad. 

ex — exquis — as eks. 

i as in city. 

i — prisonnier, prison — as En- 
glish e. 

iale, i combined with al as in sal- 
vation, e mute. 

ie as ee in bee. 

ill as ill. 

im — crimes — as im in him, es mute. 

in — instituts — as an in sank, n 
mute, s sounded. 



ir — Circassien — as in virulent, c as 

s in sea. 
ire — delire — as ere in here.' 

as in not. 
oble as in noble. 
oi as wa in ivas. 

oir as ar in car, with w before ar. 

01 as oil in doll. 

on as in monk, n mute. 

on — bonhomie — as English on 

being before a mute h. 
oim as English on. 
ou as oo in too. 
our as oor in poor. 
oy in voyait, as wa in was. 
u as in the alphabet. 
ui — exquis — u mute, and i as in 

city pronounced with q as k, s 

mute. 
um as um in rum. 
un as in hunter, n mute. 
Yv, y as English e, v sounded. 
hyd, h mute, y as above. 
sty, y as above. 
sy, as ci in city. 
type as tip. 
martyr, y as English e,r sounded, 

or yr as ere in here. 



Observations. 



The following letters ending words are mute : e (except in le, de, 
etc.,) es (except in des, est, etc.,) Is, n, r, s, i, ts, x — r is mute only 
in prisonnier. 

e final in exaltee is slightly accented, and also in all words ending 
with ee. 

XVI after Louis is pronounced seize : ei as ay in may, z sounded, e 
mute. 



French Speaker 



101 



Vocabulary. 



a, aux. v. ind. ni. pres.inf. 

avoir, 
a, prer. 

a present, adv. locution. 
arme, com. n. fern. sing. 

arrete, past. part. m. inf. 

arreter. 
autant, adv. 
beau, qual. adj. m. s. 

bonhomie, com. n. f. s. 



ce, det adj. m. s. 
circassien, qual. adj. 

mas. sing. 
citoyen, com. n. m. s. 
charge, past. part. m. inf. 

charger. 
crimes, com. n. m. pi. 
dans, prep. 
d' for (de), prep. 
de, prep. 

delire, com. n. m. s. 
des, cont. art. (for de 

les). 
en, prep. 
entre, prep. 
Espagnols, prop . n . m . pi 
est, aiix. v. ind. m. pres. 

inf. etre. 
etre, aux. v. inf. mood. 
exaltee, past, part f . inf. 

exalter. 
exquis, qual. adj. m. s. 
favorite, qual. adj. f. s. 
fumet, com. n. m. s. 
fureur, com. n. f. s. 
fut arrete, pas. v. pret. 

def. inf. etre arrete. 



has. 

to. 

now. 

arm, 

weapon. 

arrested. 

as much, 
fine, nice, 
pretty, 
good na- 
ture, sim- 
plicity, 
that, this. 
Circassian. 

citizen, 
loaded. 

crimes. 

in, into. 

of. 

of. 

delirium. 

of the. 

in, into, 
among. 
Spaniards. 

is. 

to be. 
excited. 

exquisite. 

favourite. 

flavor. 

fury. 

was 

arrested . 



fiiyant, pres. part. inf. 

fuir. 
Grecs, prop. n. m. pi. 
guerie, qual. adj. or fern. 

past part. inf. guerir. 
humaine, qual. adj. f. s. 
hydrophobic com. n. 

fem. sing. 
il, pers. pron. m. s. 3d pers. 
instituts, com. n. m. pi. 
jours, com. n. m. pi. 
jambon, com. n. m. s. 
la, art. fem. sing. 
1' (for le or la), art. s. 
le, art. m. sing. 
les, art. pi., both genders. 
Louis XVI, prop. n. 

martyrise, (fut) pas. v. 

pret. ind. inf. etre 

martyrise. 
Mayence, prop. n. 

moyen, com. n. m. s. 
ne, adv. 
Neron, prop. n. 
noir, qual. adj. m. s. 
nos, pos. adj.pl. both gen- 
ders. 
Pasteur, prop. n. 



peuple, com. n. m. s. 
plus (le), adv. 
populace, com. n. f. s. 
pour, prep. 
prison, com. n. f . s. 
prisonnier, com. n. m. i 
proverbiale, qual. adj. 

fem. sing. 
que, conj. 



flying 
away. 
Greeks, 
cured. 

human, 
hydro- 
phoby. 
he. 

institutes. 
days, 
ham. 
the. 
the. 
the. 
the. 

Louis the 
Sixteenth, 
has suffer- 
ed the mar- 
tyrdom, 
city in 
Germany, 
means, 
not. 
Isero. 
black, 
our. 

celebrated 
French 
chemist, 
people, 
the most, 
populace, 
for. 
prison, 
prisoner, 
prover- 
bial, 
than. 



102 

races, com. n. fern. pi. 
rage, com. n. fem. sing-. 



French Speaker. 



races. 

madness, 

rage. 

kings. 

royal. 

her. 



rois, com. n. m. pi. 

royal, qual. adj. m s. 

sa, pos. adj. fem sing. 

sortit, n. v. pret. def. inf. gone out. 

sortir. 
Sybarites, prop. n. m. pi. Sybarites. 
stylet, com. n. m. s. stiletto. 

Temple, prop. n. m. s. Temple, 
tower in 
Paris. 



tous, det. adj. m. pi. 
tout, ind. pron. m. s. 

type, com. n. m. s. 
un, num. card. adj. m. 
une, num. card. adj. f. 
vertueux, qual. adj. m. 

both numbers. 
voyait, act. v. ind. m. 

imp. inf. voir. 
Yvetot, prop. n. 



all. 

every- 
thing, 
type, 
one, a. 
one, a. 
virtuous. 

was seeing. 

French 
town. 



FRENCH SPEAKER. 



HOW TO PEONOUNCE, HOW TO BEAD. 



SECOND PART. 



COMPOUND VOWELS AND COMBINATION'S. 

ai, ay, ei, ey. 

These com pound vowels are sounded as ai in nail, as ay 
in pay, as a in made : 
je plais pronounce \je 2 plai 
I please. 



x j soft as in bijou, e as u in 
tub, Zplai as play. 



il fait 


a 


iil 2fai ; 


HI as ill, *ai as ay \npay. 


he makes. 








Bombay 


a 


Bom bay ; 


orn as on in monk m mute, 


city in English 




&«?/ as English 6ay. 


India. 








reine 


a 


reine ; 


ei as a in made, n sounded, 


queen. 






e final mute. 


treize 


" 


treize ; 


ei as above, z sounded, e 


thirteen. 






final mute. 


seize 


" 


saize ; 


ai as a in made, z and e as 


sixteen. 






above. 


bey 


" 


bay; 


as English bay. 


&33f. 








Ney 


" 


Nay; 


ay as above. 


marshal of France. 







Observation — ai, last syllable of the conjugation of four 
persons of the imperfect tense, indicative mood, and of the 
conditional present, sounds as ai in said : 
j' etais pronounce je tai : j soft, e as a in fate, 

I was. ai as a in made. 

il aurait " x il 2 au rai ; HI as iM, 2 au as o in 

Ae should have. no, ai as a in made. 

(103) 



104 



French Speaker. 



tu donnais pronounce x tu 2 do nai ; 

thou wast giving. 



ils fmiraient 

they should finish. 



HI 2 fl ni rai 



1 w as in the alphabet, 
2 o as in not, ai as a 

in made. 
x il as ill, both t's as 

in city, ai as a in 

made. 



LINKING CONSONANTS. 



To be Observed in Reading. 



Ending d, f g, n, r, s, t, x, z, are generally pronounced loiili 
the first syllable of the following word, when that syllable 
with a vowel or a mute h : 



pronounce 



Le second empire 

The second empire. 

Du vif argent 

Some quicksilver. 

Un sang impur 

An impure blood. 

Mon ami fidele 

My faithful friend. 

Le premier homme 

The first man. 

Nous avons froid 

We are cold. 

Les enfants jouent 

The children are playing. 

II fait agreable ici 

This place is agreeable. 

Tin garcon doux et aimable 

A gentle and amiable boy. 

Yous avez eu tort 

You were wrong. 

Then, the consonants above are to be linked d as t, f as v, g as k, n 

s n, r as r, s as z, t as t, x as z, z as z. 



Le segon tempire. 

Du vi vargen. 

Un san kimpure. 

Mon nami fidele. 

Le premie rom (as in Tom, 

broad). 
Nou zavon froi. 

Les zenfan jouw. 

II fai tagreable. 

Un garcon dou ze" aimable. 

Vou zave zu tor. 



Notice. 

The t of most words ending- in et and in ect, is generally 
not linked to the following- word, nor the final t of those 



French Speaker. 



105 



ending- in a nasal sound, if this nasal sound is not the only 
one in the formation of the word : 

Cette foret avait autrefois deux On doitle respect auxvicilles gens. 

lieues de longueur. Old people have the right to our 

This forest was formerly six miles respect : (or) One must respect; 

long. (or) Old people deserve our re- 
La violation du secret alluma sa spect. 

colere. Lorsque V enfant arriva, il avait 

The violation of the secret made chaud. 

him very angry. When the child arrived, he was 

Les mailles de ce filer 6 aient trop warm. 

petites. Li' empoisonnement avait produit 

The meshes of that net were too son effet. 

small. The poison had produced its effect. 
Cet homme est-il suspect a vos 

yeux ? 
Is that man suspicious in your 

ideal 



It seems to us that the t ending- the words foret, secret, 
filet, suspect, respect, enfant and empoisonnement would show 
affectation if it was linked. Other words in itaiics above 
are used idiomatically. 

But ending- t in the conjugation of verbs, or in their 
present participles, links to the following word, when this 
begins with a vowel or a mute h : 



On se met a table pour manger et 
quelque fois pour parler on jouer . 

They sit down to the table for eat- 
ing and sometimes for speaking 
or playing. 

En travaillant mconsidervment, 
on nuit a sa sante\ 

By working too much, one hurts 
his health. 



Celui qui promet avec x>rofu-sion, 

accomplit ordinairement peu. 
He who promises much, generally 

accomplishes little. 
En accomplissant assidument 

vos devoirs, vous serez respecte. 
By accomplishing your duties 

faithfully, you will be respected. 



The t ending- adverbs, prepositions and conjunctions is to 
be linked also, except when it ends the conjunction et : 



106 French Speaker. 

Cette fille est jolie, mais elle est During a dark night, I lost myself 

surtout aimable. in the wood. 

That girl is pretty, but above that Francois ler fut vaincu a Pavie ; 

she is very amiable. cependant il ne perdit point cou- 

II elait pleiiiement assure de voire rage. 

tort. Francis the First was vanquished 

He was entirely sure that you were at Pavie; however he did not 

wrong. lose his courage. 
Pendant une nuit sombre, je me 

suis perdu dans le bois. 

In the words met, travaillant, promet, accomplissant, sur- 
tout, pleinement, pendant and cependant, final t must be linked. 
Other words in italics below the two rules above, are used 
idiomatically. 

Observe that — In impressive reading-, the linking- must 
be made in many cases where it would sound unnatural and 
affected in daily conversation. It may be stated that the 
more closely connected the words are in sense, the more im- 
perative it is to link them tog-ether in pronunciation. 

Very Important for English People. 

Care must be taken in reading- not to pronounce tre, dre, 
ble, ple, cre as ter, der, bel, pel, ker, as they express 
these finals among English people. — tr, dr, bl, pl, cr are 
pronounced as if they were each one consonant forming- a 
kind of diphthong-, leaving E silent. The consonant T must 



ave a hard sound, 


given with energy ; thus : 


maitre 


pronounce 


maitr : 


at as ay in may. 


master. 










ordre 




; < 


ordr ; 


or as in order. 


order. 










aimable 


* 




ai mabl ; 


ai as ai in nail, a as in lad. 


amiable. 










peuple 




" 


peupl ; 


eu as u in tub. 


people. 
ocre 




(< 


ocr ; 


o as in the alphabet. 


ochre. 











French Speaker. 



107 



The consonant d at the end of the finals ard, and, end, id, 
oid and ord is never linked to following- words : 



Le canard etait sur 1' etang. 

Ce noeud est bien fait. 

Le nid etait detruit. 

II faisait froid hier. 

La face nord apparaissait de la. 

Le marchand avait de 1' argent. 



The duck was on the pond. 

That knot is well made. 

The nest was destroyed. 

It was cold yesterday. 

The north side was appearing from 

there. 
The merchant had money. 



Consonant n ending- nasal sounds links very seldom to 
words following- it, except when n ends short words as on, 
bon, bien, en, mon, ton, son, un, aucun : 



On n-etait a Paques. 


It was Easter time 




bien n-aimable. 




very amiable. 




bon n-ami. 




good friend. 




agir en n-homme 




to do as a man. 




mon n-honneur. 




my honor. 




ton n-intelligence. 


thy intelligence. 




son n-esprit. 




his mind. 




un n-objet agie" ible. 


an agreeable object. 


aucun n-homme intelligent. 


not an intelligent man. 


The words below ending- with the consonants b, bs, c, d, f, 


g, p, s, t, x, z, cannot be linked to the words following them : 


1 aplomb 


perpendicular- 


13 fecond 


fruitful, genial. 




iiy- 


14 cerf 


deer. 


2 Doubs 


French depart- 


15 clef 


key. 




ment. 


16 coing 


quince. 


3 plomb 


lead. 


17 etang 


pond. 


4 radoub 


repairing of a 


18 hareng 


herring. 




ship. 


19 oblong 


oblong. 


5 banc 


bench. 


20 orang-outang orang-outang. 


6 blanc 


white. 


21 poing 


fist. 


7 caoutchouc 


India-rubber. 


22 rang 


rank. 


8 escroc 


sharper. 


23 seing 


signature. 


9 estomac 


stomach. 


24 Augsbourg 


city in Ger- 


10 franc 


brave ; French 




many. 




coin. 


25 faubourg 


suburb. 


11 tabac 


tobacco. 


26 Fribourg 


city in Switzer- 


12 tronc 


trunk, stock. 




land. 



108 



27 Luxembourg 



28 Marienbourg 

29 Strasbourg 

30 camp 

31 champ 

32 galop 

33 loup 

34 sirop 

35 alors 

36 dehors 

37 Univers 

38 aspect 

39 circumspect 

40 doigt 



French Speaker. 



name of a Eu- 
ropean state; its 
capital city, 
city in Prussia, 
city of Ger- 
many, 
camp. 
field. 
gallop, 
wolf. 

sirup or sirop. 
then, 
out. 

Universe, 
sight, aspect, 
circumspect, 
finger. 



41 et 

42 regret 

43 respect 

44 suspect 

45 distinct 

46 instinct 

47 flux 

48 reflux 

49 biez 

50 fez 

51 nez 

52 riz 

53 prompt 

54 art 

55 part* 



and. 

regret. 

respect. 

suspicious, 

suspected. 

distinct. 

instinct. 

flux, flow. 

reflux. 

pond. 

Turkish cap. 

nose. 

rice. 

prompt. 

art. 

part. 



Pronunciation of the AVords above. 



1 a plon ; 

2 Don; 

3 plon ; 

4 ra don ; 

5 ban ; 

6 blan; 

7 ca out shou 



es cro ; 



9 es to mah ; 



a as ah, on as 
in monk, n 
mute. 

ou as oo in 
loose: 

on as in monk 
n mute. 

a as ah, ou as 
oo in too. 

an as in want 
n mute. 

an do. 

ca as in cat, 
both oil's as 
oo in too, t 
of first ou 
sounded. 

es as in es- 
teem, o as in 
not. 

es do., o do., 
ah as in En- 
glish. 



10 fran ; 

11 ta bah ; 

12 tron ; 

13 fe gon ; 

14 ser ; 

15 cle; 

16 coin ; 

17 e tan; 



an as in want 
n mute. 

a as in cat, 
ah as in En- 
glish. 

on as in monk 
n mute. 

e as a in fate, 
g as in gun, 
on as in 
monk, n 
mute. 

5 hard, er as 
ere in there. 

e as a in fate. 

put w before 
an sounded 
as in sank, 
n mute. 

e as a in fate, 
an as in 
want, n 
piute. 



*The t of part is linked in the expression de part en part (through). 



French Speaker 



109 



18 ha ren ; 


h aspirate, a 


29 Stras bour ; 


Sera as in strap, 




as ah, en as 




s sounded, 




an above. 




our as oor 


19 o blon ; 


o as in not, on 




in poor. 




as in monk, 


30 can : 


an as in want 




n mute. 




n mute. 


20 o ran-ou tan ; 


o as in not, 


31 shan ; 


' do. 




both an" 1 s as 
in to ant, n 
mute, oti as 


32 ga lo ; 


g as in game, 
a as ah, o as 
in not. 


21 poin ; 


oo in too. 
put w before 
an sounded 


33 lou; 

34 si ro ; 


on as oo in too. 
si as ci in city, 




as in sank, 




o as in not. 




n mute. 


35 a lor ; 


a as ah, or as 


22 ran ; 


an as in want 




ore. 




n mute. 


36 de or ; 


e as u in tub, 


23 sein ; 


s hard, em as 




or as ore. 


24 Augs bour ; 

25 fau bour ; 


an in sarik, 

n mute. 
Au as o in no, 

gs sounded, 

our as oor 

in poor. 
au as o in'no, 


37 U ni ver ; 

38 as pe ; 


£7 as in French, 
i as in city, 
er as ere in 
there, 
as as as, e as 
e in net. 




our as oor 


39 cir cons pe ; 


ci as in city, 




in poor. 




r rolled, on 


26 Fri bour ; 


i as in city, 




as in monk, 




our as oor 




n mute, 5 




in poor. 




sounded, 6 


27 Luk san bour ; 


rt as in French, 




as e in net. 




k sounded, 5 


40 doi ; 


oi as wa in 




hard, an as 




was. 


28 Ma ri-en bour 


in want, n 

mute, our as 

oor in poor. 

a as ah, i com- 


41 e; 

42 re g*re ; 


as a in fate, 
e as m in £m&, 
e as e in ne£. 




bined with 


43 res pe ; 


?-es as in ?'es<, 




en as an in 




e as e in ne£. 




want, n 


44 sus pe ; 


5 hard, u as 




mute, our 




in French, s 




as oor in 




sounded, 8 




poor. 




as e in wei. 



110 



French Speaker. 



45 


dis tin ; 


is as iss in 
miss, hi as 
an in sank, 


49 bi-ez ; 


i combined as 
in view with 
ez as a in 






n mute. 


m 


fate. 


46 


ins tin ; 


both in* s as 


50 fez ; 


ez as a in fate. 






an in sank, 


51 nez; 


do. 






n mute, s 


52 ri; 


as in rip. 






sounded. 


53 pron ; 


on as cm in 


47 
48 


flu ; 
re flu ; 


u as in French. 

e as u in tub, u 

as in French. 


54 ar ; 

55 par ; 


monk, n 
mute, 
as ar in car. 
do. 



The n of the nasal ending- syllable an* is not linked to 
the following word ; example : 



Le Khan avait un sabre a lame d'or. 

Le Cor an est le livre sacre" des 

Turcs. 
La peine du ban a ete prononcee 

contre lui. 



The Khan had a saber with a gol- 
den blade. 

The Koran is the sacred book of 
the Turks. 

He has been condemned to be ban- 
ished. 

Except in the three words rien {nothing), bien {well, good), 
and combien {hoio many, how much), it would appear affected 
to link the final n of other words ending- in ien :f chien {dog), 
vaurien {worthless). 

Remark. 

Of course, the connection between words does not take 
place when there is a pause, comma, semicolon or other 
mark. 

Notice on Idiomatical Expressions. 

As Idiomatical Expressions are of the most important and 
indispensable points in reading, speaking and writing French, 
the student cannot too soon be familiar with them. 

The Idioms of a language may be considered as a part of 
its foundation, almost as well as its pronunciation, and when 
one knows Idioms, he is surely able to converse, and will 
acquire, in a short time with great readiness, the ability 
of holding an intelligent conversation. 

*an sounds as in want, keeping strictly n mute, 
f In ien, the i is combined as in view with en pronounced as an in 
sank, keeping also n strictly mute. 



French Speaker. 



Ill 



Knowing that the amount of French obtained by the stu- 
dent is already quite considerable, and that his pronuncia- 
tion is also quite sufficient, we give here Exercises on the 
Idioms which are the most frequently and daily used : 



First Idiomatical Reading 
Exercise. 

Good morning {or) good day, Mister. 
" Madam 



Miss. 

Gentlemen. 
Ladies. 
Misses, 
my friend, 
every bod y. 



Bonjour, 1 < 



Premier exercice de Lec- 
ture sur les Idiomes. 

( Monsieur. 2 
Madame. 
Mademoiselle. 
Messieurs. 3 
Mesdarnes. 
Mesdemoiselles. 
mon ami. 

'^ tout le monde. 
(ou± ) la compagnie. 

Comment vous portez-vous ce 

matin (ou), aujourd 'hui? 
Comment etes- vous ? 
Comment va votre sante" ? 
Merci (ou), je vous remercie, 

Monsieur, je suis bien. 
Merci (on), je vous remercie, 

Monsieur je meporte assez bien. 
Merci (ou), je vous remercie, 

Monsieur ma sante est bonne. 
Merci Con), je vous remercie, 

Monsieur ma sante est assez 

bonne. 
Merci (ou), je vous remercie, 

Monsieur je suis malade. 
Numbers from 1 to 20— (Ch iff res de 1 a 20. ) 



How do you feel this morning (or) 

to-day ? 
How are you ? 
How is your health ? 
Thank you, sir, I am well. 

Thank you, sir, 1 am quite tvell. 

Thank you, sir, my health is good. 

Thank you, sir, my healt/j is quite 
good. 

Thank you, sir, lam ill (or) sick. 



un 


pronounce 


one. 




deux 


« 


two. 




trois 


u 


three. 




quatre 


" 


four. 





un ; as in hunter, n mute. 

deu ; en as between u in French and 

u of its. 
troi ; oi as to a in was. 

katr ; ka as ca in cat, tr sounded. 



i Bonjour is used from the morning through the day till evening. 

2 n and r are silent in Mo7isieur. 

3 rs is silent in Messieurs. 
* ou means or. 



112 

cinq 

five. 

six 

six. 

sept 

seven. 

huit 

eight. 

neuf 

nine. 

dix 

ten. 

onze 

eleven. 

douze 

twelve. 

treize 

thirteen. 

quatorze 

fourteen. 

quinze 

fifteen. 

seize 

sixteen. 

dix- sept 

seventeen. 

dix-huit 

eighteen. 

dix-neuf 

nineteen. 

vingt 

twenty. 



French Speaker. 

pronounce sank ; as in English, n mute. 



siz ; 
set ; 
wit ; 
neuf; 
diz; 
onz ; 
douz : 



5 hard, i as English e, z 

sounded, 
as in English. 



eu as u in tub, f sounded. 

i as English e, z sounded. 

on as in monk, n mute, z 

sounded. 
ou as oo in loose, z sounded. 

ai as ay in may, z sounded. 



kat orz ; 


ka as ca in cat, or as in horse, 




z sounded. 


kinz ; 


in as an in sank, n mute, z 




sounded. 


saiz ; 


ai as ay in may, z sounded. 


di set ; 


i as English e, set as in En- 




glish. 


diz-wit ; 


i as English e, z sounded, wit 




as in English. 


diz-neuf 


; diz as above, eu as u in tub, f 




sounded. 


vin ; 


in as in sank, n mute. 


ail, 


aille. 



These combinations are sounded as eye or as the pronoun 
L but shorter : 



caillou 

pebble. 
detail 
detail. 
travail 

tvork. 



prouounce ca you ; 
" de taie ; 



ca as in cat, you as the 

pronoun you. 
e as a in fate, ate as the 

pronoun I, but shorter. 
tra vaie ; a as ah, die as above. 



French Speaker. 



113 



qu'il aille pronounce J kil 2 aiie ; 

that he may go. 

Versailles " Ver saie ; 

Versailles. 

Exception is made for the word 
aile pronounce ail; 

wing. 

and its derivatives. 

Second ldiomatical Reading 
Exercise. 

Good evening (or) good night, Mister. 
" " " Madam. 

" " " Miss. 

" " " Gentlemen 

" " " Ladies. 

" " " Misses. 



*as kill ; 2 aie as above. 

er as ere in there, s hard, 
die as above. 

as in nail. 



Deuxieme Exercice de Lec- 
ture sur les Idiomes. 

Monsieur. 

Madame. 

. Mademoiselle. 
Bonsoir, 1 I ,, 

1 Messieurs. 

Mesdames. 

Mesdemoiselles. 



Good evening (or) good night, my 

friend. 
Good evening (or) good night la 

compagnie. 
Good by, Mister. 

" Madam, etc. 

Take care of yourself . 
I am at home. 

Thou art " 
He is " 

We are " 

You are " 

They are " 

We are at our uncle's. 

They are at the Doctor's, at the 
baker's. 



Bonne nuitf mou ami. 

" la compagnie. 

Au re voir, 3 Monsier. 

" Madame, etc. 

Portez-vous Men. 
je suis chez moi (om), a la maison. 
Tu es chez toi (ou), a la maison. 
il est chez lui (ou), a la maison. 
Nous sommes chez nous (ou), a la 

maison. 
Vous etes chez vous (ou), a la 

maison. 
lis sont chez eux(ou),a la maison. 
Nous sommes chez notre oncle 

(ou), a la maison de notre oncle. 
lis sont chez le Docteur, chez le 

boulanger (ou), a la maison du 

docteur (ou) a la maison du 

boulanger. 



1 Bonsoir is said for the evening and for the night. 
z Bo7ine mat is used in familiar terms. 

3 Ou revoir is used at any time to take leave of a person, but espe- 
cially in the day-time. 



H 



114 French Speaker. 

au, eau. 

These two compound vowels are pronounced as o in no : 

e as u in tub, au as given. 



chevaux 

horses. 

generaux 

geuerals. 

eau 

water. 

tableau 

picture. 



pronounce she vau ; 

" ge ne rau 

" eau ; 

" ta bleau ; 



Idiomatical Additional 
Reading. 



both e 1 s as a in fate, au as 

above, 
as given. 

a as ah, eau as above. 



Lecture Additionnelle 
sur les Idiomes. 



I live with them. 



He goes to her house. 

We come to you, or to your house. 



Je demeure avec eux (ow), chez 

eux. 
II va chez elle. 

Nous venous chez vous, (ou) a 
voire maison. 
They arrived to us, or to our house. lis arriverent chez nous, (ou) a 

notre maison. 
Thou wilt pay a visit to thy mother. Tu /eras visite a ta mere. 
He has paid us a visit yesterday. II nous a fait visite hier, (ou) une 

visite. 
You are visiting your friends. Vous etes en visite chez vosamis. 

They visited the town yesterday. lis visiterent hier la ville. 
The doctor visited my friend. Le docteur a visite mon ami. 

You do not pay attention, young Vous nefaites pas attention, jeune 

man ! homme ! 

One m.ust pay attention to his du- 11 faut preter de V attention a ses 
ties. devoirs, (ou) faire attention. 



Numbers from 21 to 29 — (Chiffres de 21 a 29). 



vingt-et-un 

twenty-one. 



vingt-deux 

twenty-two. 

vingt-trois 

twenty-three. 



pronounce vint-e-un 



vint-deu 



vint-troi ; 



in as an in sank n mute, 
t sounded, e as a in 
fate, tin as in hunter, 
n mute. 

in as above, t sounded, 
eu as between French 
u and u of us. 

in as above, t sounded, 
oi as to a in was. 



French Speaker 



115 



vingt-quatre 

twenty-four. 

vingt-cinq 

twenty-five. 
vingt-six 

twenty-six. 

vingt-sept 

twenty-seven. 
vingt-huit 
twenty-eight. 
vingt-neuf 

twenty-nine. 



pronounce vint-katr ; 



vint-sank 



vint-set 



vint-wit 



viiit-neuf : 



in as above, t sounded, 

ka as ca in cat, tr 

sounded. 
in as above, t sounded, 

sank as English sank, 
in as above, t sounded, 

s hard, i as English e, 

z sounded. 
in as above, t sounded, 

set as in English. 
in as above, t sounded, 

wit as in English. 
in as above, t sounded, 

eu as u in tub, f 

sounded. 



eil, eille, ieil, ieille. 

The first letter of the two first combinations being: an e, 
this e has the sound of e in net and il and Me sound as ye in 
eye. In the second combinations, the first i is combined as 
in vieiu with eil and eille, and this is the only difference in 
the pronunciation : 



reveil 


pronounce 


re ve'ie ; 


£■ as a in fate, e as e in net, 


the act of xoaking. 




'ie as ye in eye, e final 








nuute. 


sommeil 


u 


so meiie ; 


5 hard, o as in not, the rest 


sleep. 






as above. 


bouteille 


" 


bou teie ; 


ou as oo in too, the rest as 


bottle. 






above. 


oreille 


" 


o reie ; 


o as in not, the rest as 


ear. 






above. 


vieil (mas.) 


" 


vi eie ; 


vi as in vieiv, eie as above. 


old. 








vi eille (fern.) 


" 


vi eie ; 


do. do. 


old. 








vieillard 


" 


vi e yar ; 


vi do., combined with e as 


old man. 






e in net, yar as in yard. 


sol eil 


It 


so leie ; 


s hard, o as in not, eie as 


sun. 






above. 



116 



French Speaker. 



Third Idiomatical Reading 
Exercise. 

I go to church. 

Thou art going to school. 

He goes to town. 

We go to the dining-room. 

You go to the garden. 

They go to the parlor. 

At what time 1 do you get up ? 2 
To-day, I was up 1 at three o' 'clock, 2 
but, generally, I get up later. 3 

When did you get up yesterday? 

I got up 1 at four o'clock.* 

When ivill we get up to-morrow ? 

We shall get up 1 at the same time.* 

I am sleepy, 1 I must go* to bed. s 

He went to bed 1 early* this even- 
ing, it was only six o'clock. 

What time is it now ? 



It is 1 twelve o'clock.* 
It is 1 twelve o'clock.* 



Troisieme Exercice de Lec- 
ture sur les Idiomes. 

Je vais a V eglise. 

Tu vas a V ecole. 

II va en ville. 

Nous allorls dans la salle a manger. 

Vous allez au jardin (om) dans le 

jardin. 
lis vout au salon (om) dans le 

salon. 
Au quelle heure 1 vous levez-vous? 2 
Aujourd' hui, je me stiis leve 1 a 

trois heures,* mais generale- 

ment, je me leve plus tard. s 
Quand vous etes-vous leve hier ? 
Je me suis leve 1 a quatre heures.* 
Quand nous leverous-nous de- 
main ? 
Nous nous leverons 1 a la meme 

heure. * 
J' ai sommeil, 1 il faut quej' aille* 

me coucher. 3 
II alia se coucher 1 de bonne hetire 2 

ce soir, il etait seulement six 

heures. 
Quelle heure est il maintenant, 

(ou) a present? (ou) Quelle 

heure avous-nous maintenant ? 
Ilest^midi (day time) 2 (ou) douze 

heures.* 
11 est 1 minuit (at night) 2 (ou) 

douze heures.* 



Names of the Days— Les Noins des Jours. 



Dimanche 

Sunday. 

Luudi 

Monday. 
Mardi 
Tuesday. 
Mercredi 

Wednesday. 



pronounce Di manshe 

" Lun di ; 

" Mar di ; 

" Mer ere di ; 



i as English e, an as 

in want n mute, 

e mute. 
un as in hunter n 

'mute, i as in city, 
ar as in party, i as 

above. 
cr as ere in there, e 

as u in tub, i as in 

city. 



Jeudi 

Thursday. 

Vendredi 

Friday. 



French Speaker. 

pronounce Jeu di ; 



117 



Ven dre di 



Sam di ; 



eu as between French 

u and u of us, i as 

in city, 
en as an in want n 

mute, e as u in tub, 

i as above. 
am as in ram, i as 

above. 



Samedi " 

/Saturday. 

iel, ielle. 

These combinations have their I and ^regularly sounded, 
and i forms a diphthong- with el and elle as y in yell, which 
word is the sound of iel and ielle : 
ciel pronounce ciel ; c as s hard, the rest as 

heaven, sky. given. 

" miel ; iel as yell. 



miel 

honey. 

superftcielle 

superficial. 



" su per fi ciel ; s hard, u as in alpha- 

bet, per with er as 
ere in there, fi as in 
_/?*", ciel as above. 
er, ez, ie, ye, ier, iez, yer 

er and ez are sounded as a in /ate. In 'ie, ye, ier, iez, yer, 
and y form a diphthong- in the same manner as i with eio 



in w'ew, and e, er, ez, are still sounded as a In fate — r 
are silent : 

pronounce de jeu ne ; 



and 



dejeuner 

breakfast. 
vous donnez 

you give. 

amitie 

friendship. 

choye 

cherished. 
fermier 
farmer. 
vous aviez 
you had. 
ennuyer 
to annoy. 



vous 2 do ne 



a mi tie 



shoi ie 



fer mie 



!vou 2 za vie 



an uui ie 



both e's as a in fate, 

eil as u in tub. 
*ou as oo in too, s si- 
lent, 2 o as in not, e 
as a in fate. 

a as ah,nii as in mid, 
t as t, i& as ex- 
plained. 

oi as w a in was, the 
rest as explained. 

er as ere in there, ie 
as given above. 

x ott as oo in too, 2 a 
as ah, ie as above. 

an as in /an broad, 
m as wi in wi^/t, ie 
as above. 



118 



French Speaker. 



When to ie and ye another e is added in order to make 
the feminine of words, these combinations keep their sound ; 
but the e added is slightly sounded as e final in bee, in see : 
pronounce ou bli ee ; 



oubliee 

forgotten. 

choyee 

cherished. 



shoi iee ; 



ou as oo in too, i as in city, e 
as a in fate, e slightly ac- 
cented. 

oi as wa in was, the rest as 
above. 



But when an e has been added to the combinations er, 
ier, and yer, the e before r takes a grave accent and ere, 
iere, yere have ere sounded as ere in there : 

boulangere pronounce bou Ian gere ; ou as oo in too, an 



baker's wife. 



fermiere 

farmer's wife. 

La Bruyere 

French moralist. 



fer miere ; 



La Brui yere ; 



as in w ant, n 
mute, g soft as j 
in bijou, ere as 
explained. 
er as ere in there, 

but shorter, iere 

as given. 
a as ah, ui as wi 
in wit, yere as 

given. 



Fourth Idiomatical Reading 
Exercise. 

I am cold, but my hands are 
warm. 



Are you cold? 

No, ive are warm, too warm. 

Are the children warm ? 

No, they are quite cold, for the 

room is damp and there is no 

fire in it. 
Is that house cold or warm ? 

It is cool in the summer and warm 
in winter. 



Quatrieme Exercice de Lecture 
sur les Idiomes. 

Tai froid, mais mes mains sont 
chaudes ; {oil) j'ai les mains 
chaudes; {ou) fai chaud aux 
mains. 

Avez-vous froid ? 

Nou, nous avons chaud, trop 
chaud. 

Les enl'ants ont-ils chaud ? 
Nou, its ont assez froid, parce 
que la chambre est humide et 
elle n'a pas de feu. 

Cette maison est-elle froide ou 
chaude ? 

Elle-est froide eu 6te, et chaude 
en hiver. 



French Speaker. 119 

That man died 1 long ago 2 and his Cet hoinme est mort 1 depuis long- 
body is still* warm. temps 2 et son corps est encore* 

chaud. 

That old man is ashamed 1 of beg- Ce vieiliard « hojite 1 de demandcr 
ging 2 for he has been rich. Faumdne* parce qu'il aeteriche. 

Is he also ashamed of working? A-t-il honte aussi de travail ler? 

No, but he is too old. Non, mais il est trop age. 

That is airily. Cest malheureux. 

Is that boy willing to work! Ce garcon est il travailleur ? 

No, but he is ashamed to work, Non, mais il est honte ax de tra- 
and too lazy at the same time. vailler, et il est trop paresseux a 

la fois. 

Divers — (Miscellaneous). 

II a ete calcule 1 qu'un plant de reseda pent 2 produire 3 
aiseraent de vingt a ving-t-cinq mille grains par annee. 

Le inonde entier, 4 terres et mers comprises, a line surface 
de cinq cent dix millions de kilometres carres. 

Une souris donne, 5 parait il, 6 de trente a quarante petits 
par annee. 

Darwin pretend 7 qu'mi elephant, en commencant 8 ses 
portees 9 a trente ans, pourrait, 1 ° en en ayant 1 1 trois jusque 
quatre-ving-t-dix, produire une generation de quinze mil- 
lions de sujets de son espece en cinq cents ans. 

La ville de Berlin est batie 1 3 sur un banc de tripoli qui a 
plus de cent-ving-t pieds depaisseur. 

On dit 13 qu'une carpe peut pondre 14 de cinq a six cent 
mille oeufs par annee. 

Matlius, l'economiste anglais, dit 15 que si la population 
du monde n etait arretee 16 par aucun obstacle, elle serait 
doublee 1 " en l'espace de vingt-cinq ans. 

Le lion, le tigre, la panthere, Tours blanc, le crocodile, le 
serpent et bieri d'autres animaux carnassiers, ne vivent qua 
la condition d'etre 1 s les vainqueurs des proies qu'ils guet- 
tent, 19 comme l'araignee qui, en embuscade, 2 ° saisit' 31 les 
mouches au autres petits inscctes qui s'aventurent dans sa 
toile. 22 



120 



French Speaker. 



Verbs and Idioms of the above Reading. 

l l\ a ete calcule : it has been calculated ; 2 peut : is able ; 3 produire : 
to produce ; *Le monde entier : The whole world ; 5 donne : gives; 
6 parait-il : as report goes ; ?pretend : asserts; 8 en commencant : by 
beginning ; 9 portees : broods ; Wpourrait : should be able ; n en ayant: 
by having ; i 2 est batie : is built ; i^On dit : They say ; i*pondre : to lay 
eggs ; i^dit : says ; ^n'etait arretee ; was not stopped ; ^serait doublee : 
should be doubled ; 18 ne vivent qu'a la condition d' etre ; do not live 
but in the condition of being ; 19 guettent : are watching for ; 2°en em- 
buscade : watching for ; 21 saisit : seizes; 22 qui s'aventurent dans sa 
toile : ivhich venture in its cobweb. 



er, ers, ert, ier. 

In the words following this rule, er does not keep the 
sound of a in fate, but has that of ere in there, whether an 
extra e be added or not ; but when an extra e is added to ers 
and ert, s and t are sounded, and the extra e, which gives the 
feminine form, is kept mute : 



amer 


pronounce 


s a mer ; 


a as ah, er as ere in 


bitter. 






there. 


cher 


u 


sher ; 


er as above. 


dear. 








cancer 


a 


can cer ; 


an as an in want, n 


cancer. 






mute, c as 5 hard, er 
as above. 


enfer 


u 


en fer ; 


en as an in want, n 


hell. 






mute, er as above. 


cuiller 


a 


cu yer ; 


cu with c as k and u as 


spoon. 






in French, y com- 
bined with er as ere 
in there. 


fer 


.1 


fer, 


er as ere in there. 


iron. 








hiver 


a 


hi ver ; 


h mute, i as in city, &r 


winter. 






as above. 


mer 


a 


mer ; 


er as above. 


sea. 








ver 


a 


ver ; 


do. 


worm. 








pater 


it 


pa ter ; 


a as ah, Sr as above. 


Lord's prayer 









French Speaker. 



121 



tJnivers pronounce 


IT ni ver ; 


U as in French, i as 


Universe. 




in city, er as given. 


vers " 


ver ; 


er as above. 


about, near. 






re vers " 


re ver ; 


e as u in tub, £r as 


reverse. 




above. 


envers " 


• en ver ; 


en as an in want, n 


towards. 




mute, er as above. 


divers " 


di ver ; 


i as English e, er as 


diverse. 




above. 


fler « 


fi-er; 


i as in view, combined 


proud. 




with er as ere in 
there. 


hier " 


hi-er ; 


h mute, i-er combined 


yesterday. 




as above. 


offer t «« 


o f er ; 


o as in not, er as ere in 


offered. 




there. 


Luther " 


Lu ter ; 


u as in French, er as 


German monk. 




ere in there. 


couvert " 


cou ver ; 


ou as oo in too, er as 


covered. 




ere in there. 


ouvert " 


ou ver ; 


do. do. 


open. 






diverse " 


di vers; 


t as English e, Sr as 


diverse. 




erein there, s sound- 
ed. 


offerte " 


o f ert ; 


o as in not, er as erein. 


offered. 




there, t sounded. 


Ab del Kader " 


Ah del Ka der 


; ab as in abduction, del 


Emir of Algeria. 




as in delf, Ka as in 
cat, £r as ere in 
there. 


Thiers " 


Ti er; 


i as in view, combined 


French statesman. 




with er as above. 


Munster " 


3Iuns ter ; 


un as in hunter, n 


city in Germany. 




mute, 5 sounded, £r 
as abve. 



And some other proper names. 

But proper names as Oger, Roger, Bouvier, etc., and those 
written as names of trade, as Boulanger, Boucher, etc, have 
er pronounced as a in fate : 



122 



French Speaker. 



Names of the Months— Lies noms des Mois 
Jan vi-e 



Janvier pronounce 

January. 

Fevrier " 

February. 

Mars i ' 

March. 

Avril " 

April. 

Mai 

May. 

Juin " 

June. 

Juillet " 

July. 

Aout " 

August. 

Septembre " 

September. 

Octobre " 

October. 

Novembre " 

November. 

Decembre " 

December. 



J soft, an as in want, n 
mute, i as in city, com- 
bined with e as a in fate. 
Fe vri-e ; both &s as a in fate, vri 
with i as in city, com- 
• bined with €. 
Mars; ar shorter than in bar, s 

sounded or not. 
A vri ; a as ah. i as in city. 



May; 


as in English. 


Ju-in ; 


u as w, combined with in 




as an in sank, n mute. 


Jui yet ; 


ui as wi in wit, ye asinye^, 




t mute. 


Ou; 


as oo in too. 



Setembre ; set as English set,em as an 
in want, m mute, br 
sounded, e mute. 

Oc tobre ; Oc as in October, to idem, 
br sounded, e mute. 

No vembre ; No as no, em as an in want, 
m mute, br sounded, e 
mute. 

De cembre ; e as a in fate, c as s hard, 
embre as above 



Fifth Idiomatical Reading 
Exercise. 

Does my mother look sick. Doctor? 

She does not look sick, 1 Miss, but 
she does not feel well 2 at all, 3 
and you must* take care 5 of her. 

Do I look sick now ? 

No, you look better than yester- 
day. 



Cinquieme Exercice de Lecture 
sur les Idioms. 

Ma mere a-t-elle Vair maladc, 
Docteur ? 

Elle n'apas Vair malade, 1 Made- 
moiselle, mais elle ne se porle 
pas bien% du tout, 3 et vous de- 
vez* avoir soin 5 d'elle. 

Ai-je Vair malade maintenant, 
(ou) a present? 

Non,?)o«s avez Vair mxeux qu'hier. 



French Speaker. 



123 



Have yon a headache, Miss? 

ISo, sir; T have not a headache 
to-day, but I have a sore throat. 

That young man has the toothache. 

Has he not a .sore leg ? 

My father's right arm is sore. 

My friend has broken, one of his 
legs and one of his arms. 

My sister had a sore cheek 1 yester- 
day,and our cousin was not feel- 
ing well 2 at all. 3 



Avez-vous trial a la tete, Mademoi- 
selle ? 

Non, Monsieur ; jc n J aipas mal a 
la tele 1 aujourd'hui, mais fai 
mal & la gorge. 2 

Ce jeune homme a mal aux dents. 

N'a-tnl pas mal a une jambe? 

Monpere a vial aabras droit. 

Mon ami s'est casse une jambe et 
un bras. 

Ma sceur avait mal a la joue 1 
hier, et notre cousine ne se por- 
t ait pas Men 2 du tout.* 



This compound vowel sounds as ee in bee, in see : 
je prie pronounce ye 2 prie ; \i soft as in bijou, e as 

J pray. u in tub, He as ee in 

see. 
fiiiie " fi nie ; i as in city, ie as ee in 

finished. see. 

Italie " I ta lie ; I as English e, a as ah, 

Italy. ie as above. 

il criera " x \\ 2 crie ra ; HI as ill, He as above, 

he tuill cry. ra as in rat. 



Names of the Seasons— Noms des Saisons. 



Le Printemps 

The /Spring. 

If Ete 

The Summer. 
L7 Automne 
The Fall. 
1/ Hiver 

The Winter. 



pronounce Le Prin tan 



le te; 



li ver 



e as w in tub, in as an 
in sank n mute, an 
as in w ant, n mute. 

both e's as a in fate. 

au as o in no, om as in 

Tom. 
li as in lip, er as ere 

in there. 



Reading Exercise. 



Au printemps, 1 tout renait, 2 la vegetation s'habille, 3 il 
fait beau, 4 tout meut, 5 chacun apparait 6 joyeux. 

En ete, il fait cliand; 1 on a 8 tour a tour 9 la pluie, les 
orages et le tonnerre avec le beau temps et la secheresse ; 1 ° 



124 French Speaker. 

la maturite arrive 11 et la recolte 12 commence 13 pour se 
finir 14 en automne. 

En automne, la maturite et la recolte s' achevent, 1 5 la 
seve se ralentit et s' arrete, 1 6 la vegetation cesse, 1 7 les arbres 
perdent 1 8 leurs f euilles deja jaunies, 1 9 etles plantes leur ver- 
dure. 

L' liiver, il gele, 2 ° il pleut 2 1 et ilneige : 2 2 c' est 2 s le repos 
de 1' homme, des animaux et de la terrestre nature. 

Verbs and Idioms of the above Reading. 

iAuprintemps: In the spring : 2 toutrenait: everything revives ; 3 s'ha- 
bille : puts on her clothes ; 4 il fait beau: the iv eat her is fine ; 5 meut: 
moves : 6 apparait : appears ; 7 il fait chand : it is warm ; 8 on a : they 
have ; 9 tour a tour : by turns ; 10 secheresse : dryness ; 11 arrive : comes : 
12 recolte: harvest; "commence : begins; 14 se finir : to complete it- 
self; 15 la maturite et la recolte s' achevent: ripeness and harvest are 
completed; 16 la seve se ralentit et s' arrete: the sap is slower and 
stops; 17 cesse: stops; 18 perdent: lose ; 19 dejil jaunies : which have 
already grotvn yell oiv ; 20 il gele : it freezes ; 21 il pleut: it rains ; 22 il 
neige : it snows ; 23 c'est : it is. 

Observations. 

Second t in vegetation is sounded as s hard ; 11 is liquid in 5' habille, 
and h mute; meut, pronounce ea as between French u and u of us. 
Joyeux pron ounce joi-iew ; i combined with eu as in meut above. Tour ; 
our as oor in poor. — n is silent in automne, and ent in s' achevent and 
in perdent. Feuilles : pronounce feu ye ; eu as u in tub, ye with e 
slightly accented as last e in see. — s is mute in jaunies and at the end 
of all words, and x also. 

eu, oeu. 

These compound vowels have the sound of that between 
u of the French alphabet and u of tub. They have the same 
sound when, ending- words, d, t and x are added to them, in 
which case these consonants are mute : 

peu : eu as between French 

u and u of us. 
Di-eu ; i as in view, combined 

with en as given 
above. 



peu 


pronounce 


little. 




Dieu 


11 


God. 





voeu 

vow, wish. 

noeud. 

knot. 

Meudon 

French town. 

il veut 

he wishes. 

il peut 

he is able. 

respectueux 

respectful. 



French Speaker. 

pronounce voeu ; 
" noeu ; 

Meu don ; 
" Ml 2 veu ; 

" Ml 2 peu ; 



125 



oen the same as eu in 
])eu above, 
do. do. 

eu as above, on as in 
monk, n mute. 
1 il as ill, 2 eu as above. 



id< 



'do. 



res pec tu eu : respec as in respect, u 
as in French, eu as 



heu reu 



given, 
both &u?s as <riven. 



heureux " 

happy. 

eu and oeu have the same pronunciation in the following 
words, r and/s final being- silent : 

Monsieur prone 

Mister, Sir. 



Mo sieu ; 


o as in not, s hard, 




i combined with 




eu sounded as 




above. 


beu ; 


as given above. 


eu ; 


do. 



*bceufs " 

oxen. 
-oeufs " 

eggs. 

Observation.— eu in the conjugation of the verb avoir 
(to have) has the sound of u in the alphabet : 

j' eus pronounce ju : j soft, u as in French. 

I had. 

que tu eusses " x ke 2 tu Hiss : l e as u in tub, 2 u as 

that thou mightest in French, 3 « as 

have. before, ss sounded. 

eu " u ; as in French. 
had. 

In other cases, or when eu and oeu are followed by other 
consonants than d, t and x, they sound as u in tub, in us : 

pronounce a veu gl ; a as ah, eu as u in 

us, gl sounded. 



aveugle 

blind. 



peureuse 

timorous. 



pen reuz 



both eu's as given, z 
sounded. 



*The/is pronounced in the singular boeuf and oeuf. 



126 

oeuf 

egg. 
boeuf 
ox. 
oeuvre 

work. 
jeune 

young. 



French Speaker. 

pronounce euf; ewasttin£M&,/soundeci 



beuf; 
eu vr ; 
jeun ; 



eu do. do. 

eu do., vr sounded. 

eu do., n sounded. 



Cardinal Numbers from 30 — Nombres Cardinaux de 30 
to 65. a 65. 



trente 

30. 



trente et un 

31. 



trente-deux 



quarante 

40. 



quarante et un 

41. 



quarante-t rois 

43. 
cinquante 

50. 



cinquante et un 

51. 



cinquante-quatre 

54. 



pronoun ce trant 



trant e un ; 
trant-deu ; 
ka rant ; 
ka rant e un ; 

ka rant troi ; 

sin kant ; 

sin kant e un ; 
sin kant katr ; 



an as in want n 
mute, t sound- 
ed. 

trant as above, e 
as a in fate, un 
as in hunter n 
mute. 

trant as above, 
eu as between 
French u and 
u of us. 

ka as ca in cat, 
an as in want 
n m u t e , t 
sounded. 

karant as above, 
e as a in fate, 
un as in hun- 
ter, n mute. 

karant as above, 
oi as tv a in was. 

s hard, in as an^ 
in sank, n 
mute, an as in 
ivant n mute, 
t sounded. 
sinkayit as above, 
e as a in fate, 
un as in hun- 
ter, n mute. 
sin kant as above, 
ka as in cat, tr 
sounded. 



soixante 
60. 



soixante et un 

61. 



soixante-cinq 

65. 



French Sf)eahei\ 



pronounce soi sant 



soi sant e un 



soi sant sank 



127 



s hard, oi as wa 
in was, s hard, 
an as in want, 
n mute, t 
sounded. 

soi sant as above, 
e as a in fate, 
un as in hun- 
ter n mute. 

soisant as above, 
sank as En- 
glish sank, n 
mute. 



eur, oeur. 

These combinations sound as ur in fur broad, rolling- r: 

leur pronounce leur ; eur as ur in fur broad, r rolled. 

their. 

auteur " au leur ; an as o in no, eur as above. 

author. 

coeur " keur; eur as given above. 

heart. 

soeur " senr ; s hard as in sea, eur as above. 

sister. 



Sixth Idiom atical Reading 
Exercise. 



Sixieme Exercice de Lecture sur 
les Idiomes. 



How is the weather to-day? 

It is very fine, 1 but it is 2 a little 3 

%v arm. 
How. was the weather yesterday ? 
Yesterday it was 1 quite good, 2 

however, it ivas 3 a little 4, too 

cold and quite 5 damp. 
What weather do you think 1 we 

will have to-morrow ? 



It will be 1 foggy and rainy 3 and 
you will not take a ivalk. 4. 



Quel temps fait-il aujourd 'hui ? 
II fait tres beau, 1 mais il fait 2 

assez 3 chaud. 
Quel temps faisait-il hier. 
Hier, il a fait 1 assez bon, 2 cepen- 

dant il faisait 3 un peu* trop 

froid et assez 5 humide. 
Quel temps croyez-vous 1 (ou) 

pensez-vous,gw'z7/era 2 demain; 

(ou) quel temps croyez-vous 

que nous aurous demain ? 
77 fera 1 du brouillard, 2 le temps 

sera pluvieux 3 et vous nHrez 

■pas vous promeucr. 4 - 



128 



French Speaker. 



If it is good, 1 I will ride 2 in the 
morning, 3 and if it is too muddy* 

I shall drive 5 round 6 the city. 



If it should snow 1 enough to make 
good sleighing- 1 would take a 
trip 3 to the country. 4 - 



S'il fait bon 1 je monterai a che- 
val 2 pendant la matinee 3 ets'ily 
a trop de boue* (ou) s'il fait 
trop sale 4 (ow) trop boueux* 
jeferai line promenade en voi- 
ture 5 autour 6 de la ville. 

SHI neigeait 1 assez pour aller en 
traineau.- je ferais uneprome- 
nade 3 a la campagne. 4 - 



In this diphthong i is sounded as in city, and combined 
with en as it is with ew in view, and eu has the sound be- 
tween French u and u of tub : 



milieu 

middle. 



pronounce mi lieu 



Dieu 


11 Dieu ; 


God. 




vieux ' 


' vieu ; 


old. 




malicieux 


" ma li eieu 


malicious. 





mi as in middle, li as in lip, 
having i combined as in 
view with eu, sounded as 
between French u and u in 
tub. 

ieu as given above. 



a as in cat, li as in lip, ci 
as in city, combined with 
eu sounded as above. 



Observation — But in ieu followed by another consonant 
than x, eu sounds as u in tub, in us : 

superstitieuse pronounce su pers ti cieuze ; u as in alphabet, er 
superstitious. as ere in there, s 

sounded, ti as in 
tip, ci as in city, 
combined with 
eu, sounded as u 
in us, z sounded, 
e mute. 

ca pri as in En- 
glish, cieuze as 
above. 

m as in French, 
ieuze as above. 

i solt, oi as wa in 
iras, ieuze as 
above. 



capricieuse 
capricious. 

furieuse 

furious, enraged. 
joyeuse 

joyful. 



ca pri cieuze 



fu rieuze 



joi ieuze 



French Speaker. 



129 



euill, euille. 

In these combinations eu is sounded as u in tub, in us, and 
il and ille said liquid, change their pronunciation to that of 
the final ye in eye, and ye is accented a little more than e 
final in see, though keeping- the e unsounded : 



ecureuil pronounce e- cu reu-ye 
squirrel. 



fauteu.il " 

arm-chair. 

feuille " 

leaf. 

qu'il veuille " 

that he may be willing. 



fan teu-ye ; 
feu ye ; 
*kil 2 veu-ye 



e as a in fate, c as A;, with 
u as in French, eu as 
u in us, ye as in eye. 
keeping e final mute. 

om as o in no, eu-ye as 
given above. 

as above. 

i/cil as &i7Z ; *eu-ye as 
above. 



ueil, ueille. 

These sound exactly the same as euil, euille above : 

pronounce a keu-ye ; a as ah, eu-ye as in the ex- 
amples above. 
" ye 2 keu-ye ; V soft, e as u in tub, 2 eu-ye 



accueil 

reception. 
je cueille 
I gather. 
recueil 

collection. 



re keu-ve 



as above. 
e as u in tub, eu-ye do. 



Mort terrible de trois cents prisonniers francais — Frightful death 
of three hundred French prisoners. 

Pendant les guerres de l'Empire, dans un village de West- 
phalie, apres une bataille oil les troupes allemandes avaient 
fait 1 un g-rand nombre de prisonniers frangais, l'armee qui 
ne pouvait 2 en 3 disposer 4 autrement en raison de 5 laneces- 
site de la presence de toute sa force, se crut obligee, 6 afin 
de 7 n'y 8 consacrer 9 qu"une faible garde, d'enfouir 1 ° trois 
cents de ces malheureux dans une cave humide, ou Pair et 
la lumiere ne penetraient que 11 par un seul et etroit sou- 
pirail. 



130 French Speaker. 

Entasses 1 2 les uns sur les autres dans cecachot infect, ces 
infortunes, a la vue de l'inique barbariede leurs vainqueurs, 
et en proie au plus affreux desespoir, 1 3 firent 14 en vain les 
plus poignants appels a leur pitie. Mais ces clameurs ne 
semblaient 1 5 meme point parvenir 1 6 jusqu'auxoreiUes des 
soldats de garde ni de leur chef, au contraire ! ces Teutons im- 
passibles jouissaient 1 7 plutot, 18 eut-ondit, 19 de cet horri- 
ble drame. 

Trois heures d'inexprimables tortures, de cris et de ge- 
missements dechirants, 2 ° furent 21 le terme du supplice de 
tous ces infortunes francais, car au calme qui survint 22 
bientot, succeda 23 un silence saisissant, 2 4 sinistre. Sur- 
pris, 25 intrigue 26 d'un tel contraste, l'officier du poste 
voulut 27 en 28 constater 29 la cause et penetra 30 dans la cave 

lugubre, mais il n'y avait plus la 31 que trois cents 

cadavres ! L'asphyxie, a laquelle tous ces braves auraient 
prefere 32 la mort la plus terrible sur le champ de bataille, 
venait 33 d'en 34 faire, 35 en quelques moments, autant 36 de 
victimes. 

Vocabulary. 

x avaient fait : had made ; 2 pouvait (ne) : could not; 3 en : of it ; 

4 disposer: to dispose: s en raison de : on account of; 6 se crut 
obligee: believed itself obliged ; 7 afin de : in order to ; 8 y : to it : 

9 consacrer : to devote ; 10 enfouir : to bury; u ne penetraient que: 
could not penetrate but ; 12 entasses: being thickest ; 13 en proie au plus 
affreux desespoir : being the prey of the most dreadful despair ; 14 firent: 
made; 15 ne semblaient: were, not seeming; 16 parvenir : to reach; 
17 jouissaient: were enjoying ; 18 plutot : rather; 19 eut-ondit: should 
one have said ; 20 d6chi rants : heart-rending; 21 furent : were; 22 sur- 
vint : came on ; 23 succ6da : followed ; 24 saisissant '.piercing ; 25 surpris : 
surprised, astonished ; 26 intrigue : perplex ; 27 voulut : ivished ; 28 en : 
of it ; 29 constater : to verify, to state ; 30 penetra : penetrated ; 31 il n'y 
avait plus la : it was not there any more ; 32 auraient prefere : would 
have preferred ; 33 venait: had just; 34 en : of them; 35 t'aire : made; 
36 autant : as many. 



French Speaker. 



131 



Sevent h Idiomatical Reading Septieme Exercice de Lecture 
Exercise. sur les Idiomes. 



Are you afraid ? 

Yes, I am afraid of you. 

Is Louis afraid of dogs ? 

No, but he fears cats and snakes. 

I used to fear horses, but now I 

like them. Do you like them 

also? 
I have never been afraid! of horses, 

and better, I have always liked 

to ride them. 2 
Then you love riding ? 

Yes, it is my favorite pleasure 

(or) pastime. 
If yon were not so afraid 1 of the 

storm I should send you away 2 

on business for me, 3 but I pity 

a fear* like 5 yours. 



Avez vous peur ? 

Oui, fai peur de vous. 

Louis a-t-il peur des chiens ? 

Non, mais il a pear des chats et 
des serpents. 

Tax eu peur des chevaux, mais 
maintenant, je les aime. Les 
aimez-vous aussi ? 

le rc'al jamais eu peur 1 des che- 
vaux, et mieux, j'ai toujours 
aime dialler a chcval. 2 

Alors, vous aimez dialler vous 
promener a cheval ? 

Oui, c'est ma passion (ou) c'est 
mon plaisir favori. 

Si vous n'aviez pas si peur 1 de 
l'orage, je vous enverrais* pour 
mes affaires, 3 mais j'ai pitie 
d'unefrayeur 4 ' comrne 5 lavotre. 



oeil. 

This word and its derivatives have ce sounded as eu of 
euil, euille, ueil, ueille, above combinations, and as in them 
also>iV i& liquid and sounded the same as ye in eye ; but e of 
ye is only accented as final e in see : 

eu as u in tub, ye as given above. 
eu as above, ye as in yet, t mute. 

The combination ce in these words has its sound between 
that of the French u and u of us : 
Moeris pronounce Meu riss ; eu as given, iss as 

Lake in Egypt. in Miss. 

oecumenique " eu cu me nik ; eu do., u as in 

oecumenical. French, e as a in 

fate, ik as ick in 
sick. 



oeil 


pronounce eu ye ; 


eye. 




oeillet 


" eu yet; 


eyelet. 





132 



oesophage 

hag us. 



French Speaker. 
pronounce eu zo fage ; 

" Eu dip ; 



Oedipe " 

Prince of Thebes. 

Exception is made for the word 

Oestre pronounce es tre ; 

sort of winged 

insect apparently mouthless. 



eu as above, o as 
in not, a as in 
lad, g soft, e 
mute. 

eu as above, ip as 
in lip. 



es as in esteem, tr 
sounded, emute. 



Eighth Idiomatical Reading 
Exercise. 

How old are you, my friend? 
I am twenty years old, 1 but my 
sister is only fourteen. 2 



How old was Napoleon the First 

when he died ? 
He ivas not old, 1 he ivas only in his 

fifty-second year. 2 
How old is that fine building yon- 

der? 



I do not know, but I am told 1 it is 
a hundred and sixty-three years 
old, 2 and they say it is the palace 
of the "Elys<5e," where the Presi- 
dent lives.* 

Is your brother older than I ? 

I think so, 1 for 2 I believe he is 
thirty-four,* and consequently 
older than you by five years.* 

Is this book old? 



Huitieme Exercice de Lec- 
ture sur les Idiomes 

Quel dge avez-vous, mon ami ? 

J y ai vingt ans, 1 mais ma sceur en 
a seulement quatorze, 2 (ou) je 
suis dge* de vingt ans 1 et ma 
sceur w' est dgee que de quatorze 2 

Quel dge avait Napoleon Ier quand 
il mourut ? 

II n'' etait pas dge, 1 il avait seule- 
ment ciyiquante-deux ans. 2 

Quand ce beau bdtiment-ld. a-t-il 
ete bdti ? (ou) De combien ce 
beau batiment-ld est-il vieux? 
(ou) Quelle est V anciennete de 
ce beau bdtiment ? 

Je ne sais pas, mais cm me dit 1 que 
ce batiment est vieux de cent 
soixante trois aus, 2 et ils disent 
que c' est le palais de 1' Elys6e, 
ou le President habite.* 

Votre frere est-il plus dge que 
moi? 

Je pense que oui, 1 parce que 2 je 
crois qu il a trente quatre ayis : 3 
et par consequent, il a cinq ans 
plus que vous.± 

Ce livre est-il vieux ? 



*dge is said for persons and for animals, and vieux (old) is used 
more particularly for things. 



French Speakei 



133 



Yes, very old, it was printed in Oui, tres vieux, il a ete imprime a 

Berlin at the time of Frederick Berlin au temps de Fred6ric-le- 

the Great. Grand. 

Then, it is almost an antiquity. Alors, c' estpresqu' une antiquity. 



oi. 

oi is pronounced as w a in was or as the vowels o and a 
pronounced in a diphthong : 



moi 


pronounce moa or mwa ; 


a as ah. 


me. 






toi 


" toa or twa ; 


do. 


thee. 






soi 


" soa or swa ; 


do. 


oneself. 






roi 


u roa or rwa ; 


do. 


king. 






Gaulois 


" Gan loa or Gau lwa ; 


Gau as English 


Gallic. 




go, ica as in 
was. 


il recoit 


" l \\ 2 re coa or il re cwa; 


1 il as ill, 2 e as u 


he receives. 




in tab, c as 5 
hard, iv a a wa 
in iv as. 



Observation. — But oi in the following words, has only its 
o pronounced : 

oigiion pronounce o gnon ; o as in not, gn as in migno- 

onion. nette, on as in monk, n 

mute. 

moignon " mo gnon ; o do., gnon as above. 

stump of an 

amputated member. 

poign.ee " *po gnee ; o do., gn as above, e as a 

handful. in fate, e slightly ac- 

cented. 

poireau " *po rau ; o do., au as o in no. 

leek. 

* Many pronounce poignee and poireau having oi pronounced as 
wa in iv as. 



134 



French Speaker. 



Cardinal Numbers from 70 to 91 — Norabres Cardinauxde 70 a 91 



septant, 



soixante-dix 

70. 



pronounce sep tant ; 



soi sant dize 



septante et un, 

or 

soixante-onze 

71. 

septante six, 



soixante-seize 

76. 



quatre-vingts 

80. 



q uatr e-vi ngt-un 

81.. 



sep tant e un 



soi sant onze 



sep tant size 



soi sant saize 



katre vin 



katre vin un 



quatre-vingt-sept " katre vin set 

87. 



Sep as as in Sep- 
tennial,an as in 
want, n mute, t 
final sounded 
also. 

both s's hard, oi 
as wain was, an 
as in want n 
mute, t sound- 
ed, i as Eng- 
lish e, z sound- 
ed, e mute. 

septant as above, 
e as a in fate, 
un as in hunter 
n mute. 

soisant as above, 
on as in monk 
n mute, z sound- 
ed, e mute. 

septant as above, 
5 in size hard, 
i as English e, 
z sounded, e 
mute. 

soisant as above, 
s in saize hard, 
ai as ay in may, 
z sounded, e 
mute. 

ka as ca in cat, 
tre sounded, e 
slightly accent- 
ed as u in tub, 
in as an\r\ tank 
n mute. 

katre as above, 
vin as above, 
un as in hunter 
n mute. 

katre vin as 
above, set as 
English set. 



nonante, 



French Speaker. 



pronounce no nante ; 



135 



quatre-vingt-dix 

90. 



nonante et un, 



quatre-vingt-onze 

91. 



katre vin dize ; 



no nant e un 



katre vin onze ; 



oir. 



no as in not, an 
as in want n 
mute, t sound- 
ed e mute. 

katre vin as 
above, i as Eng- 
lish e, z sound- 
ed, e mute. 

nonant as above, 
e as a in fate, 
un as in hunter 
n mute. 

katre vin as 
above, on as in 
monk n mute, 
z sounded, e 
mute. 



Oir is sounded as the vowel o and ar of car pronounced 
in a diphthong-; or w placed before ar of car and pro- 
nounced as in English, gives the exact sound of oir : 



poire 

pear. 
foire 

fair. 
ivoire 

ivory. 
croire 

to believe. 



pronounce poar or pwar ; ar as in car. 

" foar or fwar ; ar do. 

" i voar or i vwar ; i as English e, ar 

above. 
" croar or crwar ; ar do. 



This compound vowel is sounded as oo as too 



ou 

or. 

ou 

where. 

cou 

neck. 

tout 

everything, 

every, entirely 



pronounce ou ; 
" ou 



cou 



tou; 



as given, 
as ou above. 
ou as oo in too. 
do. 



136 



French Speaker. 



partout pronounce par tou ; 

everywhere. 

genou " ge nou ; 

knee. 

chou " shou : 

cabbage. 



ar as in parlor, ou 

as above. 
g soft, eastt in tub, 

ou as above. 
ou as above. 



In this combination, ou has the same sound as above, and 
e is pronounced as English iv final : 



roue pronounce 


rouw ; 


ouw as given. 


wheel. 






boue " 


bouw ; 


do. 


mud. 






je loue " 


x je 2 louw; 


\j soft as in bijou, e 


I let, I praise. 




as u in us, 2 ouw as 
above. 


Bourdaloue " 


Bour da louw ; 


our as oor in poor, a 


French writer. 




as ah, ouw as 
above. 



oul. 



This combination has the sound of ull in pull, or as ul in 
ful: 



foule 


pronounce ful; 


as English ful. 


crowd. 


' 




il roule 


" ljl 2 rou l e; 


1 il as ill, 2 oule as 


he rolls. 




ull in pull. 


boule 


bull ; 


as English bull. 


ball. 






ampoule 


" am pull ; 


am as an in want m 


blister. 




mute, pull as in 
English. 


Toul 


" Toul ; 


oul as ull above. 


French town. 







French Speaker. 



137 



Cardinal Numbers from 98 
de98 



to 1,000,000— Nombres Cardinaux 
a 1,000,000. 



nonante-huit, 



pronounce no nant wit 



quat re-vingt-d ix-huit 
98. 



cent 

100. 
cent-un 

101. 

cent-deux 

102. 



cent-vingt 

120. 

deux cents 

200. 



cinq cents 

500. 

mille 

1000. 

quinze cents, 



mille-cinq cents 

1500. 



no as in not, an 
as in want, n 
mute, t sound- 
ed, wit as in 
English. 
katrevindizewit; ka as ca in cat, 
tre sounded 
with e slightly 
accented as u 
in tub, vin with 
in as an in sank, 
n mute, i as En- 
glish e, z sound- 
ed, e mute, wit 
as in English. 
s hard, an as in 
want, n mute. 
san as above, un 
as in hunter, n 
mute. 
san as above, eu 
as between 
French u and u 
of us. 
sayi as above, in 
as an in sank, 
n mute. 
eu as between 
French u and 
u of us, san as 
above. 
sank as English 
sank, san as 
above, 
as English mill. 



san ; 



san deu 



deu san 



sank san ; 



mill; 



kinz san 



mill sank san 



in as an in sank, 
n mute, z 
sounded, san 
as above. 

mill, sank and 
san as above. 



138 

deux mille 



million 

1,000,000. 



French Speaker 
pronounce deu mill ; 
" mi yon ; 



eu and mill as 
above. 

mi' as in mignon- 
ette, yon with 
on as in yonder, 
n mute. 



Ninth Idiomatical Reading 
Exercise. 

I am hungry 1 this morning, and I 
will take 2 a good breakfast. 



He is always hungry 1 when he 
takes a walk 2 in the country. 3 

Does a walk 1 in the country" 2 
make you 1 more hungry 3 than 
in town ? 

That poor woman and her chil- 
dren were so hungry - 1 but a 
little 2 bread and apiece 3 of meat 
relieved them.' 1 

The soldiers of the " Grande 
Armee," under 1 Napoleon the 
First, starved 2 with hunger, 3 
thirst* and cold 6 on their way 
to 6 and from- 7 Russia. 

When you are thirsty, 1 what do 
you drink? 2 

I quench my thirst 1 with wine 
mixed with water, 2 and some- 
times 3 I drink (of) 4 coffee or 
(o/) 4 tea. 



Neuvieme Exercice de Lecture 
sur les Idiomes. 

J'ai faim 1 ce matin et je ferai 2 
un bo7i dejeuner ; (ou) je dejeu- 
ner ai Men ; (ow) je dejeUnerai 
avee appStit. 

II a toujour s faim 1 quand il va se 
promener 2 a la campagne. 3 

line promenade 1 a la campagne 2 
vous donne-t-elle 1 plus d'appe- 
tit 3 qu'en ville. 

Cette pauvre femme et ses enfants 
avaient si faim.' 1 mais un peu 2 
de pain et un morceau 3 de vi _ 
ande les reconforterent.* 

Les soldats de la Grande Armee 
sous 1 Napoleon ler moururent 2 
de faim, 3 de soif* et de froid* 
en allant en 6 Russie et en en 
revenant. 7 

Quand vous avez soif, 1 que buvez 
vous? 2 

Je me desaltere 1 avee du vin 
mele" ri'eau. 2 et quelquefois, 3 je 
bois du* caie ou du* the\ 



Our sounds as oo in poor : 

pronounce a mour 

" tour : 



amour 

love. 
tour 
tower, trick. 
pour 
for. 



pour • 



a as ah,our as oor in poor, 
our as above, 
do. 



French Speaker. 



139 



detour pronounce 


de tour ; 


e as ain fate, our as above. 


winding, excuse. 






lourd " 


lour ; 


our as above. 


heavy, dull. 







ouce and ouse. 

Ou is sounded in these combinations as oo in loose 

pronounce poose ; 
" blooze ; 



pouce 

thumb. 
blouse 
frock. 
ventouse 

cupping-glass. 
Toulouse 
French city. 
La Perouse 

French navigator. 

bouse 

dung. 



ou as given, s hard as in 

son, e mute. 
ou do., z sounded, e mute. 



ven tooze ; 
Too loose ; 
La Pe roose 
boose ; 



en as an in want,n mute, 
ooze as above. 

oo as in too, loose as En- 
glish loose. 

a as ah, £ as a in fate, 
oose as in loose. 

oose as in loose. 



ouss. 

Ouss sounds as uss in puss : 



mousse 

moss, foam. 
rouse 
red, russet. 
il tousse 
he coughs. 
gousset 
pocket, gusset. 

coussin 

pillow. 
trousse 

truss, bundle. 



pronounce mouss ; 

" rouss ; 

" n\ 2 tOUSS 

" gous set ; 

" cous sin ; 

" trouss ; 



ouss as uss m puss. 

do. 
HI as ill ; %ouss do. 

ous as ouss above, set 
with se as in English 
set keeping t mute. 

ous do., s hard, in as 
an in sank, n mute. 

ouss, as uss in puss. 



ouil, ouille. 

In these combinations ou is sounded as oo in too, and il 
and ille change their pronunciation to that of the liquid 
final ye in eye ; and ye added to ou has its e a little more 
accented than e final in see, keeping- it almost mute : 



140 



French Speaker. 



bouillon pronounce bou yon 

boiling liquid, 

beef tea. 

brouille •' 

misunderstanding, 
disagreement. 



Je fouille 

I search, I dig. 

grenouille 

frog. 
houille 

coal, pit-coal. 
houilleur 

collier, coal-miner. 

il souille 

he soils. 



brouye ; 
x je 3 fouye 



gre nouye 
houye ; 
hou yeur ; 

x il 2 souye ; 



ou as oo in too, y com- 
bined with on as in 
monk, n mute. 
ou do., ye as explained, 
with e slightly ac- 
cented, 
y soft, e as u in tub, 
% ou as above, ye as 
above. 
e as u in tub, ouye as 

above, 
as above ; h is aspirate, 

ouye as above. 
h aspirate, ou as oo in too, 
yeur combined with 
eur as ur in fur, broad. 
HI as ill ; 2 s hard, ouye 
as above. 



Ordinal Numbers from 1 to 20 — Nombres Ordinaux de 1 a 20. 



Premier 

first. 

deuxieme 

second. 



troisieme 

third. 

quatrieme 

fourth. 

cinquieme 

fifth. 



sixieme 

sixth. 



pronounce pre mie 



deu zi-eme 



troa zi-eme 



ka tri-eme 



san ki-eme 



si zi-eme ; 



e as u in tub, i 
combined with <? 
as a in fate. 

eu as between 
French u and u 
of ms, i combined 
with erne, sound- 
ing the conso- 
nant m long. 

o and a combined, 
or as, wa in teas, 
zi-eme as above. 

ka as in cat, tri 
combined with 
erne as above. 

s hard, an as in 
sank, n mute, ki 
with i as in view, 
combined with 
erne as above. 

s hard, i as En- 
glish e, zi-eme 
combined as 
above. 



French Speaker 



141 



septieme 

seventh. 



huitieme 

eighth. 

neuvieme 

ninth. 

dixieme 

tenth. 
onzieme 

eleventh. 

douzieme 

twelfth. 

treizieme 

thirteenth. 

q uatorzieme 

fourteenth. 

quinzieme 

fifteenth. 

seizieme 

sixteenth. 

dix-septieme 

seventeenth. 



dix-huitieme 

eighteenth. 



dix-neuvieme 

nineteenth. 



viiigtieme 

twentieth. 



pronounce set ti-eme 



Avi ti-eme; 
neu vi-eme ; 

di zi-eme ; 
on zieme ; 
dou zi-eme ; 
trai zieme ; 
ka tor zi-eme ; 

kin zi-eme ; 

saizi-eme ; 

di set ti-eme ; 

diz wi ti-eme ; 
diz neu vi-eme 
vin ti erne : 



set as English set, 
ti as in tip com- 
bined with erne 
sounding the 
consonant m 
long. 

wi as in wit,ti-eme 
as above. 

eu as u in us, vi- 
eme combined as 
above. 

i as English e, 
zi-eme as above. 

on as in monk, n_ 
mute, zi-eme do. 

ou as oo in too, 
di-eme do 

ai as a in made, 
zi-eme do. 

ka as in cat, or as 
in horse, zi-eme 
do. 

in as an in sank, 
n mute, zi-eme 
do. 

5 hard, ai as ay 
in may, zi-eme 
do. 

di as dee in deep, 
set as English 
set, ti as in tip 
combined with 
erne as above. 

diz with di as dee 
in deep, z sound- 
ed, wi as in wit, 
ti-eme do. 

diz as above, en as 
u in tub, vi-eme 
combined as 
above. 

in as an in sank, 
n mute, ti-eme 
as above. 



142 



French Speaker. 



Tenth Idiomatical Reading 
Exercise. 

The least 1 word makes 2 that man 

angry. 3 
Does your master become 1 angry 3 

sometimes? 2 

Yes, he is angry 1 when the stu- 
dents do not listen 2 to what he 
says. s 

That captain was very angry 1 yes- 
terday with 2 his soldiers, and 
he still looks 3 angry" 1 to-day. 



He grew angry 1 lor they were 
drunk 2 and were laughing at 3 
him. 



I am angry with myself 1 when I 

think of 2 what I have done for 

him. 
The king spoke very sharply 1 to 

his minister, he even told him 

many disagreeable truths. 2 

ui and uy. 

These compounds vowels are sounded as English pro- 
noun we: 



Dixieme Exercice de Lecture 
sur les Idiomes. 

Le moindre 1 mot met 2 cet homme 
en colere; 3 (ou) fdche cet homme' 

Voire maitre se met-il 1 quelque- 
fois 3 en colere; 2 (ou) votre 
maitre se fdche-t-il quelquefois ? 

Oui, il se fdche .- 1 (ou) il se met en 
cotere quand les 6tudiants 
n 7 econtent pas 2 ce quHl dit.% 

Ce capitaine etait tres en colere: 1 
(ou) tres fache hier contre* ses 
soldats, et il a encore V air 3 
fdche; 11 (ou) V air en colere au- 
jour d'hui. 

II se fdchd 1 ; (ou) il se mit en 
colere parce qu' ils etaient 
ivres ; 2 (ou) en ribotte, et 
qui' ils riaient de 3 lui. 

Je me fdche contre moi .- 1 (ou) je 
to' en veux 1 quand je pense a 2 ce 
que j' ai fait pour lui. 

Le roi parla tres aigrement 1 a son 
ministre, il lui dit meme de gros 
mots. 2 



je suis 

I am. 
il suit 

he follows. 
je puis 
lean, lam 
able. 
il fuit 
he shuns. 
cuit 
cooked. 
celui 
the one. 
lie Puy 
French city. 



pronounce \je 2 sui 



x je 2 pui 



iil 2fui 



Le Puy ; 



j soft, e as u in tub ; 2 sui 

as swee in sweet. 
l il as ill ; 2 sui as above. 

l je as above ; 2 ui as we. 



HI as above ; *ui as we. 

c as k, ui as we. 

c as s hard, e as u in tub, 

ui as we. 
e as u in tub, uy as we. 



French Speaker. 



143 



ui as \vi in wit. 

For this sound, see pages 64 and 67, First Part. 



This combination is sounded as tvee : 



suie 


pronounce 


swee ; 


s combined with w as in 


soot. 






sweet, ce as in wee. 


enfuie 


<< 


en fwee ; 


en as an in want u mute, 


run out. 






/ combined with w, ee 
as above. 


rejouie 


u 


rejou wee ; 


e as a in fate, j soft, ou as 


rejoiced. 






oo in too, wee as given 
above. 


ouie 


" 


on wee ; 


on as above, wee do. 



hearing. 

The following words, though ending in uie, have not the 
e accented, and uie is pronounced exactly as we : 
pluie pronounce plui ; ui as English we. 

rain. 

parapluie " pa ra plui ; 

umbrella. 



both a's as in cat, uie 
English toe. 



Eleventh Idiomatical Reading 
Exercise. 

This boy is wrong 1 when he does 
not obey 2 his parents and his 
masters. 

Parents are wrong 1 when they do 
not correct 2 their children, for 3 
if there is± a command of God 
for children to$ obey their pa- 
rents, there is also one 6 which 
compels p a rent s 7 and masters to 
make themselves* respected. 

To wrong 1 his neighbor is not to 
be* a, christian. 

The absent one is often the wrong 

■party. 
In order to speak justly ,i one must 

not speak 2 inconsiderately. 3 



Onzieme Exercice de Lecture 
sur les Idiomes. 

Ce garcon a tort 1 quand il n'obeit 
pas 2 a ses parents et a ses mat- 
tres. 

Les parents ont tort 1 quand Us 
ne cor rig ent pas 2 leurs enfants, 
parce que* s' ily a 4 un com- 
mandment de Dieu aux enfants 
d' 5 obeirtl leurs parents, ily en a 
un aussi e qui oblige ceux-ci 7 et 
les maitres de sefaire* respecter. 

Faire tort a 1 son voisin ; (ou) a 
son prochain, n 1 est pas 2 Chre- 
tien. 

L' absent est souvent celui qui a 
tort. 

Afin de bien parler, 1 on ne doit 
pas p>arler, 2 (ou) il ne faut pas 
parler, 2 a tort et a traverse 



144 



French Speaker. 



The pauper is often wrong. 
Might or wrong, 1 they ordered him 

to set out. 2 
If you are in the right, 1 why donH 

you speak ? 2 
I know that I am right, 1 but I do 

not care 2 to say a word before 

them. s 



It is right 1 to go to church, 2 let us 
go* now,* just now,* directly.^ 



Le pauvre a souvent tort. 

A tort on a raison, 1 il lui or don- 
n&rent de partir. 2 

Si vous avez raison, 1 pourquoi ne 
parlez-vous pas ? 2 

Je sais que f ai raison, 1 mais je 
n J aime pas, 2 (ou) je ne desire 
pas, 2 (ou) peu m' import e de, 2 
(ou) je ne veux pas parler 2 de- 
vant eux, 3 (ou) en leur pres- 
ence. 3 

II sera Men 1 d' alter a Veglise, 2 
partons, 3 (ou) allous-y 3 main- 
tenant,^ dpr&sent,*d V instant, 11 
imme'diatement,* (ou) tout de 
suite,* (ou) sur-le-champ.* 



Ordinal Numbers from 21st to 55th — N ombres Ordinaux de Vingt 
et unieme a cinquante cinquieme. 



vingt et unieme 

21st. 



pronounce 



vingt-deuxi erne 



trentieme 

30th. 



vint e u ni-eme ; , 
in as an in tank 
n mute t sound- 
ed, e as a in fate, 
u as in French, 
ni as in nib form- 
ing a diphthong 
with erne , pro- 
nounced in 
sounding the con- 
sonant m long. 

vint deu zi-eme ; 
v i n t as above, 
eu as between 
French u and u 
of us, i-eyne as 
above. 

tren ti-eme ; 

en as an in want 
n mute, ti as in 
tip forming a 
diphthong with 
hme as above. 



trente et unieme 

31st. 



trente-troisieme 

33d. 



quarantieme 
AOth. 



quarante et unienie 

41st. 



French Speaker 

pronounce 



quarante-quatrieme 

44th. 



cmquantieme 

50th. 



cinquante e uuieme 
51st. 



cmqnante-cinquieme 

55th. 



145 

treat e li ni-eme ; 
treat as above. I 
as a in fate, u as 
French u, i-eme 
as above. 
trent troi zi-eme ; 
trent as above, oi 
as wa in icas, 
i-eme as above. 

ka ran ti-eme ; 

ka as in cat, an 
as in want n 
mute. i-eme as 
above. 

ka rant e n ni-eme : 
karant as above, 
t sounded, e as a 
in / a t e , u as 
French u, ni com- 
bined with rulC 
soun ding the con- 
sonant m long. 

ka rant ka tri erne ; 
karant as above, 
ka as ca in cat, 
It sounded i-eme 
as above. 

sin kan ti-eme ; 

sin a.ssan insank. 
n mute, kan with 
an as in want n 
mute, ti-eme as 
above. 

sin kant e u ni-eme ; 
sin kan t as above, 
e as a in fate, u 
as in French, ni- 
eme as above. 

sin kant sin ki-eme , 
sin kant as above, 
smas san in sank 
n mute, ki-eme as 
above. 



146 



French Speaker. 



Um ending- Latin words used in French, sounds as um in 
rum or as om in Tom broad : 



factum pronounce fac turn ; 

written account of 

facts. 



quantum 

the amount. 

album 

album. 
pens am 

punishment. 

rhum 

rum. 

aquarium 

aquarium. 



factotum 

factotum. 

Latium 

country in Italy 

(History). 

liabarum 

standard of Con- 

stantin. 

triumvir 

roman magistrate. 

palladium 

white metal. . 



kwan turn ; 

album ; 
pen sum ; 

rum ; 

a qua ri-um 

fac to turn ; 
La ti-um 
La ba rum : 



fac as in fact, um as 
in ntw#broad. 

kwan as quan in 

quantity, um as 

above. 
al as in salvation,um 

as in rum broad. 
pen as English pen, 

s hard, um as in 

rum broad. 
as above broad. 

a as ah, qua as in 
quaff, ri as in rip 
combined with um 
as um in rum. 

fac as in fact, o as 
in no, turn as Tom, 
broad. 

a as ah, t as 5 hard,i 
dighthongwith um 
as above. 

both a's as ah, um&s 
above. 



tri um vir ; tri as in trinity, um 

as above, ir as ere 
in here. 
pal la di-um ; pal with alas in sal- 
vation, a as ah, i 
diphthong, with um 
as given. 



Notice. 



The whole translation is not given in the following- Idio- 
matical Eeading Exercises, except for Idioms, which are 
printed in italics on the French side. 



French Speaker. 



147 



Twelfth Idiomatical Reading 
Exercise. 

1 You have delayed 2 to bring me. 

What was the matter with you ? 

1 was not feeling well 

2 that I have delayed 3 to set out. 

What was the matter with him ? 
he took ill suddenly. 



I What was the matter with the son 
2 at the school time 

I I have sent him for 2 he fell 3 I 
even fear ±that he may have 
broken one of his ribs. 

I had the intention of going 2 on 
account 

What is the matter with your aunt? 

1 that nothing is the matter with 

her 

2 that she feels well 

3 but she comes to see us 
* to spend 

5 at our house. 



Douzieme Exercice de Lecture 
sur les Idiomes. 

Vous avez mis du retard 1 am' ap- 
portcr* ces nouvelles, pourquoi? 

Qu' avez-vous ea ? 

Mon pere ne seportait pas bieii, 1 
c'est pour cela<2 ue fai tarde 2 de 
partir. 3 

Qw' avait-il ? 

11 futpris d'un mal subit qui le 
fit souffrir beaucoup et pendant 
longtemps. 

QiC avail le Jils 1 de votre soeur 
lorsque je le vis ce matin a 
V heure, d' alter a V ecole. 2 

Je fai envoy e chercher 1 le doc- 
teur, et il est tombed fai meme 
peur* qu 1 il se soit casse line 
cote.* 

J' avais V intention d 1 aller 1 au 
theatre ce soir, mais je ne le 
pourrai a cause 2 de ma tante. 

Qu 1 a votre tante? 

J' espere qa' elle n' a rien, 1 au 
contraire, j'ai confiance qu 1 elle 
se portebien ; 2 mais elle no as ar- 
rive 3 dans 1' apres-midi pour 
passer* un jour ou deux chez 
nous. 5 



une and ume. 



Une and ume, though containing- two syllables, form only 
one sound ; u is pronounced as given in the French alpha- 
bet, and n and m are sounded leaving e mute : 



une 

one, a. 

lune 

moon. 
tribune 

tribune. 



pronounce u ne 



lu ne ; 

tri bu ne 



a as in the French al- 
phabet, n sounded, e 
mute. 

do. do. do. 

tri as in trinity, it and 
n as above, e do. 



148 



Frenclt Speaker. 



rancune 
rancour. 

chacune 
each. 
je fume 

I smoke. 



rhume 

cold. 

il presume 
he presumes. 
X allume 

I light. 



pronounce ran cu ne 



sha cu ne 



an as in want, n mute, 
u and n as above, e 
mute. 

a as in cat, u and n as 
above, e mute. 



ye 2 fu me 



2 il 2 pre zu me 



ja lu me 



y" soft, e as u 



lub, 



2 w as in French alpha- 
bet, m. sounded, e 
mute. 

u and m as above, e 
mute. 

il as ill, e as a in fate, u 
and m as above, e mute. 

j soft as in bijou, a as 
ah, u and wi as above, 
e mute. 



Ordinal Numbers from 60th to 300th and up— Nombres Ordi- 
naux de Soixantieme a Trois centieme et au-dessus. 
soixantieme 



pronounce soi san ti-eme 



60th. 



soixante et unieme 

61st. 



soixante-sixieme 



septantieme 



soixante-dixieme 

70th. 



5hard,oiaswain ivas,s 
hard, aw as in want, 
n mute, ti as in tip, 
combined with erne, 
pronounced by 
sounding the con- 
sonant m long. 

soi sant e u ni-eme ; 
soisant as above, t 
sounded, e as a in 
fate,u as in French, 
i-eme as above. 

soi sant si zi-eme ; 
soisant as above, s 
hard, i as English 
e, i-eme as above. 

sep tan ti-eme ; 

sep as in septennial, 
an as in want, n 
mute, ti-eme as 
above. 

soi sant di zi-eme ; 
soisant as above, i as 
English e, i-eme as 
above. 



French, Speaker. 



149 



septante et unieme 



soixante-onzieme 

71st. 



quatre-vingtieme 

80th. 



quatre-vingt-uiiieme 

81st. 



quatre-vingt-sixieme 

86th. 



nonantieme 



quatre-vingt-dixieme 

90th. 



nonante-septieme 



quatre-vingt-dix-septieme 

97th. 



pronounce sep tant e u ni-eme ; 

septant as above, t 
final sonuded, e as 
a in fate, u as in 
French, i-eme as 
above. 
" soi sant on zi-eme ; 

soisant as above, on 
as in monk,n mute, 
i-eme as above. 
" katre vin t i-eme ; 

A:aasin cat,tr sound- 
ed, e slightly ac- 
cented as u in tub, 
in as an in sank, 
n mute, i-£me as 
above. 
" katre vin u ni-eme ; 

katre vin as above, u 
as in French, i-eme 
as above. 
" katre vin sizi-eme ; 

katre vin as above, s 
hard, i as English 
e, i-eme as above. 
" no nante ; 

no as in not, an as in 
want, n mute, t 
sounded, e mute. 
" katre vin di zi-eme ; 

katre vin as above, di 
as dee in deep, i-eme 
as above. 
" no nant set ti-eme ; 

nonant as above, with 
t sounded, set as in 
English, i-eme as 
above. 
" katre vin di set ti-eme 

katre vin as above, di 
as dee in deep, set- 
ti-eme as above. 



150 



French Speaker. 



centieme 

100. 



cent et unieme 

101st. 



cent-huitieme 

108th. 

deux-centieme 

200th. 



deux-cent et unieme 

201st. 



Trois-centieme 

SOOth. 



pronounce cen ti-eme ; 

c as s hard, en as an 
in want, n mute, 
ti-eme as above. 
" cent e u ni-eme ; 

cent as above, with t 
linked to e,e as ctin 
fate,u &sin French, 
i-eme as above. 
" cen wi ti-eme ; 

cen as above, wi as in 
wit, ti-eme as above. 
" deu cen ti-eme ; 

eu as between French 
u and u of us, cen 
as above, ti-eme as 
above. 
" deu cent e u ni-eme. 

deu cent as above, 
with t linked to e, e 
as a mfate, u as in 
French, i-eme as 
above. 
" Trwa centi-eme ; 

Tr combined with wa 
as in was, centi-eme 
as above. 



To be Known. 

All numbers can be given in the Ordinal Form by adding to 
them the final ieme But in onze (eleven), douze (twelve), treize 
(thirteen), quatorze (fourteen), quinze (fifteen), seize (sixteen), 
single or compound numbers, ending e disappears, and in million 
(million) the ending n is doubled preceding the final ieme. 



When Roman numbers follow names of emperors, kings, 
popes, etc., they are pronounced as cardinal numbers, and 
not as ordinal numbers : 

But exception is made for the number /, which alone is 
pronounced as an ordinal number : 



French Speaker 



151 



Leopold ler or I pronounce ^e o poll 2 pre mie; *eas a in fate, 



an emperor of Ger- 
many, or the first 
king of Belgium. 



Philippe II 

king of Spam. 



Napoleon III 

emperor of France. 



Henri IV 

king of France. 



o as in not, 
poll as En- 
glish poll, 
2 eas« in tub, 
mie with e 
as a in fate. 
*Fi lip 2deu ; * Fi as in fit, 

lip as En- 
glish lip; 2 eu 
as between 
French u 
and u of us. 
*Na po le on 2 troi ; 1 a as ah, o as 
in not,e as a 
in fate, on as 
in monk, n 
route ; Hroi: 
ox as oa com- 
bined. 
iHeii ri 2 katr ; Vi mute, or as- 

pirate (op- 
tional), en 
as an in 
want, n 
mute, ri as 
in rip, 2 a as 
in cat, tr 
sounded. 
l L»e on 2 diz ; 1 e as a in fate, 

on as i n 
monk, n 
mute ; 2 t as 
English e, z 
sounded. 

Dating numbers are pronounced as cardinal numbers 
also, except the first day of the month, which has, as in the 
Eoman numbers above, an ordinal appellation : 

lelerAvril pronounce Ue 2 premier 3 Avri ; 1 and 2 eas u in 

April the 1st. tub, ier as i 

and e combin- 
ed, r linked, 
8 a as ah, i as 
in city. 



Leon X 

pope Leon the Tenth. 



152 



le 5 Mars 

March the 5th. 



le 4 Juillet 

July the 4th. 



le 20 Septembre 

September the 20th 



le 31 Mai 

May the 31st. 



French Speaker. 

pronounce x le 2 san 3 Mars ; 



Ue 2 vin 3 se tembre ; 



ile 2 trent 3 e *un 5 Mai 



L'an,o»' l'annee 1814 

The year 18 14. 



ido., %san as in 
sank,njnvLbe, 

ar as in farce, 
s sounded or 
not (option- 
al). 
x le 2 katr 8 Jui yet ido., 2 given, s ui 

as wi in xoit, 
yet as yet, 
with t mute. 
!do., 2 given, s se 
as in set, em as 
an in want, 
m mute, br 
sounded, e 
mute. 

x e as u in tub, 
%en as an in 
want, 71 mute, 
t sounded, H 
as a in fate, 
*un as in hun- 
ter, n mute, 
6 Mai as En- 
glish May. 

an as in want, 
n mute. 

a as ah, e as in 
fate, e slight- 
ly accented. 

as »n^/. 

as wi in wit. 

c as 5 hard, en 
as aw in want, 
n and imute. 

&a as in cat, or 
as in horse, z 
sounded, e 
mute. J 

di as dee in deep, 
z sounded. 

as wi in wit. 

as ce??£ above. 

as k at or z e 

above. 



Ian, or 
la nee ; 



mil ; 
wi ; 
cent ; 



katorze (or) 



diz ; 

wi ; 
cent ; 
katorze 



French. Speaker. 



153 



Observation. 



Except in deeds and in money matters, the dates in 
French are written in figures. 



Thirteenth Idiomatical Read- 
ing Exercise. 

Then you desire with earnestness 
to see her ? 

1 I rejoice greatly of it. 

2 I will rejoice still more. 



1 Sea-sickness 

2 you cross the sea, or the ocean. 

1 1 feel bad already 2 if it was not it 



I love to travel by water 

1 There are 2 \vho wait for you 
3 must I ask them to come in ? 3 

Did they give you 
1 both 2 here they are 

1 Tell those gentlemen to sit down 

in the parlor 

2 that I will see them directly. 



Treizieme Exercice de Lecture 
sur les Idiomes. 

Vous aspirez done beaucoup a la 

voir ce soir ? 
Oui, je m' en rejouis beaucoup 

a V avance 1 et ;;' espere que je me 

rejouirai plus eneore 2 ce soir 

qu' en allant au spectacle. 
Aver- vous le mal de mer 1 lorsque 
vous traversez 2 V ocean ? 
Oui malheureusement, je me 

trouve dejh mal 1 quand je vois 

l'eau ; sinon cela,* je ferais un 

grand voyage en Europe l'6t6 

prochain. 
Moi, f adore les voyages par eau 

car je n' ai jamais le mal de mer. 
II y a 1 la 1 deux Messieurs qui vous 

attendent^ faut-il les /aire en- 

trer ?3 
Vous ont-ils remis leurs cartes ? 
Oui, tons deux 1 les voila. 2 
Faites asseoir ces Messieurs au 

salori, 1 et dites-leur que je serai 

a euxa V 'instant. 2 



154 



French Speaker. 



NASAL SOUNDS. 

Cutting of Nasal Sounds. 

The pronunciation of the sounds an, in, on, un nasal, must 
be clear, distinct and plain. We mean to say that an must 
have nothing- but the nasal part of an in want, in that of an 
in sank, on that of on in monk, un that of un in hunter, not 
having- the sound of n appear at all, nor the m, when this 
consonant takes the place of the n, am, im, om, um being 
placed in words for to be nasal sounds. 

Many cut nasal sounds making their final as, for instance, 
ang, ing, etc. ; but n, m, or g can not be heard. With some 
g-ood will, the student will certainly avoid that bad conso- 
nance and have nasal sounds the most correctly pronounced. 

am, an, era and. en. 



When followed by consonants, except m and n, these 
combinations are sounded as an in ivant ; but m and n are 
strictly mute : 



jam toon 

ham. 

ambition 

ambition. 



pronounce jam bon 



am bi tion 



lampe 


M 


lampe ; 


lamp. 






langue 


(< 


lang-ue ; 


tongue. 






divan 


(( 


di van ; 


Turkish 


supreme council. 




Birman 


(empire) " 


Bir man 


country 


in Asia. 




temps 


« 


tan ; 


time. 







j soft, am as an in 
want, m mute, on 
as in monk,n mute. 

am as above, bi as 
in ambition, t as s 
hard, i combined 
with on as in monk, 
n mute. 

am as above, p 
sounded, e mute. 

an as above, n mute, 
g as in fog, tie mute. 

i as English e, an 
as above. 

ir as ere in here, an 
as above, n mute. 

an as above. 



French Speaker. 



155 



ensemble 


pron 


ounce 


together. 






temple 




- 


temple, church. 






talent 




" 


talent, ability. 






pendant 




n 


driving. 






pensee 




a 


thought. 






enfant 




ll 


child. 







en gamble ; en and am as an in 
M)«»<,Mandmmute, 
bl sounded, e mute. 

tample ; am as above, pi 
sounded, e mute. 

ta Ian ; a as ah, an as in 

want, n mute. 

pen dan ; en and an as above, 
both n's mute. 

pen see ; en as above, s hard, 
e as a in fate, e 
slightly accented. 

en fan ; en and an as in want, 

both n's mute. 

Invitation to a Riding- Party. 

Philadelphie, le 15 Aout 1891. 
Mon cher Ami, 

J' arrive 1 a, 1' instant 2 de la campagne et j' apprends 3 que 
vous etes 4 en ville aussi. 

Le temps qu'il fait 5 me donne 6 l' inspiration que demain 
nous pourrions'* peut-etre 8 faire une promenade ensemble 
a, cheval 9 dans les environs. 

Si tel est votre avis, nous profiterions de cette occasion 10 
pour causer 1 1 plus particulierement de nos affaires •' et je 
serais 1 2 tres heureux d' apprendre au retour de mon gar con, 
que ma lettre vous a trouve 13 en bonne sante et dispose a 
partager 14 mes intentions. 

Je vous laisse 1 5 le soin de designer 1 6 1' heure et le lieu de 
notre rencontre que, j'ose me permettre 11 de le croire, 18 
vous fixerez 19 chez moi. 

Dans l'attente 20 de vous serrer cordialement la main, 21 
croyez-moi. 

Mon cher Ami, 

bien 22 sincerement a vous, 23 

L. Englebert, 
A Monsieur J. Newsman, 

Walnut street, 

E. V. 24 



156 French Speaker. 

Vocabulary. 

!J' arrive: T arrive ; 2 a l'instant : just now ; 3 j' apprends : I learn ; 
4 vous etes : you are ; 5 le temps qu'il fait : the weather we have ; 6 me 
dorine : gives me ; 7 nous pourrions : we could be able ; 8 peut-etre : 
perhaps : 9 faire une promenade ensemble a cheval : take a ride to- 
gether ; 10 nous profiterions de cette occasion : we should seize that op- 
portunity ; ll causer : to talk ; 12 je serais : I should be ; 13 vous a trouve" : 
found you; 14 partager : to partake: 15 Je vous laisse : Heave to you; 
i 6 ciesigner : to fix ; 17 j' ose me permettre : I dare allow myself ; i-'de le 
croire : to believe it; 19 vous fixerez : you will fix ; 20 Dans 1' attente : 
waiting ; side vous serrer cordialement la main '.for shaking cordially 
your hand ; 22 bien : very; 23 sincerement a vous : sincerely yours • 24E. 
V. en ville : in town, or city. 



Invitation to a Fishing-Party. 

Montreal le W Mai, 1891. 
Mon eher Jutes, 

Nous nous proposons, 1 mon cousin Louis et moi, d'aller 
pecher 2 samedi |3rochain 3 dans la-Riviere des Prairies. 

Sachant 4 que tu aimes aussi 5 la peche, 6 qui est d'autant 
plus amusanfce 7 que nous sommes encore 8 presqu'a 9 l'epo- 
que de 1' ouverture, 1 ° et que cette riviere, aux sites tous 
cliarmants, 1 1 est d'une abondance surprenante de toutes les 
especes de poissons, 12 nous saisissons 13 cette occasion de 
te procurer, 14 nous en sommes certains, 15 une journee de 
veritable plaisir, 16 de laquelle le succes te rendra le sou- 
venir le plus agreable. 1 7 

Nous partirons 19 vendredi 20 apres-midi 21 par le train de- 
cinq heures, et nous logerons 22 au 23 Sault-au-Recollet, de 
maniere a nous pourvoir d'appats 25 la veille, 26 et de nous 
trouver 21 au pieddu 29 "Rapide" le lendemain 30 a l'heure 
la plus matinale, 3 1 qui est la meilleure, 3 2 tu le sais. 3 3 Veuille 
nous faire savoir 34 par le retour du courrier 3 5 si tu seras de 
la partie, 36 et dans 1' affirmative, nous irons, 37 Louis et moi, 
et quelques autres amis pent-etre, 3 8 t' attendre 3 9 a la station 
de St. Bonaventure au train que tu desigiieras. 4 ° 



French Speaker 



157 



Recois, 41 mon clier Jules, 1' assurance des sentiments de 
ma plus parfaite amitie. 

Ton vieil ami, 42 

Paulin Eibot. 

Vocabulary. 

1 Nous nous proposons : we propose ; 2 d'aller pecher : to go fishing : 
3 samedi prochain : next Saturday : ^saehant : knowing ; 5 que tu aimes 
aussi : that you also love ; 6 la peche : fishing ; 7 qui est d'autant plus 
amusante que : which is so much more amusing that ; 8 encore : still; 
9 presqu' /or presque : almost : 10 1' ouverture : the opening ; n aux sites 
tous charmants : with all charming sceneries ; 12 est d' une abondance 
surprenante de toutes les especes de poissons : has a surjirismg 
abundance of all kinds offish: 13 nous saississons : ive seize: ^pro- 
curer : to secure ; 15 nous en sommes certains : we are sure of it ; 
16 veritable plaisir : a genuine entertainment ; 17 te rendra le souve- 
nir le plus agreable : will make you remember most agreeably ; 
"nous partirons : we will start : 2 °vendredi : Friday ; 21 apres-midi : 
afternoon ; ^nous logerons : we will sleep ; ^au : at ; 2 ±de maniere a 
in order to: ^nous pourvoir d' appats : provide us with bait; 261^ 
veille : the day before ; ^-^nous trouver au pied : to be below : so lende- 
naain : next day ; 31 la plus matinale : the earliest : 32 la meilleure : the 
best : 33 tu le sais : you know ; 3 *veuille nous faire savoir : let us know : 
^par le retour de courrier : by the next mail ; ^si tu seras de la partie : 
if you will be of the party ; 3 ?nous irons: we shall go : 38 peut-etre : 
perhaps: 39 t' attendre : wait on you: *oque tu designeras : that you 
will design : ^recois : receive: i2 Ton vieil ami : your old friend. 

But am, em, en respectively sound as am in ram, broad, 
and the consonants m and n clearly accented : 



Abraham 

■patriarch. 



1, in Biblical Names as 
pronounce A bra am : 



Jeroboam 

King of Israel. 

Roboam 

King of Judea. 

Joram 

King of Israel. 



Je ro bo am ; 

Ro bo am ; 
Jo ram ; 



both «'s as ah, am 
with a as ah a lit- 
tle broader than in 
■ram. 

i soft, e as a in fate, 
both o's as in not, 
am as above. 

both o's as above, 
am as above. 

o as in alphabet, am 
as above. 



158 French Speaker. 

Mathusalem pronounce Ma tu za lem ; 
patriarch. 



Manahera 

King of Israel. 



Ma na era 



both a\s as in cat, n 
as in French, em 
as Em in Emma, 
or sounding the 
consonant m. 

both a J s as above, 
em as above. 



2, in Historical Names as : 



Priam pronounce Pri am 

King of Troy. 



Hiram 

King of Tyre. 



Hi ram 



Pri as in prick, am as 
in ram with a as 
ah broad. 

i as English e, am as 
above. 



3, in Geographical Names as : 



Annam pronounce An am ; 

country in Asia. 



Siam 

country in Asia. 

Birmingham 

city in England. 



Chatham 

city of England. 

Bethleem 

town in Palestine. 



Aden 

gulf in Asia. 

Baden 

city in Germany. 



Si am 



Bir min gam 



Sha tarn ; 



Bett le em 



A den ; 



Ba den 



A as ah, am as in 
ram with a as ah 
broad. 

si as in sick com- 
bined with am as 
above. 

ir as ere in here, in 
as an in sank, n 
mute, <7 as in game, 
am as in ram with 
a as ah broad. 

a as ah, am as 
above. 

Belt as in English, 
e as a in fate, em 
as Em in Emma 
or sounding m. 

A as ah, en as enn 
in Penn. 

as above. 



French Speaker. 



159 



Blankenberg pronounce 
summer resort on 
the North Sea in 
Belgium. 

Nuremberg " 

country in 
Germany. 



Wurtemberg 

country in 
Germany. 



Blan ken berg 



Nu rem berg 



Vur tern berg ; * 



an as in want n 
mute, en as enn in 
JPenn, er as ere in 
there, g as in ice- 
berg. 

u as in French, em 
as Em in Emma 
or soundingm, 
berg as above, 
keeping er as ere 
in there. 

u as above, r roiled, 
emberg as above. 



effendi 

title of certain 
officers in Turkey. 
tarn tam 

Chinese music, 
tiresome noise. 



4, in Foreign "Words as : 
pronounce ef fen di ; f 



tam tam; 



ef as in efficient, en 
as enn in Penn, i 
as English e. 

both ani's as in ram 
with a as ah broad. 



5, in Latin Words Used in French as : 



pronounce a men ; 



compendinm 

compendium. 



memento 

memento. 



com pen di um 



me men to ; 



a as ah, en as enn in 
Penn or sounding 
the consonant n. 

om as in Tom, en as 
enn in Penn, i as 
in city combined 
with um as um in 
rum broad. 

e as a in fate, en as 
above, o as in no. 



*In pronouncing German names as these having em in their com- 
position, many French people sound it nasal, and they do not sound 
final g. But it seems to be smoother to pronounce em and g as given 
here. 

f We think that Foreign and Latin nouns used in French, ought to 
follow the same rule as given above on account of German names for 
the pronunciation of am, em, en and erg. About um ending Latin 
words, it sounds usually as om in Tom, broad. 



160 



French Speaker. 



hymen pronounce hy men 

hymen, marriage. 



agenda 

pocket-book. 
tu-autem 
essential point. 



ad rem 

right to the point. 

ad valorem 

according to the 

value. 

requiem 

mass for the dead. 



a gen da ; 
tu au tern : 

ad rem ; 

ad va lo rem 

re kwi-em ; 



h mute, y as Eng- 
lish e, en as enn in 
Penn or sound- 
ing n. 

both a's as ah, g 
soft, en as above. 

m as in French, au 
as o in no, em as 
Em in Emma or 
sounding m. 

ad as in advance, 
em as above. 

ad as above, a as ah, 
o as in the alpha- 
bet, em as above. 

e as a in fate, wi 
as in mu'£, em as 
above. 



Fourteenth Idiomatical Read- 
ing Exercise. 

iHere is 2 where does it come from 

J It has been stamped 

zfirst. 

1 Very well 2 you can go 

3 I do not need any more 



a But before going out 2 put out the 

light 3 of the side room. 
4 younder 5 carry Ho 



Have you nothing else to do? 

1 nothing at all 2 I thank you 

1 errand 
2 at noon 

3 out at night 

You must do that at that time 
rather than later. 



Quatorizeme Exercice de Lec- 
ture sur les Idiomes. 

Voiei 1 une lettre, d' oil vient-elle ? 2 

D'Amerique probablement, car 

elle a He timbree 1 a New-York le 

ler 2 de ce mois. 

Tres-bien 1 vous pouvez vous en 
oiler' 2 ' maintenant ; je n'ai plus 
besoin$ de vos services aujour 
d'hui. 

Mais avant departir,^ eteignez les 
lumieres 2 de la piece a cote* et la 
bougie qui est sur cette table Ict- 
bas .-iportez 5 aussi un peu d'eau 
chaude dans 6 ma chambre. 

II ri?y a plus rien d' autre a f aire, 
Monsieur ? 

Non, mon ami, rien du tout,* je 
vous remercie. 2 

Vous irez f aire cette course 1 pour 
moi demain a rnidi,* car je 
n'aime pas que vous soyez de- 
hors la nuit. s 

II y a lieu defaire cela alors j>rA- 
ferablement aplu.s tard. 



French Speaker. 161 

1 if you please Louis, vous viendrez, sHl vous 

2 to awake me 3 that I may be ready plait,* ni'eveiller^ a sept heures, 
4 to set out 5 at eight. afin que je sois prit s pour par- 

tir± a huit. 5 

Invitation to a Birthday Party. 

Providence le 15 Aout, 1890. 
Monsieur et Madame Howard, 

A l'occasion du 1 quinzieme 2 anniversaire 3 de la naissance 4 
de notre fille Berthe qui tombe 5 a la fin 6 de ses vacances, le 
27 de ce mois, nous nous proposons, mon mari et moi, d'in- 
viter 7 pour ce jour, nos amis a un diner de famille. Nous 
venons 8 done 9 vous prier 1 ° de nous faire 1 1 l'honneur d'etre 1 2 
des notres 13 avee vos chers enfants. 

Votre participation a cette petite fete 1 4 nous fera 1 5 beau- 
coup de plaisir, 1 6 et elle vous sera d'autant plus agrea- 
ble, 1 7 j'en suis assuree, 1 8 que vous y verrez 1 9 d'autres con- 
vives, nos anciennes amies et condisciples, avee leurs maris 2 ° 
et leurs families aussi, tous charmes 21 de vous rencontrer 22 
avee Monsieur Howard et vos enfants, et aspirant 2 3 comme 24 
moi d'etendre, 25 de retremper 27 a nouveau 28 et plus pro- 
fondement 29 si possible, 1' affection qui nous a unies jadis. 30 

Permettez-nous 31 done de compter sur votre presence, 
Monsieur et Madame Howard, et en attendant T informa- 
tion 32 de votre arrivee. nous vous presentons, 3 3 mon mari, 
moi et notre fille, 1' expression de nos sentiments d'amitie la 
plus sincere. 

Augusta Lyons. 
A Monsieur et a Madame Lucien Howard, 

Hartford, Connecticut 

Vocabulary. 

1 A. l'occasion du : on account of the : ^quinzieme : 15th: 3 anniver- 
saire : anniversary ; *naissance : birth : 5qui tombe : which occurs ; 6 a 
la fin : at the end: 7 d' inviter : to invite : 8 nous venons : ire come . 9 donc : 
then : 10 vous prier : to beg you ; n de nous faire : to give us : 12 i'etre : 
of being ; i3des notres : among us : i*iete : feast ; ^nous fera : will give 
K 



162 



French Speaker 



us ; 16 beaucoup de plai?ir : much pleasure ; 17 elle vous sera d'autant 
plus agr^able : it will be so much more agreeable to you ; isj'en suis 
assured: I am assured of it ; 19 que vous y verrez : that you will see 
there ; 20 leurs maris : their husbands : 21 tous charmed : all charmed : 
22 de vous rencontrer : of meeting you : 23 aspirant : rejoicing ; 2 5comme : 
as: ^d'^tendre : to extend: 27 retremper : to strengthen ; 28 a nouveau : 
again : 29 plus profondement : more deeply : 30 qui nous a unies jadis : 
which united us formerly : 81 permettez-nous : alloiv us; 32 et en atten- 
dant l'information : and in waiting to be informed ; 33 nous vous pr6- 
sentons : we beg you to accept. 



But the following- biblical names have am and an sound- 
ing as an in want, m and n mute : 



Adam pronounce A dam : 

our first father, 

Nathan " Na tan ; 

prophet. 

Chanaan " Ca na an ; 

country in Pales- 
Una (/Scriptures.). 
Jean " Jan ; 

the Precursor 
of Messiah. 

Satan " Sa tan; ; 

the devil. 



A as ah, am as m want m 

mute. 
a as ah, an as in want n 

mute, 
both a 1 s as ah, an as in 
want n mute. 

j soft, an as above. 



S hard, a as ah, an as 
above. 



In the following-, em and en are sounded as an in sank 
keeping m and n mute : 



Mentor pronounce Min tor 

Mentor. 

Benjamin " 

youngest son of 

Jacob. 

examen " eg za min 

examination. 

Memphis " Min fls , 

city in old Egypt. 

Rubens " Ru bins ; 

celebrated 

Belgian painter. 



in as an in sank n mute, 
or as ore. 
Bin ja min ; both in's as an in sank n 
mute, j soft, a as ah. 



eg as in egg, a as ah, in as 

an in sank n mute. 
in as above, fis as in fist. 

u as French u, in as an in 
sanh n mute, s sounded. 



French Speaker. 



163 



Fifteenth Idiomatical Reading 
Exercise. 

1 Yesterday evening 2 they had 
3 were you there 



for I had been hunting all day 



1 what ! 2 they left you out then 



1 we do not agree any more 2 that 
is all 3 I do not interfere 



the best of your friends ! 

i.I have been told many times 
2 that they were worth about 

i so much 2 I was thinking 3 that 
they had 4 at least 

i you are too quick 2 you speak 
easily 3 it seems 

i plenty of 
2 little 



Quinzieme Exercice de Lecture 
sur les Idiomes. 

Hier au soir, 1 il y eut 2 un grand 
grand bal chez notre voisin, y 
assistiez-vo us ? 3 

Non, j'etais trop fatigue\ car fa- 
vais assiste pendant le jour a 
una partie de chasse, et puis, je 
n'etais pas invite" a ce bal. 

Comment /I on vous a laisse de 
cote done / 2 et pourquoi ? 

je ne sais pas, nous ne sommes 
plus d' accord, 1 voila tout ; 2 mais 
pour moi, je ne trempe pas dans 
les querelles. 
Vous me surprenez, ces gens autre- 
fois lafleur de vos amis.' 

Ces gens sont-ils riches ? 

Oui, on m' a dit maintes fois 1 
qu' i!s etaient riches d' environ 2 
500 mille francs. 

Oh ! ce n' est pas tant, 1 je croyais, 2 
moi, qu' Us possedaien^ au 
moins^ un million. 

Vous allez vite en besogne, 1 mon 
ami, il nevous p>cse pas, 2 parait- 
il* de parler de millions ! 

Ah ! je comprends, beaucoup de i 
fnmee et guere 2 de feu 

Parfaitement. 



Answer to an Invitation to a Riding Party. 

Walnut Street, 1018, le 15 Aoiit. 
Mon cher Ludovic : 

II n'y a que trois jours 1 que je suis moi-meme arrive 2 a 
Philadelphie, ou j'ai regie 3 certaines affaires; et ne sa- 
chant 4 plus quefaire 5 de mon temps, je me disposais 6 are- 
tourner a la campagne, 7 qnand voici votre bonne lettre 8 qui 
m'apprend 9 a ma grande surprise et a ma satisfaction votre 
presence en ville. 



164 French Speaker. 

Nous sommes d' accord, 10 et je saisis avec empresse- 
ment 1 1 votre excellente proposition d' une promenade a 
cheval 1 2 dans vos delicieux environs. 

Je sais 13 que, comme moi, 14 vous aimez 15 beaucoup l'air 
matinal. Tenez-vous done pret 16 pour six heures, temps 
auquel je serai au poste, 17 frais et dispos comme vous 
j' espere. 18 

En attendant, je vous serre la main et suis. 

mon cher Ami, 

Tout a vous, 19 

J. Newman. 
A Monsieur L. Englebert, 

Girard Avenue, 

E. V. 



Vocabulary. 

ill n'y a que trois jours : There is only three days: 2 queje suis moi- 
meme arrive : that I arrived myself ; 3 ou j' ai rggie" : where I have 
settled; ±et ne sachant : and not knowing; 5 que faire : what to do; 
6je me disposals: I was disposing myself; 7 a retourner a la cam- 
pagne : to return to the country; 8 quand voici votre bonne lettre: 
when here came your good letter ; 9 qui m' apprend : which tells me ; 
10 Nous sommes d' accord : I agree with you ; n et je saisis avec empres- 
sement : and I seize with a great pleasure ; 12 d' une promenade a 
cheval : to take a ride ; 13 Je sais : I know ; 14 comme moi : as myself ; 
i^vous aimez : you like ; 16 Tenez-vous pret : Be ready; 17 je serai au 
poste : Twill be in time at the place ; 18 j' espere : I hope ; 19 Tout a vous : 
truly yours. 

In am, an, em, en, followed by the vowels a, i, o, u, y, a 
has the sound of ah, and e, which in this case takes an acute 
accent (e), is sounded as a hi fate ; and m and n form another 
syllable with the following- vowel : 



amour 


pronounce 


a mour, 


a as ah, our as oor in 


love. 






poor. 


auormal 


u 


a nor mal ; 


a as ah, or as in north, 


irregular. 






al as in salvation. 



Frencli Speaker. 



165 



eminence pronounce e mi nen-ce : 
eminence. 



enormite 

enormity. 



e nor mi te 



e as a in fate, mi as in 
eminence, en as an in 
want, n niute, c as s 
hard, e mute. 

both e's as a in /aie, 
or as in order, mi as 
above. 



In this rule is comprised the word enivrer (to intoxicate), 
and its derivatives, whose beginning e sounds as ah : 

pronounce a ni vre ; a as ah, ni as in nip, 
e as a in fate. 



enivrer 

to intoxicate. 



Am an, em, followed by e and by m and n, are sounded as 
am in ram, and as an in fan ; but the a, sounded always as ah 
broad, is longer when it has the circumflex accent : 



je proclame 

I proclaim. 



ame 

soul. 

il enflamme 

he inflames. 



ane 

ass. 

cane 

duck (female). 

femme 
woman, wife. 

indemnite 

indemnity. 



pronounce x je 2 pro clame 



x il 2 en flame 



fame 



in dam ni te 



!j soft, e as u in 
tub, 2 pro as in 
proclaim, ame 
as am in ram, 
broad. 

as ame above, with 
a as ah broad, but 
d a little longer. 

HI as ill, 2 e?i as an 
in to ant, n mute, 
ame as am in 
rom broad, e 
mute. 

as a?i in fan, with 
a as a/>. broad, and 
a little longer. 

as an \r\fan, with 
a as ah broad, e 
mute. 

ame as am in ?-«m, 
with a as a /« 
broad, e mute. 

in as a?i in sank, 
n mute, an- as in 
ram broad, ni as 
in nip, e as a 
in fate. 



166 



French Speaker. 



prudemment pronounce pru da man ; u as in French, a 
prudently. as ah, an as in 

want, n mute. 



Emme and emne in the following words make exception 
and sound the consonant m broad : 



gemme pronounce gem ; 

gems, precious stones, 
rock salt. 



dilemme 

dilemma. 

indemne 

free, saved. 



di lem ; 
in dem ; 



g soft, em as the con- 
sonant m broad. 

di as in dictation, 
em as above. 

in as an in sa?ik, n 
mute, em as 
above. 



But when en is followed by n, enn has the sound of enn 
in Penn, or sounds the cousonant n broad : 



la mienne pronounce Ma 2 mi-eime 
mine. 



la tienne " 

thine. 

la sienne " 

hers. 

Turenne " 

celebrated French 

general. 

quejeprenne " 

that 1 may take. 

qu' il tienne ' ' 

that he may hold. 
qu' ils viennent* " 

that they may come. 



!la %i-enne ; 
x la 2 si-enne ; 
x Tu renne ; 

ike 2 je 3 prenne 

ikil 2 ti-enne ; 
x kil 2 vi-enne ; 



!« as ah, 2 i combined 
with enne as enn in 
Penn, e mute, or 
enne sounds the 
consonant n broad. 

ia as ah, 2 as above, t 
as t. 

ia as ah, s hard, the 
rest as above. 

hi as in French, enne 
as above. 

i, 2 — both e'.s as u in 
tub, j soft, %enne as 
above. 
ikil as kill, H combined 

with enne as above, 
ido., 2 tu as in view,com- 
bined with enne as 
above. 



*When ent is the end of the third person plural in the conjugation 
of verbs, it is mute. 



French Speaker. 



167 



Enn in the following- words makes exception, and is 
sounded as an in fan, giving- a broad sound : 

eimoblir pronounce a no blir ; 

to ennoble. 

ennui " an nui ; 

weariness, tediousness. 

And in their derivatives. 



a as ah, o as in not, 
ir as ere in here. 

an as in fan broad, 
ui as the English 
pronoun we. 



Sixteenth Idiomatical Reading 
Exercise. 

1 is able to do something for you 

2 and more 

3 he likes to help you 

i that he should be willing 

2 speak in my favor to somebody 

3 on account ^situation 

1 if, or on condition 

2 That you show yourself worthy 

of his consideration 
what is to be done ? 
i go right to him 

2 tell that gentleman your desires 
and intentions 

3 speak to him about some consi- 

derations of yours 3 for he is so 
busy. 4 

1 thank 

2 I will start 

3 just this afternoon 

1 that you will succeed 

2 I dare believe that you will be 

back 
8 what will have been your luck 

1 good-bye ; 2 good luck ! 



Seizieme Exercice de Lecture 
sur les Idiomes. 

Je sais que ce Monsieur peut vous 
valoir quelque chose 1 car il a du 
pouvoir, et de plus, 2 je crois 
savoir qu' il s' inter esse a vous. 3 

Pensez-vous qu'' il consentiraiO- a 
/aire quelque demarche pour 
moi 2 au sujet 3 de cette place? 4 

Oui, a la condition 1 que vous vous 
y prenniez conv enablement. 2 

Alors, quelles mesures ai-je a 
prendre? 

C est bien simple, allez le trouver 
tout carremeni 1 etfaites part de 
%os desirs et de vos intentions a 
ce Monsieur, 2 hiume-r ez-lui 
quelques-unes de vos consider a- 
tio7is, 3 maisbrievement ! car il a 
tant a f aire .'* 

Merci 1 mon ami, je vais me met- 
tre a V wuvre 2 et j' irai, cet 
apres-midi meme, 3 voir Mr. M. 

Bien, j' ai 1' espoir que vous reus- 
sirez, 1 et f ose croire que vous 
serez de retour 2 bientot pour me 
dire comment tout ccla aura 
tourne. 3 

Ail revoir, 1 bonne chance.' 2 



168 French Speaker. 

Vacation News — Invitation to a Friend. 

Louisville, le %9 Juin, 1891. 
Ma chere Josephine, 

Je vous ai promis 1 nag-uere 2 de vous informer 3 de mon 
arrivee en vacances, et je le fais 4 aujourd' liui avec 1' em- 
pressement dont je suis capable, quoique peu a meme 5 de 
diriger 6 ma plume. 

Je n'aurais done pu vous ecrire plus tot, 1 ma chere 
Amie, etant arrivee 8 malade chez mes parents, 9 et ayant 
du, 1 ° deux jours apres, sur 1' ordre du medecin, m' aliter, 1 x 
en proie a un vilain rhume et a la fievre, 13 fruits 14 sans 
doute, des intemperies durant mon long- voyage de retour. 
Inutile de vous dire 1 5 de ma deception et de mon infortune, 
moi qui conjecturais tant J 1 6 

Mais me voici levee 1 n depuis avant-hier, apres un repos 
force de cinq jours, et, sauf 1 8 une toux 1 9 assez ennuyeuse, 2 ° 
comme 21 toutes les toux du reste, 22 je vais bien, 23 et 
mieux, je serais g-uerie, 24 si nous avions, 25 mes parents et 
moi, le bonheur de vous posseder 2 6 bientot. 

Dans 1' attente de vos bonnes nouvelles, je vous pre- 
sente, 2 n ma chere Josephine, pour ma f amille et pour moi, 
1' expression de nos sentiments les plus affectueux, et je suis 
tou jours. 

Votre amie la plus sincere, 2 8 

Emma Clark. 

Vocabulary. 

!Je vous ai promis : I have promised you : 2 naguere : not long ago ; 
3 de vous informer : to inform you ; *je le fais : I do it ; 5 quoique peu 
a meme : though I can hardly ; 6 de diriger : to hold ; ?Je n' aurais 
done pu vous ecrire plus tot: then I was not able to write to you 
sooiier : 8 etant arrivee : having arrived ; 9 ehez mes parents : at my pa- 
rents ; 10 ayant du : having been compelled ; »m' aliter : to go to bed: 
i 3 en proie a un vilain rhume et a la fievre : with a bad cold and fever ; 
nfruits : result ; isinutile de vous dire : / do not need to tell you ; 
ismoi qui conjecturais tant : I, who projected so much ; i^Mais me voici 



French Speaker. 



169 



levee : Bat now I am up ; 18 et, sauf : if it was not ; 19 toux : cough; 20 assez 
ennuyeuse : quite tiresome ; 21 comme : as ; ^du reste : at last : 2 3je vais 
bien : I feel better ; ^je serais guerie : I should be cured: ^si nous 
avions : if we had : ^de vous posseder : of having you here : 27 je vous 
presente : I offer you : 28 Votre plus sincere amie : Your most sincere 
friend. 

Of course, when the sounds am, an, em, en, ame, amme, 
ane, anne and enne are preceded by i or by y, they keep 
their sound as explained in the rules above, and form a 
diphthong- with i as y : 



friand pronounce 


fri-an ; 


fri as in friction, 


dainty, nice. 




combined with 
an as in want, n 
mute. 


priant " 


pri-an ; 


pri as in prick, 


praying. 




an do. 


croyance " 


croi i-ance ; 


oi as wa in was, i 


belief. 




combined with 
an as above, e as s 
hard, e mute. 


Guyanne " 


Gui yane ; 


ui as wi in wit, y 


country in /South 




combined as in 


America. 




yard, with ane as 
an in fan broad, 
e mute. 


IiOuisanne " 


Lou i zi-ane ; 


ou as oo in too, i 


One of the United 




as in city, i com- 


States. 




bined with ane 
as an in fan 
broad, e mute. 


Br i enne " 


Bri-enne ; 


Bri as in brick, 


Old French military 




combined with 


school. 




enne as enne in 
Penn, e mute, or 
enne sounding 
the consonant n. 


qu' il revienne " 


ifcil 2 re vi-enne 


ikil as kill, 2 e as n 


that he may return, 




in tub, i combin- 


come back. 




ed with enne as 
above. 


Vienne " 


Vi enne ; 


as in re vi-enne 


capital of Austria. 




above. 



170 



French Speaker. 



chienne 

dog {female). 
mitoyenne 

middle, midway. 



moyenne 

midding {fern.) 

chretienne 

Christian {fern. ) 



pronounce shi-enne 



mi toi l-enne 



moi i-eiine 



ere ti-enne 



Seventeenth Idiomatical Read- 
ing Exercise. 

1 1 will drive 

2 day after to-morrow 

3 propose to go ^walking 



1 in the field 2 at your right 
In southern countries 



i has wounded his hand 
1 it makes me feel bad 

3 will scold me 
Did you give up 

1 It is possible 2 thatl may give it up 
3 indeed 

1 It is not for his good appearance 

2 will follow him 3 notwithstand- 

ing all 

1 It is tiresome to walk 

2 too hard 

3 do not go out ^rather stay home 
5 warm yourself 

i You must take care of yourself 

2 by taking care 

s you will take care 

i Take care of that child 

2 he is motherless 



i combined with 
enne as above. 

i as in city, oi as 
wa in was,i com- 
bined with enne 
as above. 

oi as above, t com- 
bined with enne 
as above. 

e as a in fate, i 
combined with 
enne as above. 



Dix-Septieme Exercice de Lec- 
ture sur les Idioines. 

firai en voiturei a la campagne 
apres demain ; 2 mes amis se 'pro- 
ponent d* y aller s anssi, mais a 
pied.* 

Voyez-vous ces chevaux dans la 
campagne, 1 a voire droite? 2 

Dans les pays du sud, beaucoup 
de fruits sont deja murs en 
Avril. 

Ce gamin s'est blesse" a la main 1 
avec mon canif ; cela ne me va 
guere, 2 parce que ses parents me 
gro7ideront. s 

Avez-vous abandonne votre projet 
d' etudier la chimie ? 

II sepeut 1 que je V abandonne* en 
verite, s car je preTere l'6tude 
d' une langue moderne. 

Ce ri' est pas pour ses beaux yeux * 
que je le suivrai ; 2 malgre tout, 3 
je n' aurai plus confiance en lui. 

II fait ennuyeux marcher, 1 car le 
vent est trop fort ; 2 ne vous en 
allez pas, s restez plutdt a la 
maisom et chauffez-vous. 5 

llfaut que vous vous soigniez .- 1 en 
prenant soin 2 des autres, vous 
aurez soin s de vous-meme. 

Ayez soin de cet enfant ; l il 74' a 
plus de mere. 2 



French Speaker. 171 

Answer to the Preceding Letter. 

New York le 7 Juillet, 1891. 
Ma chere Emma, 

J'ai appris 1 avec tristesse par votre lettre que vous ne 
vous etes pas bien portee 2 depuis que vous etes arrivee 
chez vous, 3 et je desire bien vivemeut en effet, 4 vous faire 
visite, 5 ainsi qu'a vos bons Parents. J'espere que votre 
indisposition ne sera pas de longne duree, mais je ne puis 
pour moi-meine, 6 a present, 7 que regretter 8 qu'uu gros 
rliume 9 complique de mal de g-org-e 10 m'empeche 11 de me 
risquer. 1 2 II fait si froid et si humide 1 3 aujourd'hui ! 

Mais je vous le promets, 1 4 je profiterai du premier jour 1 5 
oil il fera beau, 1 6 et j'ai 1 7 la confiance que je serai bientot 
exaucee 18 de mon voeu ardent de vous voir 19 et de vous 
trouver retablie 20 et decide ment bien portante. 21 

Dites en attendant un bonjour affectueux pour rnoi 22 a 
toute votre chere Famille, et croyez 23 pour vous-meme, ma 
chere Emma, a mes sentiments d'amie la plus sincere. 

Josephine Akdens. 



Vocabulary. 

ij'ai appris: 1 have learned: 2 que vous ne vous etas pas bien 
portee : that you were not well : 3 depuis que vous etes arrivee chez 
vous : since your return home: *je desire vivement en effet : I desire 
very much really : 5 vous faire visite : to pa.y a visit to you ; 6mais je ne 
puis moi-meme : but I can not myself : "a present : just now ; «que re- 
gretter : but to be sorry ; 9 qu' un gros rhume : that a bad cold : i°mal 
de gorge : a sore throat : Urn' empeche de me risquer : prevents me 
from going out ; 13 il fait si froid et si humide : It is so cold and so 
damp: i*je vous le promets : I promise it to you; 15 je profiterai du 
premier jour: I will seize the first opportunity: 16 oii il fera beau: 
when the weather will be good; 17 j'ai: I have : 18 exauc6e : heard 
favorably : 19 de vous voir: to see you ; 2°retablie : over: 21 bien por- 
tante : feeling well ; ^Dites en attendant un bonjour affectueux pour 
moi : Betiveen times, give my kind regards : ^croyez : believe. 



172 



French Speaker 



In the diphthongs ien and yen, en is pronounced as an in 
want, keeping n mute, when they are followed by ce. When 
words in which this pronunciation is to be observed have 
derivatives, these follow the same rule • 



Conscience pronounce 
Belgian novelist. 



Con si-ance 



faience 

earthenware. 



science 

science. 



obedience 

obedience. 



Mayence 

city in Germany. 



patience 

patience. 



fa yance ; 
si ance ; 

o toe di-ance 

Ma i-ance ; 
pa si-ance ; 



impati enter 

to put out of 
patience. 



in pa si -ante 



on as in monk 
n mute, s hard, 
i com bined 
with an as in 
want, n mute, 
c as s hard, e 
mute. 

fa as in fat, y 
combined as in 
yard with an 
as above, c as 
s hard, e mute. 

si as ci in city 
combined with 
an as above, c 
as s hard, e 
mute. 

o as in no t, easa 
in fate, i-ance 
as above. 

a as ah, i-ance 
as above. 

a as ah, s hard 
as in se a , i 
combined 
with an as in 
want n mute, 
c hard as 5 in 
sea, e final 
mute. 

in as an in sank 
n mute, pa si- 
an as in pa si- 
ance above, € 
as a in fate. 



conscience 

conscience. 

consciencieusemen t 

conscientiously. 



French Speaker. 



pronounce con si-ance ; 



con si-an si-euz man 



173 



as conscience 
above. 

con si-an as in 
conscience 
above, keep- 
ing n mute, si 
as ci in city, 
combined 
with en, as u in 
tub, z sound- 
ed, an as an in 
want n mute. 



When ien is followed by t final, 
formed from a verb, the diphthong- 
in want also, keeping- both n and t 
pronounce clian; 



client 

client, 
customer. 
expedient ' 

expedient, proper. 

emollient ' 

emollient. 

escient 

knowledge, in 
good earnest. 
coefficient 

term of algebra. 



and the word being not 
ien has en sounded as an 
final mute: 

i as in city combined with 
an as in want n mute. 



eks pe di-an ; e as in net, ks sounded, e 
as a in fate, i-an as 
above n mute. 
e as a in fate, mo as in 
mother, i-an as above n 
mute. 
es as in esteem, ci as in city 
combined with an as 
above n mute. 
coefici-an ; o as in not, e as a in fate, 
ci as in city, combined 
with an as above n mute. 



e mo li-an 



es ci-an ; 



Eighteenth Idiomatical Read- 
ing- Exercise. 

Can you 



1 on your right 

2 take the left 



s on the same side 



Dix-huitieme Exercice de Lec- 
ture sur les Idiomes. 

Pouvez-vous, Madame, me donner 
V adresse de Monsieur L. ? 

Oui, Monsieur, preuezla premiere 
rue a votre droite, 1 et, arrive au 
premier coin, tournez a gauche: 8 
sa maison est la troisieme du 
coin de la mime main. 3 



174 French Speaker. 

1 has she gone out Madame L. est-elle partie 1 avec 

2 has she gone alone son mari, ou est-elle sortie 

seule ?2 

1 she has gone out Elle est sortie* seule, Monsieur L. 

2 at home est a la maison ? 2 

How much is Combien est-ce la livre de ce cafe? 

It is worth Tl coute deux fran,cs la livre> 

Mademoiselle, 
i of it En 1 avez-vous a meitleur mar- 

2 cheaper che ? 2 

cheapest Cette quality est la moins chere, 

et c' est un excellent cafe. 
How much does a meter of this Combien coilte le metre de cette 

cloth cost ? etoffe ? 

is sold for 90 cents Cette etoffe se vend 4 francs 50 

centimes le metre. 
1 two bargains 2 at one time J' ai fait deux affaires 1 d\un seul 

8 I have seized the opportunity of coup, 2 f at profits du moment 3 

the moment 4 at which you were que vous 6tiez alle vous prome- 

taking a walk. ner.± 

Sending Money and Asking for Samples of Goods. 

Paris le 8 Novembre, 1891. 
Monsieur, 

J'ai l'honneur de vous adresser 1 ci-joint, 2 en un ordre sur 
la Banque de France, la somme de 150 francs, montant de 
votre f acture d' avant-hier. 

Je vous serais oblige si vous vouliez bien, 3 en m' accusant 
reception de cette somn\e, m'envoyer 4 le plus tot possible, a 
l'ambassade, des echantillons pour costumes complets de 
soiree. 

Je vous prie, Monsieur, d' agreer mes civilites empressees. 

Edmond Fairchild, 
Conseiller oV Ambassade. 
A Monsieur, 

T. Bichard, Marchand-Taillleur, 

Eue Kivoli, 219. 

Vocabulary. 

1 adresser : to send; 2 ci-joint : herewith: s si vous vouliez bien: if 
you would be kind enough ;* m' envoyer : to seyid me 



French Speaker. 175 

Order for Groceries and Fine Spices. 

New York le 20 Septembre, 1891. 
Messieurs, 

J'ai l'honneur de vous prier 1 de vonloir bien 2 nous expe- 
dier 3 le plus tot; possible les articles suivants : 
10 caisses Olives de Provence, 
10 caisses Huile d' olive do. 
200 boites Truffes de Perigord, 
200 boites Petits Champ ignons, 
500 boites Petits pois de Bordeaux, 
200 fromages de Hollande (divers poids). 
100 fromages de Gruyere, 
150 fromages de Herve. 
175 Jambons de Mayence, et 

1 caisse Clos du Roi, 4 bon cru 5 (pour echantillons). 
Yeuillez nous faire parvenir 6 ces marchandises, dont nous 
allons etre a court, 7 dans le plus bref delai. Priere d'en 
soigner 8 le conditionnement et de nous adresser cette expe- 
dition 9 par voie de la Ligne Transatlantique, aux termes 
ordinaires. 

En attendant, nous vous prions, Messieurs, d'agreer nos 
salutations empressees. 

Feed. Pratt & Go. 
A Messieurs 

Dumoulin et Cie., 

Negociants en Denrees Coloniales, 

a Bordeaux (France). 

Vocabulary. 

1 prier : to pray ; We voaloir bien : to be kind enough ; 3 nous exp6- 
clier : to send to us: 4 Clos du Roi: a kind of Burgundy wine (Clos 
die Roi) : 5 de bon cru : of a good crop, or nature, or quality ; ^Veuillez 
nous faire parvenir : please send to us ; 7 dont nous allons etre a court : 
from ivhich we are running short ; 8 Priere d' en soigner le condition- 
nement : Please put them into good coyidition ; 9 et de nous adresser 
cette expedition : and to direct this expedition. 



176 



French Speaker. 



In the conjugation of verbs ending- with enir in the infin- 
itive, the diphthong ien has en sounded as an in sank, keep; 
ing n mute : 



je viens 

I come. 



tu tiens 

thou dost hold. 

il revient 

he comes back, return. 

il previent 

he prevents, he warns, 

il maintiendra 

he wilt maintain. 



je me souviendrai 

I will remember. 



pronounce \je 2 vi-en; 

H' soft, e as u in tub, H 
combined with en as 
an in sank n mute. 
" x tu 2 ti-en; 

*w as in French, H-en as 
above n mute. 
" Ml 2 re vi-en; 

HI a t^, 2 e as u in £it&, 
i-en as above n mute. 
" 41 2 pre vi-en ; 

HI as ill, 2 e as a in fate, 
i-en as above n mute. 
" J il 2 main ti-en dra ; 

HI as ill, *ain as an in 
sank n mute, i-en as 
above n mute, a as ah. 
" a je 2 me 3 sou vi-en drai; 

L 2 -both e'sas u in tub, 
j soft, 3 s hard, on as oo 
in too, i-en as above ?/ 
mute, ai as ay in may. 



When the dipththongs ien and yen end words, nouns, 
adjectives, pronouns and adverbs, the en is sounded as an 
in sank as above, keeping n mute : 



chien 

dog. 
soutien 

support. 



moyen 

means. 
citoyen 

citizen. 
aerien 

aerian. 



pronounce shi-en ; 



sou ti-en ; 

moi i-en ; 
ci fcoi i-en 
a e ri-en ; 



i-en as above n mute. 

5 hard, ou as oo in too, 
ti with i as in city 
combined with en 
as above, n mute. 

oi as wa in was, i-en 
as above. 

ci as in city, oi as wa \\\ 
was, i-en as above. 

a as ah, e as a in fate, 
i-en as above. 



French Speaker. 



Ill 



le mien pronounce le mi-en ; 

mine. 



le tien 

thine. 

le sien 

his, hers. 
Chretien 
Christian. 
musicien 

musician. 

bientot 

soon. 
chiendent 

dog-grass. 
chretiente 

Christendom. 



le ti-en ; 
le si-en : 
ere ti-en ; 
inn zi ci-en 

bi-en to ; 
shi-en dan : 
ere ti-en te 



e as u in tub, i as in 
view combined with 
en sounded as an in 
sank, n mute. 

t as t, i-en as above, n 
mute. 

s hard, i-en as above, n 
mute. 

e as a in fate, i-en as 
above, n mute. 

u as French u, i as in 
city, c as 5 hard, i-en 
as above, n mute. 

i-en as above, n mute, 
o as in no. 
i-en as bove,?i mute, an 
as in xuant, n mute. 

both e'.s as a in fate, i-en 
as above, n mute. 



Nineteenth Idiomatical Read- 
ing- Exercise. 

1 came to see me 

2 both 

3 at the same time ±they have just 

gone out 

1 a little of or some of 

2 if you please 

3 waiter 

What will we have 

i We should like 2 I think, or it 
seems to me, 3 to take boiled eggs 
*bread and butter 5 does it agree 
with you also 

had both his legs cut 



I thank you 
L 



Dix-neuvieme Exercice de Lec- 
ture sur les Idiomes. 

Durant votre absence, Louis et 
Marie m' arriverent 1 tous deux 2 
a la fois ; 3 ils viennent settle- 
ment de partirA 

Voulez-vous me donner un peu 
de 1 viande froide, du pain, du 
beurre, du cafe" et du sucre, s' il 
vous plait, 2 garc.on ? 3 

Que jirendrons-nous pour notre 
dejeuner ? 

Nous })ourrions, 1 me semble-t-it, 2 
prendre des ceufs a la coque, s 
des tartines* et du cafe" ; cela 
vous va-t-il aussi ? 5 

L' amiral anglais Nelson eat les 
deux jambes emportecs par un 
boulet de canon a Trafalgar. 

Je vous remercie de votre obli_ 
geance, Madame. 



178 French Speaker. 

i It is not worth mentioning Tl rCy a pas de quoi, 1 Monsieur* 

1 There is not much, or not enough j'aiete Men aise* de pouvoir 3 

2 I have been very glad 3 f being vous etre utile. 

able, or to be able 
i Give aif you please Presentez^ s' il vous plait* jeune 

homme, mes compliments a 
Monsieur votre p£re, et mon re- 
spect a Madame votre m6re. 

Claim for a loss on Railroad. 

Paris, le 7 Juillet, 1891. 
Monsieur de Chef de Gare, 

Lors de mon arrivee 1 a Paris ce matin a 9 heures, par le 
train venant de Bruxelles, je me suis presente 2 a votre bu- 
reau des bagages, muni de mon recu 3 de la station de 
Bruxelles (Midi) afin de reclamer 4 une malle, assuree au de- 
part, pour la somme de 800 francs, contre retard. 5 Toutes 
les recherches ont ete faites, 6 mais je n' ai pu rentrer en 
possession 1 de ma propriete. Gela me cause 8 un prejudice 
considerable, devant, 9 demain matin poursuivre 1 ° mon voy- 
age vers Nice, ou je suis attendu 1 x apres-demain. Ma 
malle contient 13 des objets qui me sont indispensables pour 
continuer ma route, et je vous serais tres oblige 1 3 de vou- 
loir bien ordonner 14 de nouvelles et promptes investiga- 
tions, et, en cas de decouverte aujourd' hui de Y objet re- 
clame, 1 5 de me le faire remettre aussitot 1 6 a mon hotel, rue 
Lafitte, No. 20, avec les indications et 1' adresse dont votre 
agent est depositaire. 

En cas contraire, j' aurais a remplacer le colis 1 7 duquel 
ils'agit 18 et son contenu; et je vous prierais de me faire 
tenir 1 9 avant demain matin, 9 heures et demie, a 1' hotel 
susdit, les 800 francs montant de mon assurance, ou d' ex- 
pedier 2 ° cette somme a Monsieur le Consul des Etats-Unis 
a Nice, chez qui 2 1 jelatoucherais 2 2 en arrivant 2 3 en cette ville. 
Agreez Monsieur, mes civilites distinq-uees, 

Joseph Donaldson. 
A Monsieur le Chef de la Gare du Nord, 

a Paris. 



French Speaker. 



179 



Vocabulary. 

^ors de mon arrivee : When I arrived ; 2 je me suis presents : I 
went to ; 3 muni de mon reyu : with my receipt; 4 afln de retainer: 
in order to claim about ; 5 contre retard : in case of delay (or) against 
delay ; 6 ont 6te" faites : have been made ; 7 je n' ai pu rentrer en pos- 
session ; I could not reobtain 2>ossession : 8 Cela me cause : It causes 
me ; 9 devant : having to ; 10 poursuivre : to pursue ; lx je suis attendu : I 
am expected; 13 contient: contains; 13 je vous serais tres oblige: I 
should be very much obliged to you ; 14 de vouloir bien ordonner : if 
you would give orders for ; 15 reclame : claimed for ; 16 de me le faire 
remettreaussitot : to cause it to be sent to me ; 17 colis : used for malle : 
trunk; 18 duquel il s' agit : the objeet of my claim; 19 je vous prierais 
de me le faire tenir : I should ask you to pay me ; 20 d' expe lier : to 
send ; 21 chez qui : at whose office ; 22 je la toucherais : it should be paid 
to me (or) I should take it • "en arrivant : on my arrival. 

aim, ain, ein, im, in, yrn, yn. 

These all combinations have the sound of an in plank, in 
bank, in sank, keeping- rn and n mute : 

faim 

hunger. 
daim 



pronounce faim ; 
" daim ; 



deer. 

pain 

bread. 

main 

hand. 

sein 

bosom, breast. 

teindre 

to dye. 

impoli 

impolite. 

important 

important. 

serin 

canary bird. 
indecent 

indecent. 

sympathie 

sympathy. 



pain ; 
main ; 
sin ; 

tin dre ; 
im po li; 



aim as an in sank,m mute. 
cum as an in sank,m mute. 
ain as an in sank, n mute. 

do., do. 

in as a)i in sank, n mute. 



in as above, n mute, dr 

sounded, e mute. 
im as an in sank, m mute, 
o as in not, li as in lip. 

im por tan ; im as above, or as in im- 
portant, an as in want, 
n mute. 

se rin ; * s hard, e as u in tub, in as 

an in sank, n mute. 

in de san ; in as above, e as a in fate, 
s hard, an as in want, n 
mute. 

sin pa tee ; s hard, in as above, a as ah, 
ee as in see. 



thym 


pronounce tin ; 


thyme. 




syndicat 


" sin di ca 


syndicate. 




synthese 


" sin taise 


synthesis. 





180 French Speaker. 

in as an in sank, n mute. 

s hard, in as above, di as in 
diphthong, ca as in cat. 

s hard, in as above, aise as 
in praise. 

Asking Information about a Person. 

Nouvelle Orleans le 28 Mars, 1891. 
Mon cher Monsieur Maloin, 

Le nomme Edouard Rog-et s' est presente 1 liier a mon 
bureau, a l'effet de 2 solliciter 1' emploi de comptable 3 qui 
va devenir vacant 4 dans P administration que je dirig-e. 5 

Ce jeune homme m'a paru 6 assez 7 interessant, et les 
papiers qu' ils possede, prouvent beaucoup 8 en sa faveur. II 
m'adit 9 en cours d'entretien 1 ° que vous le connaissez 11 
particulierement et que je pouvais m' adresser a vous 1 2 pour 
tout ce qui le concerne, ainsi qu' au sujet de 13 sa famille, 
qui serait, 14 de ce que j'ai pu comprendre, 1 5 dans une 
assez belle aisance. 1 6 

Je me permets done d' attendre 1 7 que vous vouliez 
bien, 18 mon cher Monsieur, me donner 1 9 dans cette cir. 
coustance, les renseig-nments en votre pouvoir sur Mr. 
Roget, et je serais bien aise 20 qu'ils repondissent 21 a la 
confiance qu'il m'a deja inspiree. 

Je vous suis anticipativement tres oblige, et je vous prie 
d' agreer P expression de mes sentiments tres distingues. 

John Fitzell. 
A Monsieur D. Maloin, 

Membre de la Chambre Legislative de la Louisiane, 

E. V. 22 

Vocabulary. 

1 S' est presente" : came (or) has presented nimself : 2 a 1' effet de 
in order to : 3 eomptable : book-keeper ; 4 qui va devenir vacant : 
which will be vacant ; 5 que je dirige : of which I am the manager ; 
5 m' a paru: appeared to me; 7 assez : quite; "prouvent beaucoup: 
speak high: 9 I1 m'a dit : He told me; 10 en cours d'entretien: in 



French Speaker. 



181 



our conversation : ll que vous le connaissez : that you know him : 12 que 
je pouvais m' adresser a vous : that I could ask from you ; 13 au sujet 
de : on account of: 14 qui serait : which should be : ls de ce que j'ai pu 
comprendre : from what I have been able to understand; 16 dans 
une assez belle aisanee : quite wealthy: 17 d' attendre : to expect: 18 que 
vous vouliez bien : that you should be willing : 19 me donner : to nice 
to me : 20 je serais bien aise : 1 should be glad : 21 qu' ils repondissent : 
that they might justify : 22 E. V. — en ville: city, in town. 



/hex the sounds above, aim, ain, ein, etc., are followed 
by e, an h mute, an m, an n or a vowel, they cease to be 
nasal sounds and ai, ei, im, ym and in are sounded, ai and 
ei as ay in may, as a in late, in made, im and ym as im of 
the English pronoun him, and in as the English preposi- 
tion in ; 



X aime 



pronounce jaime 



ai as ay in may, m 



I love. 




sounded, e mute. 


haine " 


haine ; 


ai as ay in may, n 


hate, dislike. 




sounded, e mute. 


reine " 


reine ; 


ei as ay in may, n 


queen. 




sounded e mute. 


Seine ' 


' Seine ; 


ei as ay in may, n 


river of Fro, nee. 




sounded, e mute. 


inhumain " 


i nu min ; 


i as English e, u as 


inhuman. 




in French, in as 
an in sank nvante. 


inhospitalier " 


i nos pi ta li-e ; 


i as English e, os as 


inhospitable. 




oss in loss, pi as in 
pit, a as ah, i 
combined with e 
as a in fate. 


immortel " 


'• im mor tell : 


im as im in him, mor 


immortal. 




as more, tell as 
tell. 


homonyme " 


o mo nime ; 


both o's as in not, 


homonymous. 




ime as im above, e 
mute. 


tine " 


tine : 


in as English in, e 


water barrel. 




mute. 


fine ' 

fine, good. 


' fine : 


in as English in e 
mute. 



182 



French Speaker. 



criminel 

criminal. 
initial 

initial. 



etymologie 

etymology. 



synonyme 

synonymous. 



pronounce cri mi nell ; 



i ni si-al ; 



e ti mo lo jjie 



si no nime 



both Vs as in city, 
ell as in bell. 

both i's as in city, 
s hard as in sea, i 
as in view, com- 
bined with al as 
in salvation. 

e as a in fate, ti as 
in tip, both o's, as 
in not, g soft as j 
in bijou, ie as ee 
in see. 

si as ci in cifa/, o as 
in not, ime as im 
in him. 



Twentieth Idiomatical Read- 
ing Exercise. 

1 to-day a week 

2 to the country 

3 in a fortnight 

4 will set out 

1 In one month from to-morrow 

2 you will be ten years old. 
1 the oldest 2 is he already so old? 

1 is four years old already 

2 who was born between them 

3 will soon be seven 

1 lives 

2 I have met him 

3 beyond sea or abroad 

1 seems to be 

2 but she is not as contented as 
she shows 3 that is all 

1 has a good nature 

2 disagreeable 

1 One must 2 consider 



Vingtieme Exercice de Lecture 
sur les Idiomes. 

Je partirai dPaujouroVhui enhuit 1 
pour la campagne 2 et dans 
quinze jours, 3 ma soeur par. 
tira* pour 1' Europe et la Pales- 
tine. 

De demain en un mois, 1 Jules, 
vous aurez deja dix ans. 2 

Uaine 1 de vos fils est-il deja si 
dge ? 2 

Oui, le cadet a deja quatre ans 1 et 
ma fille, qui est nee entre eux 
deux, 2 va avoir sept ans. 3 

Ce Monsieur demeure 1 aux envi- 
rons de Paris, je crois : je Vai 
rencontre 2 dans mes voyages 
outre-mer. 3 

Cette personne a Vair l content, 
mais elle fait bon coeur sur 
mauvaiscs jambes, 2 voildtout. 3 

Louise a bon cozur x quoiqu'elle 
paraisse maussade. 2 

II faut 1 avoir igard 2 a la condi- 
tion des person nes a qui l'on 
parle et etre poli envers tout le 
monde. 



French Speaker. 183 

I wager -yon are wrong 3 to do so Je parie 1 que vous avez tort 2 

4 and it will not be long before d'agir ainsi, 3 et vovs nc tar- 

you acknowledge derezpas longtemps areconnai- 

B I am right tre 4 que j'ai raison.* 



Information to Parents After a Change of School. 

Poitiers le Jf. Octobre, 1891. 
Mes bien chers Parents, 

Je ne vous ai pas vus 1 me quitter 2 et reprendre le chernin 
de Valenciennes 3 sans avoir le coeur bien gros ; 4 et me voici 5 
a present bien eloignee 6 devous, en contree toute etrangere 
quoiqu'en 1 France, car, de quelque cote 8 que se dirig-ent nos 
promenades, 9 je ckerche 10 toujours en vain l'objet d'une 
comparaison avec quelque autre ! 1 de mes affections ! Votre 
depart, chers Pareuts, ni'a mise en presence 1 2 des 125 lieues 
qui nous separent, 13 et j'ai du. m'armer de courage 14 pour 
paraitre 1 5 bravement devant mes maitresses et au milieu 1 6 
de mes nouvelles compagnes, 1 7 desquelles la gentillesse si 
sympathique est un baume qui reconforte 18 je le sens, 19 
cela me fait du bien ; 2 ° mais pas de cicatrice encore ! 2 1 

Quoiqu'il en soit, 22 j'ai resiste 23 au mal du pays, 24 car je 
constate 25 que voici 26 dix joirrs passes 21 sans enfantil- 
lage. 28 J'ose 29 maintenant considerer 30 cette resistance 
comme 31 une victoire que, seule, 32 je n'etais pas, je lecon- 
fesse, 33 capable de conquerir, 34 mais que vos nouvelles, 
qu'il me tarde de recevoir, 35 pourraient, 3 6 me semble-t-il 37 
aujourd'hui, contribuer 38 puissamment 39 a rendre 40 com- 
plete. 

Je me porte bien, 4 1 Dieu merci, 4 2 et soyez assures, 4 3 cher 
Papa et cliere Maman, que nonobstant 44 la distance et la 
difference des choses 4 5 a Poitiers, je forme la meilleure reso- 
lution 46 de repondre aux sacrifices 47 que vous dictent 48 
votre tendresse et votre sollicitude en vue 4 9 de mon edu- 
cation. 



184 French Speaker. 

Dans l'espoir et la confiance de vous lire bientot, 50 je 
demeure, 5 * chers et bien-aimes Parents, avec tous les senti- 
ments de la pins parfaite affection. 

Votre tres respectneuse et tres obeissante fille, 

Makia. 

Vocabulary. 

1 Je ne vous ai pas vus : I have not seen you ; 2 me quitter : leaving 
me ; 3 reprendre le chemin de Valenciennes : return to Valenciennes ; 
4 sans avoir le cceur bien gros : without being quite sick; s etmevoici : 
and here I am : 6 bien gloignee : very far ; 7 quoiqu' en : though in ; 
8 de quelque cote : anywhere ; 9 se dirigent nos promenades : we take 
a walk ; 10 jecherche: Iinquirefor ; lx avec quelque autre : with some 
other ; 12 m' a mise en presence : has shown to mc ; 13 qui nous separent : 
which separate us ; 14 j' as du m' armer de courage : I have been com- 
pelled to muster up my courage ; 15 paraitre : to appear ; 16 au milieu : 
among ; 17 compagnes : companions, friends ; 18 qui reconforte : which 
relieves; ie je le sens: I feel it; 20 cela me fait du bien: it does me 
some good: 21 encore : yet ; 22 Quoiqu' il en soit : though it may be; 
23 j'ai r^siste 1 : I have resisted; 24 mal du pays: home sickness; 2S je 
constate: I state ; 26 voici: there are; 2 7 passes : p>^st ; 2 8 enfan tillage : 
childish behavior ; 29 j' ose : I dare ; 30 consid6rer : to consider : 31 comme : 
as ; 32 seule : alone ; 33 je n' gtais pas capable, je le confesse : I was not 
able I declare ; 34 de conquerir : to conquer; 35 qu' il me tarde de re- 
cevoir : which 1 am anxious to receive; 36 > 38 pourraient contribuer : 
should be able to contribute ; 37 me semble-t-il : does it seem to me : 
39 puissamment : powerfully ; 40 a rendre : to make ; 41 je me porte bien : 
I feel good ; 42 Dieu merci : thank God ; 43 soyez assures : be assured : 
44 nonobstant : notwithstanding ; 45 choses : things; 46 je forme la meil- 
leure resolution : I form the best resolution ; 47 de repondre aux sacri- 
fices : to pay for the sacrifices; "que vous dictent: which are dic- 
tated to you by; 49 en vue : on account; 50 bientot: soon; 51 je de- 
meure: I remain. 

om, on. 

When these combinations precede a consonant other than 
m and n, or when they are final syllables, they have the 
sonnd of on in monk, keeping- m and n mnte : 

compagnie pronounce com pa g-nie ; om as on in monk m 

company. mute, a as ah, gn 

as in mignonette, 
ie as ee in see. 



French Speaker. 



185 



ombre pronounce 


ombre ; 


om as above, m 


shade. 




mate, br sounded, 
e mute. 


sombre ' 


sombre ; 


s hard, om as above, 


dark. 




m mute, br sound- 
ed, c mute. 


combinaison " 


com bi nai zon ; 


c. as k , om as above 


combination. 




m mute, bi as in bit, 
ai as ay in may, 
on as in monk, n 
mute. 


conte " 


conte ; 


on as above n mute, 


story. 




t sounded, e mute. 


Londres " 


Londre ; 


on as above n mute, 


Londoyi. 




dr sounded, e 
mute. 


consequence " 


con se kance ; 


on as in monk n 


consequence. 




mute, s hard, e as 
a in. fate, an as In 
want, n mute, c as 
s hard, e mute. 


mon " 


mon ; 


on as in monk n 


my. 




mute. 


ton " 


ton ; 


on as in monk n 


thy. 




mute. 


son " 


son; 


s hard, on as in 


his, her. 




monk, u mute. 


long " 


Ion ; 


on as in monk n 


long. 




mute. 


combien " 


com bien ; 


om as on in monk, m 


how much. 




mute ; ien : i as in 
view combined 
with en as an in 
sank n mute. 



Exception is made for the following- words in which o is 



mute, leaving- 


to 


aon the sound of an in want, ] 


mute ; 

paon pronounce pan ; an as in want, n mute. 


peacock. 






faon 




" fan ; do., do. 


young deer. 






Laon 




" Lan ; do., do. 


city of France. 







186 



French Speaker. 



Twenty-first Idiomatical Read- 
ing Exercise. 

1 traveller 2 who stops 

3 afternoon Hook ill 

6 suddenly 

6 was summoned 7 with a great 

haste 
a One must 2 read aloud and in- 

telligly 
3 in order to 



Vingt et unieme Exercice de 
Lecture sur les Idiomes. 

Un voyageur 1 descendu 2 a cet 
hotel cet apres-midi 3 tomba 
malade* tout & coup, 5 et le doc- 
texxr fut mande 6 en toute-hdte. 7 

Ilfaut 1 lire d haute et intelligible 
voix 2 apes chaque exercice sur 
la prononciation, afin de 3 facili- 
ter 1' expression, et pour ac- 
querir bientot la fainiliariie' n§- 
cessaire requise pour 1' usage 
d' une langue moderne. 

II est 1 tres impoli de parler d voix 
basse 2 en presence des autres. 

1 1 fallait 1 que les soldats de 
Charles XII lui obelssent sous 
peine de mort, 2 tant 3 la disci- 
pline 6tait severe dans son 
armee. 

Ce monarque haineux, 1 insatia- 
ble de vengeance et de gloire, ce 
Scythe indomptable, 2 fut tue 3 a 
Fre'dericshall, dont il faisait le 
siege,* laissant, 5 la Suede rui- 
nee de dettes et un gouverme- 
ment mal assis. 6 

II y a 1 beaucoup de gens d' af- 
faires 2 qui font banqueroute 3 
4 to make themselves rich 5 few make pour s' enrichir ; 4 peu la font 5 
it 6 on account of misfortune par inf or tune,* mais beaucoup 

7 reach arrivent 7 a la ruine par leurs 

desordres et leur inconduite. 

Answer to the Preceding Letter. 

Valenciennes le 7 Octobre, 1890. 
Ma chere Enfant, 

Je vois 1 par ta lettre que tu t' occupes beaucoup 2 de ce 
qui se passe 3 ici, mais ne t' en inquiete pas, 4 et sois tran- 
quille 5 en ce qui nous concerne, 6 on te tiendra au courant 1 
des choses de la maison, ton pere ou moi. Tout est le 



It is 

low 

It was necessary 

under punishment of death 



hateful 

ungovernable 3 was killed 
which he was besieging 
leaving 

in a bad condition 

There are 2 business people 

who fail 



French Speaker. 187 

meine 8 que 9 tu 1' as laisse 10 a ton depart, sinon que 11 
Coco* 2 barag-ouine 1 3 un tas 14 d' histoires auxquelles il 
mele 15 ton nom a chaque instant. 16 H est toujours 
perche 1 7 au sommet 1 * cle sa cage qu'il ne vent pas quit- 
ter, 19 et il se tourne' 2 " vers quiconque 21 passe, 2 ' 2 pour pro- 
noncer 23 Maria, qu'il exprime' 24 du ton le plus sonore. 25 
Cela le rend 26 tres interessant. 

Ton pere et moi, nous sommes fort affaires 2 " en ce mo- 
ment, car tout le monde fait ses preparatifs 28 pour 1' liiver, 
qui s'annonce 29 comme devant nous arriver tot 30 cette 
annee. IL ne serai t pas impossible 31 que sous peu, 32 Tun 
de nous doive aller 33 a Paris pour y 34 acheter 35 mi nouvel 
assortiment 3 6 de f ourrures et d' autres articles ; et peut- 
etre 3; cette mission m' echoirait-elle. 3 8 Inutile de te dire, 39 
ma chere Fille, que dans le cas de ce voyage, qui n' est 
toutefois pas decide, 40 j'irai te voir; 41 mais, dis-je, 42 il 
n' y a, dans ceci 4 3 qu' 4 4 une probabilite que la chance seule 4 s 
arret era 4 6 

Nous te felicitous 4 7 de tout cceur 4 8 de tes excellentes dis- 
positions et te recommandons 49 une attention soutenue 50 
dans tes etudes, sans te departir jamais, 5 ! ma chere Enfant, 
du respect que tu dois 52 a tes mai tresses, toutes, je le 
sais, 5 3 instruiteset capables de diriger 5 4 la jeunesse selon 3 5 
lesvues 56 des parents; et nous voyons 5 ' avec plaisir et 
conflance que tu les as trouvees 5S agreables ainsi que 59 tes 
compagnes. 

Ne t'impatiente de rien, 60 tu sauras 61 en temps a pro- 
pos 62 du voyage dont il peut etre question. 63 

Porte-toi bien, 64 ma chere Maria, ton pere et moi, nous 
t' embrassons 6 5 le plus affectueusement. 

Ta mere toute devouee, 6 6 

Julie Hiesch. 

Vocabulary. 

l Je vois : I see ; 2 que tu t' occapes beaucoup : that you ore very 
anxious : 3 de ce qui se passe : of what happens : *ne t' en inquiete 



188 French Speaker. 

pas : don't put yourself in trouble about it ; s et sois tranquille : and 
be quiet ; 6 en ce qui nous concerne : for our concern : 7 on te tiendra 
au courant : one will let you know ; 8 Tout est le meme : everything is 
the same; 9 que : as: 10 tu 1' as laisse : you have left it: "^sinon 
que : except that : l2 Coco : the parrot : 13 baragouine : jobbers ; 
14 un tas : a heap ; 15 auxquelles il mele : with which he mixes ; 16 a 
chaque instant : incessantly ; 17 I1 est toujours perch6 : He is always 
roosting ; 18 au sommet : on the top ; 19 qu' il ne veut pas quitter : from 
whence he will not move ; 20 il se tourne : he turns himself ; 21 vers qui- 
conque : towards any one ; 22 passe : passes : 23 pour prononcer : to 
pronounce ; 24 qu' il exprime : which he expresses : 25 le plus sonore : 
the most sonorous : 26 le rend : makes him : 27 nous sommes fort affaires : 
we are very busy ; 28 tout le naonde fait ses preparatifs : everybody pre- 
pares himself : 29 qui s' annonce : which shows (or) announces himself; 
30 tot: early ; 31 I1 ne serait pas impossible : it should not be impossible ; 
32 que sous peu : that before long : 33 1' un de nous doive aller : one of us 
may go ; 34 y : there; 35 acheter: to buy ; 36 assortiment: stock : 37 peut-etre : 
perhaps ; 38 cette mission m' echoirait-elle : I should attend myself to 
that business ; 39 Inutile de te dire : it is not 7iecessary to tell you •' 
*°qui n' est toutefois pas decide : which is not decided, hoivever : 
*!j' irai te voir: I will go to see you; * 2 dis-je : say I: * 3 il n' y a 
dans ceci : there is in here ; ^qu' une : but one ; * 5 la chance : the good 
luck ; ^arretera : will decide : 4 'Nous te felicitons : we congratulate 
you ; 48 de tout cceur : heartily : * 9 et te recommandons : and we recom- 
mend you ; 50 une attention soutenue : a constant attention ; 51 sans te 
d6partir jamais : without ever giving up ; 53 que tu dois : which you 
owe ; 53 je le sais : I know it ; 5*de diriger : to briyig up : 55 selon : accord- 
ing to ; 56vues : desires ; 57 nous voyons : we see ; 58 que tu les as trou- 
v^es : that you have found them ; 59 ainsi que : as ; 60 Ne t' impatiente 
de rien : be not impatient of anything: 61 tu sauras : you will know : 
62a propos : on account : 63dont il peut-etre question : which may come 
to be decided ; 6*Porte-toi bien : We hope you feel well : 65 n0 us t' em- 
brassons : we hold you fondly in our arms ; 66 Tamere toute d^vou^e : 
your loving mother. 

When om and on are followed by m and n, and when on 
is followed by h, om sounds as om in Tom, or as um in rum, 
and on as the English preposition on. Both om and on 
must have the sound broad : 

om ; as om in Tom, broad, 

pom ; do., do. 



homme 


pronoun e 


man. 




pom me 


a 


apple. 





French Speaker 



189 



som 



lil 2tcm 



je ^son 



co meree 



comme pronounce com 

as. 

somrae l! 

amount. 

il tonne l ' 

it thunders. 
je sonne " 

T ring. 

commerce " 

trade, business. 
bonne ' : 

good. 
Twenty-second ldiomatical 

Reading Exercise. 
Keep silent 2 behave 



do you take 

blind 

I drive him 2 to 

surgeon 



om as in Tom, broad. 



bon 



'the veterinary- 



very 2 led 

for a long time 

both 

cunning statesmen 
they always knew how to con- 
duct the affairs 

more than 6 true good 

I hope that 

at your next, visit 

you will bring Madam along 

will you 

I am told that 2 you had gone 

it is the reason why 4 I did not 

come earlier, or I did not hurry 

coat 2 fits 3 very well 

his appearance 

his manners 6 do not suit me 

at all 

I must take leave of you 

good by 



s hard as in so n, om as 

above. 
HI as ill, z on as English 

preposition on, broad, 
tj soft, e as u in tub, 2,s as in 

son, on as above, 
o as in not, er as ere in 
there, c as s hard, c mute. 
on as English preposition 
on, broad. 
Vingt deuxieme Exercice de 

Lecture sur les Idiomes. 
Taisez-vous, 1 enfants, et condui- 

sez-vous 2 convenablement. 
Oil conduisez-vous * ce cheval 

aveugle ? 2 
Je le conduis 1 chez 2 le veteri- 

naire: 3 
Charles XII et Napol6on ler 
hommes bie?i 1 differents ! con- 
duisirent 2 pendant longtem-ps 3 
leur soldats a la victoire. 
Mazarin et Talleyrand, furent tons 
deux 1 demise's 2 hommes d 1 Etat* 
en leur temps ; Us surent tou- 
jour s conduire les affaires 4 - pour 
le benefice de leur personal ite, 
plus que 5 pour le vrai bien 6 du 
peuple. 
Quand viendrez-vous encore ; fes- 
pere qu 1 d r votre prochai?ie 
visite, 2 Madame vous accom- 
pagnera, 3 n 1 est-ce-pas ? 4 
On m' a dit que 1 vous etiez parti, 2 
c' est pour cela 3 que je nc me 
suis pas pr esse d' arriver. 4 
Cet habit 1 va 2 a merveille 3 a cet 
homme, mais sa tourmnre 4 et 
ses mameres 5 ne me vont pas 6 
du tout. 7 
Mes amis, il faut que je vous 
laisse, 1 et je vousdis aurevoir / 2 



190 French Speaker. 

Asking for a Loan and Offering Mortgage. 

Detroit le 25 Mars, 1891. 
Mon cher Monsieur, 

Je projette d'acheter 1 la propriete qui me touche, 2 au 
sujet 3 de laquelle je vous ai deja parle, 4 et pour le cas 
echeant, je viens 5 vous demander 6 un service. 

J'ai pris connaissance 7 des conditions de vente, et il 
appert 8 que P adjudication ne peut en etre faite 9 qu' a moins 
du 1 ° paiement comptant 11 de la moitie du prix d' achat. 1 2 

L' evaluation de cette propriete pouvant etre fixee 14 a 
50,000 dollars au moins, 15 et une offre de 45,000 etant deja 
a ma connaissance, 1 6 je ne possede pas la somme requise 1 7 
comme 1 8 premier paiment. Je viens done vous demander 
si vous voudriez bien, 20 au cas ou je deviendrais 21 adjudica- 
taire dudit 2 2 immeuble, 2 3 disposer en ma faveur du montant 
de 12 a 15,000 dollars, pour lequel je suis a meme 24 de vous 
procurer, a votre requisition, les plus solides g-aranties. 

Dans l'attente de votre reponse. que j'ose bien tot atten- 
dre 25 de votre obligeance, je vous remercie d'avance, 26 mon 
cher Monsieur, et vous prie d'agreer mes salutations les 
plus empressees. 

M. Lewiston. 
A Monsieur Geokges Lawful, 

Banquier, 

E. V. 

Vocabulary. 

i Je projette d'acheter: 1 intend to buy; 2 la propriete" qui me 
touche: the property next to mine ; 3 au sujet de : on account of; 4 je 
vous ai parle" : I have spoken to you ; 5 - 6 et pour le cas echeant, je viens 
vous demander : and in case it should be necessary T come to ask you ; 
7 j'ai pris connaissance: I obtained knowledge: 8 il appert: it ap- 
pears : 9 ne peut en etre faite s: cannot be done of it; 10 qu' a moins du : but 
by the; "paiement comptant: paying cash; i2prix d' achat : buying 
price ; u pouvant etre fixee : being apt to be fixed : 15 au moins : at 
least; ie e t une offre de quarante cinq mille dollars etant deja a ma 
connaissance : and having already the knowledge of an offer of '45,000 



French Speaker. 



191 



dollars; 17 requise : reguired ; 18 comme : as t 20 si vous voudriez bien : 
if you would wish ; 21 je deviendrais : I should become ; 22 dudit : of the 
said; ^imnieuble : real estate; ^je suis a meme : Tamable; ^j'ose 
bientot attendre : I dare soon expect ; 2 *>je vous remercie d'avance : I 
thank you beforehand. 

When om, on, onne are preceded by i or by y, they keep 
their sound as explained in the rules above, and form a 
diphthong with i and y : 

lion pronounce lion ; 

lion. 

" cham pi-on 



champion 

champion. 

Lyon 

city of France. 
amphitryon 

the provider of 
a feast. 
lionne 

lioness. 

intrusion 

intrusion, 

obstrusion. 

division 

division. 



Li 



an fi tri-on 



in tru zi-on 



di vi zi-on ; 



i combined with on as 
on in monk n mute. 

ch as English sh, am as 
an in want m mute, 
i-on as above n mute. 

li as in lip, i-on as above 
n mute. 

an as in xoant n mute, ft 
as in fit, i-on as above 
n mute. 

i combined with onne 
as English preposi- 
tion on broad. 

in as an in sank n mute, 
u as in French, i-on 
as above n mute. 

both tfs as in city, i-on 
as above n mute. 



Invitation to a Hunting Party. 



Consenvoix (Meuse) le 15 Aout, 1891. 
Mon eliev Durelle, 

L'epoque de la chasse etant fixee 1 au 25 courant, 2 j'ai 
decide 3 d'ouvrir 4 la saison chez moi 5 cette annee, et d'in- 
viter 6 mes amis. Je puis, 7 par le soin 8 que j'ai apporte 9 a 
conserver 1 ° le gibier 1 1 sur mes terres, vous promettre a 
tous 12 une partie exceptionnelle de plaisir. 

J'ai cru pouvoir fixer 13 deja 1' arrangement de la jour- 
nee, 14 et j'ai pense qu' il serait de l'avis de tous les chas- 
seurs 1 5 de commencer des 1 6 5 heures et demie, par une bat- 
tue 1 7 du jeune bois 1 8 au nord de ma propriete, ou le lievre 1 9 
et la perdrix 20 semblent se retirer 21 plus particulierement. 



192 French Speaker. 

Nous pourrions ainsi arriver 2 2 au massif 2 3 du cote 24 sud-est 2 5 
vers 26 10 heures et demie 27 ou 11 heures, et y 28 prendre 29 
le lunch ; apres quoi 30 nous nous remettrions en chasse 31 
jusque 32 vers 3 heures. Ou dinera chez moi 33 a 4 heures. 

Nous serons dix, 34 je crois, parmi lesquels 35 vous rencon- 
trerez 36 nos vieilles connaissances 37 de New- York, M. M. 
Newman, Watson et Pratt, qui sont de nouveau venus 38 
passer l'ete 39 en Europe; et quant aux autres, 40 vous con- 
naissez 4 1 de longue date 4 2 tous ces Messieurs ; ils habitent 4 3 
tous dans le department, et ont chasse 44 avec nous deja. 

J'espere done que vous serez des notres, 45 et j'en serai 
des plus heureux, 46 car en outre 47 que j'aurai 48 la satisfac- 
tion de compter 49 un vieil ami de plus, 50 je ne serai pas 
moins fier 51 de la presence parmi nous d'un des plus 
habiles 52 Nemrods du pays. 5 3 

Faites-moi part, 54 je vous prie, 5 5 de votre arrivee, 56 sur 
laquelle 5 7 je compte 5 8 pour le 24, et dans cette attente. 5 9 je 
vous prie, mon cher Durelle, d'agreer 1' expression des sen- 
timents de ma plus cordiale amitie. 6 ° 

Leonce Loisel. 

Vocabulary. 

i 6tant fixee : being fixed ; 2 courant : instant ; 3 j' ai decide : I have de- 
cided ; *d' ouvrir : to open ; 5 chez moi : at home ; 6 d' inviter : to invite ; 
7jepuis: lam able ; 8 soin : care; 9 que j'aiapporte : that I have been 
taking; 10 a conserver : to keep; n gibier : game; 12 vous promettre a 
tous: promise to all of you ; 13 j'ai cru pourvoir fixer: I thought 
myself able to fix ; 14 journee : day-time ; 15 et j' ai pens4 : qu'il serait de 
1' avis de tous les chasseurs : and I thought it would be the advice of 
all the hunters ; 16 des : from : 17 » 1R battue du jeune bois : beat of the 
young wood; 19 lievre : hare; 20 perdrix : partridge; 21 semblent se 
retirer : seem to retire; 22 arriver: arrives: 23 massif: clump ; 2 *. ^du 
cote sud-est : on the southeast side; ^vers : at about; 27 dix heures et 
demie ; half past ten ; ^.^y prendre : take there; 30 apr6s quoi : after 
which; 3 inous nous remettrions en chasse: we should start to hunt 
again; 32 jusque : till .-^chez moi : at my house ; 3 mous serons dix : we 
will be ten ; ^parmi lesquels : among which ; 36 vous rencontrerez : you 
will meet ; 37 nos vieilles connaissances : our old friends; s**. 39 qui sont 
de nouveau venus passer l'€t<3; who have come again to spend the 



French Speaker. 



193 



summer ; 40 quant aux autres : as to the others ; "vous connaissez : you 
knoiv ; *2de longue date: for a longtime; 43 ils habitent : they live; 
*kmt chasse" : they have hunted: * 5 j' espere done que vous serez des 
notres : I hope then that you will be with us; * 6 j'en serai des plus 
heureux : I shall be the most happy of it ; i~. *8 C ar, en outre que j' aurai : 
for, over that I will have; ± 9 compter : to count; 50 un vieil ami de 
plus : one more old friend ; 5l je ne serai pas moins tier : Twill not be 
less proud ; 52 habiles : clever, able ; 53 pays : country : ^Faites-moi part : 
let me know ; 55 je vous prie : I bey you: 56 arrivee : arrival: 5 "sur 
laquelle: upon which; 58je compte : I count; 59 dans cette attente : 
hoping so ; ^plus cordiale amide" : the most cordial friendship. 

When om and on are followed by a vowel, o is sounded 
alone, and m and n begin another syllable : 

pronounce a bo mi liable 



abominable 

abominable. 



domicile 

home, residence, 

domicile. 

nomination 

nomination. 



do mi cile; 



no mi na sion ; o 



Romain " 

Roman. 
honorable " 

honorable. 

Bonaparte " 

name of the family 
of Napoleon the 
First. 

Twenty-third Idiomatical Read- 
ing Exercise. 

i Those people cannot be seen 
2 in the day-time 3 they never ap- 
pear ±but 5 at night, 
i We are sorry that 

2 you do not behave 

3 more happy 

4 also 

M 



a as ah, o as in the 
alphabet, mi as in 
mid, a as in lad, bl 
sounded, e mute. 

o as in not, mi as in 
mid, ci as in city, I 
sounded, e mute 

in not, mi as in mid, 
a as ah, s as in sea, 
i combined with on 
as in monk, n mute. 

o as in not, am as an 
in sank, n mute. 

both o's as in not, a as 
in lad, bl sounded, 
e mute. 

o as in mother, a as ah, 
ar as in part, but 
shorter, t sounded, 
e mute. 

Vingt-i roisieme Exercice de 
Lecture sur les Idiomes. 

On ne voit jamais ces gens 1 pen- 
dant lejour,z Usn 1 apparaissent 
jamais^ que± pendant la nuit. 5 

C est dommage que 1 vous ne 
vous conduiscz 2 pas toujours 
bien, nous serions tous plus 
heureux , 3 et A'ous aussiA 



Ro main ; 
o no rable ; 

Bo na par-te ; 



194 French Speaker. 

x say 2 post this letter Tenez, 1 Louis, portez cette lettre 

3 bring me some stamps a la posted et apportez-moi des 

, timbres. 3 

1 once P ai vu cette dame une fois 1 ou 

2 twice 3 I do not know her any deux, 2 mais je we la reconnects 
more. pas. 

1 You have on the hat of my Vous vous etes coifft du chapeau 

brother Joseph 2 butit does not de monfrere Joseph, 1 maistlne 

fit you. vous vap as. 2 

1 seems to be wedded to his clerk Ce maicha nd est coiffe de son 

who 2 however 3 deceives him commis, 1 qui, cependant, 2 le 

trompe.s 
on purpose Avez-vous fait cela expres ? Si oui, 

vous av ez 6te mal inspire\ 

1 I will set out Je partirai 1 pour 1' Australie 

2 next year V annee prochaine 2 

1 He will soon go out 2 to take a II partira bientot 1 pour la prome- 
walk 3 will start for his vacation nade* et mon frere partira en 

vacances. 3 
1 whether he will or not 2 he must B071 gre mal gre, 1 il fau& qu' il 

3 if it is necessary vienne avec moi, car s' il faut* 

4 I will use it. .. employer la force, je V emplote- 

rai.± 
are past Deux mois se sont ecoules, et je 

n' ai p as encore eu de vos nou- 
velles. 

Answering an Advertisement for a FelloAv-traveller. 

Monsieur, 

J' ai connaissance 1 Monsieur, de 1' annonce 2 que vousavez 
fait inserer 3 hier 4 dans le Ledger de Philacielphie, par la- 
quelle 5 vous demandez 6 un compagnon de voyage 7 qui 
soit 8 Americain, connaissant 9 bien la langue francaise et a 
meme 10 devous servir d'interprete 11 durant 1 2 un sejour 13 
que vous comptez faire bientot 14 en Europe. 

Je viens de terminer mes etudes 1 5 d' ing-enieur civil, 1 6 au 
cours desquelles 17 j'ai cru devoir 18 consacrer 19 une atten- 
tion speciale a cette langue, ce qui m' a valu, 2 ° il y a trois 
mois, 2 1 mon admission comme membre de la Societe du Dix- 
Neuvieme Steele, composee de Francais, de Beiges et de 
Suisses d' elite, 22 et fondee au point de vue 23 de 1' architec- 



French Speaker. 195 

ture, de la metallurgie, du droit 24 et de 1' industrie commer- 
ciale en general, dans leurs rapports avec les pays inter- 
nationaux. 

Yous pourriez, 25 Monsieur, vous convaincre 26 de mes ap- 
titudes en lisant 21 1' edition 28 de la semaine derniere 29 du 
journal Votes et Moyens, qui relate 30 et commente 31 quel- 
ques-uns 32 de mes arguments. Je crois devoir 33 vous 
ajouter 34 que tous les travaux de la dite 35 societe se font 36 
tous 37 enfrancais. 

L' occasion que vous offrez 3S me serait 39 des plus favo 
rabies, en ce qu' elle me donnerait 4 ° 1' excellente chance 4 ^ de 
verifier 42 sur place 43 1' exactitude de mes connaissances, 44 
et de les affermir; 45 et je vous promets 46 que vous ne 
feriez, 4 7 pas un ingrat, 4 8 si vous vouliez 4 9 bien m' honorer 5 ° 
de votre choix. 5 1 

Dans 1' espoir d' une reponse favorable, 5 2 je me dis, 5 3 
avec prof ond respect, 5 4 

Monsieur, 
Yotre tres humble 55 serviteur, 56 

Paul Colleman. 
Germantown le ler Avril, 1891. 
A Monsieur McKinley, 

a New York. 

Vocabulary. 

!J' ai connaissance : I know ; 2 1' annonce : advertising ; 3 que vous 
avez fait inserer : which you have inserted ; *hier : yesterday ; 5 par 
laquelle : by which ; 6 VO us demandez : you want; 7 un campagnon de 
voyage: a fellow-traveller ; 8 qui soit: who must be; 9 connaissant : 
knowing : 10 a meme : able ; n de vous servir d' interprete : to be inter- 
preter ; 12 durant : during; 13 un sejour: a stay : 14 que vous comptez 
faire bientot : which you intend to make soon ; 15 Je viens de terminer 
mes etudes : I have just finished my studies : 16 ingenieur civil : civil 
engineering ; 17 au oours desquelles : in the course of which; i8j' ai cru 
devoir : I considered as my duty ; ^consacrer : to devote ; 20 ce qui m' a 
valu : which has been worth to me ; 21 il y a trois mois : three months 
ago : 22 d' elite : of selection ; 23 au point de vue : on account ; ^droit : 
law ; 25 Vous pourriez : you could ; 26 V ous couvaincre : convince your- 



196 



French Speaker. 



self: ^en lisant: by reading: 28 1' edition: the issue: ^semaine der- 
niere : last week ; 30 qui relate : which relates : 31 comment : which 
comments; 32 quelques-uns : some ones; 33, 34j e crois devoir vous 
ajouter : I think well of adding to you ; 35 la dite : the said ; 3 6sefont: 
are made ; 37 tout : entirely ; 38 que vous offrez : which you offer ; 39 me 
serait : should be to me ; 40 en ce qu' elle me donnerait : as it would 
give me ; 41 chance : chance, opportunity ; 42 de verifier : to verify ; * 3 sur 
place: at the proper place ; 4 ±connaissances : knowledge; &de les af- 
firmer : to affirm them ; ^je vous promets : I promise you ; ± 7 que vous 
ne feriez pas : that you should not make; * 8 ingrat : ungrateful: 49 si 
vous vouliez : if you would; 50 m' honorer : gratify me; 5i c hoix : 
choice ; 52 Dans 1' espoir d' une reponse favorable : hoping in a favor- 
able answer ; 53jemedis: lam; 5%vec profond respect : with great 
respect; 55tres devout: very devoted : 56 S erviteur : servant. 



oin, uin. 



By pronouncing- ivant without the t and giving to an the 
same sound as in sank, oin and uin will be well pronounced : 

pointe pronounce poin-te ; 

point, tack,mark. 



poing 

fist, hand. 

moins 

less. 

loin 

far. 

coing 

quince. 

coin 

corner. 

soin 

care. 

Juin 

June. 

suinter 

to sweat,to leak. 

Alcuin 

learned man who 

came to the court 

of Charles the 

Great, 



poin 



moin 



loin 



coin 



coin 



soin ; 



Juin 



suiiite 



Al cum 



oin as wan, with an as in 
sank, n mute, t sounded, e 
mute. 

oin as wan,with an as in sank, 
nnute. 

do., do. 

do., do. 

do., do. 

do., do. 

s hard, the rest as above. 

uin as wan, with an as in 
sank, n mute, J soft. 

s hard, uin as wan, with an as 
in sank, n mute, e as a in fate. 

Al as in salvation, uin as 
above, n mute. 



French Speaker 



197 



Bauduin pronounce Rauduin; 
emperor of Con- 
stantinople, crown 
prince of Belgium. 

Twenty-fourth Idiomatical 
Reading Exercise. 

1 tliat purchase 2 without reason 

3 they will not use 

4 now 5 as 

r> mourning 

x The examiners 2 asked 

3 he did not succeed (or) he did 

not answer any 4 so 5 did not 

obtain 
6 bachelor of letters 
*In reply 
2 past 3 sent 
4 check 
5 anaount 
6 last bill 

*if there is an opportunity . 
2 that I may go out 
3 at that time 
1 believed 2 dead 
3 alive 4 and he feels well 
5 for he has written to them him- 
self 
x Do you live 2 in 

*I do not live 2 in either city 

3 1 live 

4 with 5 near 

1 removed 

2 we will remove 3 next spring 



au as o in no, uin as above, n 
mute. 



Vingt-quatrieme Exercice de 
Lecture sur les Idiomes. 

Get achat 1 a ete fait mal a propos, 2 
on ne se servira pas 3 de ces 
6toffes maintenant,* attendu 
que 5 nous sommes en deuil. 6 

Le jtiry d 1 ex amen 1 posa 2 plu- 
sieurs questions a cet eleve ; 
mais il echoua sur tout es 3 et ne 
put ainsi^ oblenir 5 son diplome 
de bachelier es-lettres. 6 

En reponse 1 a votre lettre du mois 
ecoule 2 je vous ai envoy e 3 un 
billet a ordre* de 500 francs, 
montant 5 de votre dernier e fac- 
ture, 6 payable par la Ban que 
Nationale de New-York. 

J'irai vous voir dans trois mois 
s' ' il y a lieu 1 que je puisse sor- 
tir 2 a cette epoque. 3 

Ces gens croyaient 1 leur flls mort, 2 
et il est en vie z et Men portant,* 
car il leur a Scrit lui-meme. 6 



Paris ou a 



Demeurez-vous 1 

Bruxelles ? 
Je ne demeure 1 daiis V une ni 

dans V autre ville, 2 f habit e 3 

chez* ma fille aux environs 5 de 

Bale. 
Nos voisins ont demSnage 1 hier, et 

nous devienagerons 2 au prin- 

temps prochain. 3 



198 French Speaker. 

Information to Parents on the Choice of a Condition of Life. 

Beauvais le 3 Aout 1891. 
Bien chers Parents, 

Me voici bientot 1 a la fin 2 de mes etudes human itaires, 3 
et je connais 4 la bien legitime impatience 5 dans laquelle 
vous met 6 mon hesitation sur le choix d'un etat de vie 7 que, 
merci! 8 j'ai hate de le dire, 9 vous m'avez laisse tres libre- 
ment choisir. 1 ° 

Eh bien, 1 1 vos voeux sont exauces I 1 2 vous incliniez, 1 3 je 
le sais, pour la carriere du Droit, 14 et c'est 1 5 pour le Droit 
que je me suis prononce, 16 apres 17 toutefois, 18 m'etre 
ouvert 19 aussi a mes professeurs. Tous ces Messieurs, qui 
m'ont accueilli 20 avec autant de bonte que de bienveil- 
lance, 21 m'ont declare 22 qu'ils avaient 23 pleine et entiere 
confiance 2 4 dans mon succes, dont, 2 5 m' ajouterent-ils, 2 6 mes 
premieres 27 etudes etaient deja l'augnre; 28 et que, quanfra 
ma situation future, 29 les dispositions que je leur avais sem- 
ble toujours indiquer, 30 m'assignaient 31 une profession 
liberale telle que 32 celle-ci. 33 

Alea jaeta est / 34 je serai done avocat 35 si Dieuveut bien 
benir 36 mes projets. 

La sortie 37 du college ayant lieu 38 le 15 courant, 39 e'est- 
a-dire 40 dans 12 jours seulement, 41 je serais heureux 42 de 
savoir auparavant, 43 et bientot, 44 si rien absolument 45 ne 
laisse a desirer dans votre approbation 46 et si, comme je 
P ai toujours pense, 47 j'ai bien rencontre vos vues. 48 

Dans cet espoir, 49 et en attendant le bonheur d'aller 50 
vous embrasser 51 en personne, 52 bien chers Parents, je vous 
embrasse d'ici 53 de tout cceur. 54 

Yotre fils tres-soumis 5 5 et tres reconnaissant, 5 6 

Arthuk Granvelle. 

Vocabulary. 

1 Me voici bientot : now I am soo7i ; %a la fin : at the end ; We mes 
etudes numanitaires : of my classical studies ; 4 je connais : I know : 
5 la bien legitime impatience : your justified impatience : 6 dans 



French Speaker. 199 

laquelle vous met : in which you are by my hesitation ; 7 6tat de vie : 
condition, situation; 8 que, merci: which, thank; 9 j'ai hate de le 
dire: I say it at once; 10 vous m'avez laisse 1 tres librement choisir: 
you have allowed me to take very freely ; n Eh bien : well : 12 vos voeux 
sont exauc^s : your wishes are accomplished ; 13 vous incliniez : you 
were in favor; 14 droit : law; 15 c' est : it is; 16 je me suis pronounce 1 : 
I have decided : 17 apres : after : 18 toutefois : however ; 19 m' etre ouvert : 
having open myself; 20 qui m' ont accueilli : who have received me; 
21 avec autant de bonte 1 que de bienveillance : with as much kindness 
as goodwill ; ^m' ont declare 1 : have declared to me ; ^qu' j]_ s avaient: 
2 *pleine et entiere confiance : fall confidence ; ^dont : of which ; 
^m' ajouterent-ils : said they to me over ; 27 premieres : first ; 28 augure : 
presage ; Equant a ma situation future : in regard to my future situa- 
tion; 30que je leur avais semble" toujours indiquer : which I had show 
them always; 31 m' assignaient : were showing to me; 32 telle que : as; 
^celle-ci : this one : 3 ±Alea jactaest: It is decided; 35 avocat lawyer; 
^benir : to bless: 37 la sortie: the departure; ssayant lieu: taking 
place ; 39 courant instant ; *<>c' est-a-dire : I mean to say ; 41 seulement : 
only ; ^je serais heureux : I should be happy ; i3 de savoir auparavant : 
of knowing before ; ^bientot : soon : ± 5 si rien absolument : if abso- 
lutely nothing ; ^ne laisse a desirer dans votre approbation : if your 
approbation is complete ; 47 comme je 1' ai toujours pensg ; as I always 
thought; ^j' ai bien rencontre 1 vos vues : I have met well with your 
idea; 49dans cet espoir : in that hope; 5°en attendant le bonheur 
d'aller: waiting for the happiness of going ; 51 vous embrasser : to 
embrace you; 52 en persoune : in person; 53 je vous embrasse d'ici: 
I embrace you from here ; ^de tout cceur : very heartily ; ^tres sou- 
mis : very obedient ; 5«reconnaissant : grateful. 

um, un. 

"When these combinations precede consonants, they sound 
as un in hunter, keeping strictly m and n mute: 



Humber pronounce Hum 


ber ; 


um an un in hunt- 


King of Italy. 




er, m mute, er as 
ere in there. 


humble " hum-ble ; 


um as above, bl 


humble, low, mean. 




sounded, e mute. 


humblement " humble man; 


um as above, ble 


humbly. 




with e as u in tub, 
an as in want, n 
mute. 


un " un; 




as un in hunter, n 


one, a. 




mute. 



200 



chacun 

each. 
defunt 

deceased. 
brun 
brown. 
quelqu' un 

some one. 



French Speaker. 

pronounce sha cun ; 

" defun; 

" brun ; 

" kel kun : 



a as ah, un as above, 

n mute. 
e as a in fate, un as 

above, n mute. 
un a above, n mute. 

el as ell in bell, un 
as above, n mute. 



When um and un are followed by a vowel, u is pronounced 
as in the French alphabet, and m and n beg-in another syl- 
lable : 

u as is French, n 
sounded, e mute. 

tri as in trinity, u as 
in alphabet, n 
sounded, e mute. 

u as in the French 
alphabet, a as ah, 
ni as in nip, e as a 
in fate. 

u as above, eur as 
ur in fur broad. 

u as above, i as Eng- 
lish e, d sounded, 
c mute. 

u as in French, i as 
in city, aire as air 
in fair, e mute. 

u as in French, m 
sounded, e mute. 

u as above, a as in 
cat, tis m as in 
English. 

u as above, ni as in 
uip, e as a in fate. 

u as French u, et as 
in net. 
; u as above, all i's as 
in city, a as in cat, 
e as in /ate. 



une 


pronounce 


une ; 


one, a. 








tribune 




a 


tri bune ; 


tribune. 








humanite 




u 


u ma ni te ; 


humanity. 
humeur 






u meur ; 


humor, temper. 








humide 




" 


u mi-de ; 


humid, damp, moist. 






luminaire 




a 


lu mi naire ; 


luminary, light. 








rhume 




u 


ru-me ; 


cold. 








rhumatisme 




" 


ru ma tism ; 


rheumatism. 








unite 




(( 


u ni te ; 


unity. 








lunette 




: ' 


lu net ; 


glass, telescope. 








municipalite 




u 


municipalite 


municipality. 









French Speaker. 



201 



Twenty-fifth Idiomatical Read- 
ing 1 Exercise. 

*You must change your clothes 

2 for 3 entirely wet *it should be 

5 at the same time unhealthy 

6 in that condition. 

1 Indeed, 2 I will change everything 

3 because ±1 feel bad. 

1 Then 2 we shall sit down to the 

table. 
Wait till I am ready 

1 Well, 2 here I am 3 let us sit down 

to the table and dine. 
1 It rains too hard 2 it will not be 

pleasant 3 to take a walk *aftex- 

noon. 

1 The weather is not fair 

2 after it rained 

3 it has snowed *so hard 

5 to stay 

6 at home 

i The storm 

2 Monday 3 hail 

* and it thundered frightfully 

5 the lightning was also very sharp 

6 and could frighten 

7 the boldest man 

1 What do you say ! 2 you are afraid 

3 for such a bagatelle. 



Vingt-cinquieme Exercice de 
Lecture sur les Idiomes. 

Voits devez changer d? habits 1 
car 2 vous etes tout moaille, 3 il 
serait± imprudent et d la fois 
malsain* de rester ainsi.s 

Vraunent, 1 je changer ai tout 2 ce 
que j'ai sur le corps, car 3 je 
me sens malA 

Alors, 1 nous nous mettrons d 
table. 2 

Une minute, attendez que je sots 
pret. 

Eh bien, 1 me void, 2 mettons-nous 
done d table et dinons. 3 

II pleut tropfort, 1 il ne /era pas 
agreable 2 sepromener 3 cet apres- 
mi UA 

II ne fait pas beau 1 cette semaine, 
car apres avoir phi 2 tout le 
temps, il a neige 3 si fort* hier, 
que nous avons et6 obliges de 
rester 5 chez nous. 6 

i' orage 1 que nous avons eu 
lundi, 2 etait accompagn6 de 
grele ; 3 et le tonnerre grondait 
terriblement;± les eclairs etaient 
aussi de la vivacite" la plus ef- 
frayante 5 et propres d /aire 
peur* an tnoins poltron.' 1 
Allons done Z 1 vous etes effrayes 2 
pour si pen ? 3 



Letter of one Member of a Society to another Member and Friend, 
in order to confer with him on account of an Election for a 
President. 

Denver le 2 Mars, 1891. 
Hon cher Ami et Collegue, 

Sans doute, 1 vous aurez comjne 2 moi deja recu 3 la lettre 
qui nous convoque 4 a une reunion mardi prochain, 5 afin 
d'elire 6 un president. 

Je ne suppose point que vous, non plus' que moi, vous 



202 French SpecTcer. 

enviez 8 cet honneur; mais comme il m'est revenu tantot 9 
que Mr John Adam se disposerait a demander 1 ° nos suf- 
frages, j'ai, pour ma part, 11 s'il en est ainsi, 12 decide de 
voter sa faveur. 

Mr. Adam est un de nos plus anciens membres, 1 3 et vous 
savez 14 aussi qu'il est probe, 14 zele 15 et impartial, et con- 
nait 16 a fond 17 les rouages 18 de notre administration; de 
plus, 19 1' estime qu'il a toujours hautement 20 merite 21 
parmi nous et dont tous 1' entourent 22 au dehors, 23 sa situ- 
ation sociale enfin, tout le fait Y homme sur lequel nos 
vues 24 devraient, me semble-t-il, 2 5 se fixer. 26 

D' autres candidatures pourraient percer, 2 7 et afin 
d'eviter 28 des dissentiments 29 et d'epargner 30 les suscep- 
tibilites, il ne me parait pas inutile 31 de nous concerter 
d'avance 32 sur 33 un choix que, j'ai la confiance, vous trou- 
verez 34 avec la plupart 35 de nos collegues, si pas avec tous, 
comme etant 36 le plus favorable. 

Yeuillez, 3 q mon cher Ami et Collegue, agreer 1' expres- 
sion de mes sentiments les plus cordiaux 38 et tres-sinceres, 
et me croire. 3 9 

Tout a vous, 40 

Jules Blaine. 

A Monsieur L. Mullen, 

E. V. 

Vocabulary. 

1 Sans doute : without doubt ; 2 comme': as; 3 recu : received; *qui 
nous convoque : which convokes us ; 5 mardi prochain : next Tuesday : 
6 afin d' elire : in order to elect ; mon plus : not more : 8 vous enviez : 
you envy ; 9 il m' est revenu tantot : it has been told to me a moment 
ago ; 10 se disposerait a demander : should dispose himself to ask ; n pour 
ma part : for my concern ; 12 s' il en est ainsi : if it is so ; 13 un de nos 
plus anciens membres: one of our most ancient members; 14 vous 
savez : you know ; 14 probe : honest ; ]5 z61e : zealous : 16 connaii : he 
knows ; 17 a fond : entirely : 18 rouages : details, particularities : 19 de 
plus : moreover ; sohautement : highly : 21 merit6 : deserved : ^dont 
tous 1' entourent : by which everybody surround him : ^au dehors : 



French Speaker. 203 

outside: 24 nos vues : our views: ^ ^devraient, me semble-t-il, se 
fixer : ought, it seems to me, be fixed ; ^pourraient percer : could come 
out : 28afin d' eviter : in order to avoid ; 29 dissentiments : divisions ; 
sod' gpargner : to avoid: 31 il ne me parait pas inutile : it does not 
seem useless to me : 33 de nous concerter d' avance : to consult one 
another in advance (or) beforehand ; ^sur : on account ; 3*vous trou- 
verez : you will find : 35 la plupart : most ; ^cornme etant : as being ; 
3 "Yeuillez : please ; ssies plus cordiaux : the most cordial : 39 me croire : 
believe me ; *°Tout a vous : entirely yours. 

Answer to the Preceding Letter. 

Denver le 3 Mars, 1891. 
Mon cher Ami et honor e Collegue, 

J' ai ete comme vous, 1 convoque ~ pour 1' assemblee de 
notre societe, mardi prochain a 10 heures, a 1' effet d' elire 
un president. 

Je ne savais rien 3 au sujet 4 de Mr. John Adam comme 
aspirant 5 a ce titre, 6 avant 1 votre lettre d'hier. 8 Depuis 9 
que vous m' en avez inf orme, 1 ° deux autres de nos Col- 
legnes, M. M. Nag-ant et Ledaim, sont venus me trouver, 1 j 
et nr ont recommande 1 2 aussi 1' election du doyen 1 3 de nos 
membres. 

Je vois 14 que tous s' accordent 1 5 a designer 16 Mr. Adam 
comme 1' homme du plus haut merite, 11 auquel 1' honneur 
de presider" 1 8 a nos interets doit etre devolu, 1 9 et je me con- 
formerai 20 certainement 21 avec plaisir aux vues que vous 
ont dictees, 22 j' en ai la certitude, la sagesse 23 et requite. 

Je vous remercie 24 sincerement, mon cher et honore Col- 
legue, et je vous prie d' agreer 25 1' expression et 1' assurance 
de mes sentiments tout distingues. 2 6 

L. Mullen. 

A Monsieur Jules Blaine, 
E. Y. 

Vocabulary. 

1 J' ai ete ccmme vous : I have been as you ; 2 convoque : convoked ; 
3 jene savais rien: I did fcnoiv anything; 4 au sujet: on account; 
5 aspirant : candidate; 6 titre : title ; 7 avant : before; 8 d' hier : of yes- 



204 French Speaker. 

t fir day ; 9 Depuis : since; 10 vous m' en avez informe" : you have in- 
formed me of it ; n sont venus me trouver : have come to see me ; 
12 m' ont recommande : have recommended to me; 13 doyen : dean; 
14 je vois : I see; 15 s' accordent : agree ; 16 a designer : to design, to show ; 
i?du plus haut merite : of the highest merit ; 18 de pr£sider : to preside ; 
19 doit etre d^volu : must be given ; 20 je me conforinerai : I will con- 
form ntyself ; 21 certainement : certainly; 22 que vous ont dictGes : 
which have been dictated to you ; 23 sagesse : wisdom ; 2 *je vous remer- 
cie : I thank you ; 25 je vous prie d' agreer : / beg you to agree ; 26tout 
distingues : very distinguished. 



FRENCH SPEAKER 



HOW TO PRONOUNCE, HOW TO READ. 



THIRD PART. 



REMARKS ON CONSONANTS. 





B Sounded. 






B is sounded at the end of 


words : 






Job 


pronounce o as in 


club 


pronounce u as 


in 


•patriarch. 


not and j soft. 


club. 


French. 




Joab 


pronounce o as in 


Caleb 


pronounce ca as 


in 


general of 


not, a as ah. 


Hebrew. 


cat, e as in net. 




David. 




Horeb 


pronounce o as 


in 


Actaab 


pronounce A as in 


mountain in 


not, e as in net. 




King of 


cat, chab as cab. 


Asia. 






Israel. 


B >J 


[ute. 






It is silent in the following- 








plorab 


pronounce om as in 


Doubs 


pronounce ou as 


oo 


lead. 


monk, m mute. 


French de- 


in too, bs silent. 




aplomb 


pronounce a as in 


partment. 






perpendicu- 


French, the rest as 


radoub 


pronounce ra as 


in 


larly, self- 


above. 


repairing of 


rat, the rest 


as 


command. 




a- ship. 


above. 





(205) 



206 



French Speaker. 



Vingt-Sixcieme F.xercice de Lecture sur les Idiomes 

i It is better 2 to go ahead 
3 to be backward 
* idle 

1 In order to 

2 which is sai I 3 so interesting ±1 

have prepared myself 5 early 



1 When one studies 

2 to consider Entirely 

4 beginning 

I could not say but approximating 
the age of my mother 

1 save one day or two 2 once in a 
while 3 it must be there *you 
know anyhow (or) certainly 

5 in order to, 

6 late 7with my payments 

1 was always doing in order to 

2 to deceive 

3 imposing 

* established on the best knowl- 
edge 
i did not know 

2 nor the vast plains 

3 who had destroyed everything 

± so 5 finding anything no more 

6 starved 

7 with cold, thirst and hunger 



11 est mieux 1 de toujours marcher 
en avant 2 que de rester en ar- 
riere 3 indolent et oisifA 

A V effet d' aller 1 visiter le musee, 
qu 1 on dit 2 si curieux. 3 je me 
suis prepare* de bonne heure. 5 

Lorsqu' on etuflie 1 une chose, il 
est bon de Venvisager 2 au fond 3 
et de commencer par le com- 
mencement.* 

A un an pres, je ne sais pas de 
combien ma mhre est tigee. 

A un jour ou deux pres, 1 unefois 
en passant 2 si je vous paie, ce 
do it etre Id 3 le principal ; vous 
connaissez du reste* ma bonne 
f oi et mon soin, afin de 5 n' etre 
jamais en retard 6 de pavement. 1 

Napoleon ler faisait toujours 
en sorte de 1 tromper 2 l'ennemi 
par des deploiements granul- 
oses 3 et savamment calcules.* 

Mais ce grand capitaine ne con- 
naissait 1 ni les steppes 2 de la 
Russie ni ses habitants, qui 
avaient tout detruit 3 a son ap- 
proche ; de maniere que,* ne 
tronvant plus rien 5 sur leur 
passage, ses troupes perirent* 
defroid, de soif et de/aim 7 



French Speaker, 207 



CONJUGATION OF THE AUXILIARY VERB 
AVOIR— (To have). 

POSITIVE OR AFFIRMATIVE FORM OF VERBS. 

To be Observed for the Pronunciation of Verbs. 

In order to have a good and gracious pronunciation in 
conjugating verbs, the student must observe what follows: 

1. That j is always pronounced soft as s in pleasure or as j in bijou, 

and e as u in tub, in je, te, que (pronounced ke), se, etc., and when 
it follows a consonant beginning verbs, being with this conso- 
nant the only vowel forming the first syllable. There are but 
few exceptions. 

2. That the sound ai in the Imperfect and in the Conditional Pres- 

ent, is more as that of a in said than that of ay in pay, which is 
the real pronunciation of ai in j'ai, in je fais(Jdo, I make), etc., 
and of that in the future tense of all verbs je ferai (I will do) ; 

3. That the above sounds, ai and a sounded as ai in said must be, in 

any pronunciation, cut short and dry, as dry as e in net, instead 
of making those sounds somewhat liquid as many do ; 

4. That u must always be pronounced as in French ; 

5. That where there is no linking, the interval in the sound between 

words, must be only perceptible without making any effort nor 
jerk ; 

6. That s ending the pronouns subjects nous, vous, ils, must be 

linked to the verb, when this begins with a vowel or a mute h ; 

7. That in cases where the verb begins with a consonant, the s of the 

same pronouns nous, etc., is always unheard or mute ; 

8. That e, es, s, z, t and ent ending verbs are always unsounded in 

the recitation of verbs, but 

9. That s, z, t ending verbs are linked as anywhere else when they 

are followed by a vowel or a mute h, this in accordance with the 

rules given about Linking Consonants, Pages 2d Part ; 

10. That e in the body of the verbs of the first conjugation is mute ; 
thus: jedonrai for je donnerai (Twill give) j' appellrais for 
j' appellerais (I should call), etc. 

These observations being given, there will be the pronunciation only 
of the verbs which will be shown. 



208 



French Speaker. 



MODE INDIOATIF— {Indicative Mood). 
Present — ( Present). 



J' ai 


I have 


ai as in may. 


tu as 


thou hast 


• a as alt. 


il a 


he has 


a as ah. 


nous avons 


we have 


a as ah, on as on in monk, n mute. 


vous avez 


you have 


a do., ez as a in fate. 


ils ont 


they have 


071 as on above. 



The compound tense of the above is formed by repeating 
the same and adding- to each person the past participle eu 

(had): 

Passe deflni — {Preterit indefinite): 
J' ai eu, etc. lhave had, etc. eu as French u. 



J' avais 
tu avais 
il avait 
nous avions 
vous aviez 
ils avaient 



Imparfait — (Imperfect). 

I had a as ah, ais as ai in said. 

thou hadst avais as above. 

he had avait as above. 

we had a as ah, ion — diphthong — on as above. 

you had ado., %ez — diphthong — ez as a in fate. 

they had avaient as avait above. 



By the same proceeding as above, make the compound 
tense of the imperfect : 



J' avais eu, etc. 



J' eus 

tu eus 

il eut 

nous eumes 

vous eutes 

ils eurent 



Plus que farfait — (Pluperfect), 
en as French u. 

Passe deflni — (Past definite). 

I had eu as French. 

thou hadst eu as French u. 

he had eut as French* u, 

we had eu as French u, m sounded. 

you had eu do , t sounded. 
they had eu do., r rolled. 



The same formation for the compound tense of the past 
definite : 



J' eus eu, etc. 



Passe auterieur — (Past anterior). 
I had had eu as French u. 



French Speaker. 



209 



J' aurai 

tu auras 
il aura 
nous aurons 

vous aurez 
ils auront 



Futur — (Future). 
I shall or will have 

thou shalt or wilt have 
he shall omvill have 
we shall or will have 



you shall or will have 
they shall or will have 



au as o in no, ai as ay in 

may. 
au do., a as ah. 
au do., a do. 
au do., on as in monk, n 

mute. 
au do., ez as a in/a^e. 
au do., on as cm above. 



Repeat the same tense with the addition of eu for the 
compound tense : 

Futur anterieur — (.Future anterior). 
J' aurai eu, etc, I shall or ivill have had eu as French u. 

MODE CONDITIONNEL— ( Conditional Mood). 
Present — ( Present). 

J' aurais I should, would, could au as o in no, ai as ai in 

or might have said. 

tu aurais thou shouldst, wouldst do., do. 

couldst or might have 
il aurait he should, would,eould do., do. 

or might have 
nous aurions we should,would, could ion, diphthong, on as said. 

or might have 
vous auriez you should,wo uld,could do., iez do., ez as said. 

or might have 
ils auraient they should, would, do., aient as ai above. 

could or might have 

The compound tense is formed as in the mood above. 
Passe — (Past). 

J' aurais eu, etc. I should, would, could eu as French u. 

or might have had 

MODE IMPERATIF— (Imperative Mood). 



aie 


have (thou) 


aie as ay in may. 


ayons 


let us have 


ay do., y is used for two 
t's, second i diphthong, 
with on as said. 


ayez 


have (you) 


ay do., do., with ez as said. 



210 French Speaker. 

MODE SUBJONCTIF— (Subjunctive Mood). 
Present — (Present). 



Que j'aie 
que tu aies 
qu' il ait 
que nous ayons 



That I may have 
that thou may st have 
that he may have 
that we may have 



que vous ayez 
qu' ils aient 



aie as ay in may. 
do., 
do. 
ayons as in the Impera- 
tive above. 
ayez do. 
aient as ay in may. 



that you may have 
that they may have 

The compound tense is formed as above. 

Passe— (Pas t). 
Que j' aie eu, etc. That I may have had eu as French u 
Imparfait — (Imperfect). 



Que j'eusse 
que tu eusses 
qu' il eut 



That I might have 
that thou mightst have 
that he might have 



que nous eussions that we might have 



eu as French u, ss sounded. 

eusses do., do. 

eH, do. 

euss do., diphthong, with 

ons. 
euss do., do. with ez. 
cuss do. 



que vous eussiez that you might have 
qu' ils eussent that they might have 

The same formation occurs for the compound tense. 

Plus que parfait — (Pluperfect). 
Que j'eusse eu, etc. That I might have had as above. 

MODE INFINIT1F— ( Infinitive Mood). 

Present — (Present). 

avoir to have a as ah, oir : combine o 

with ar pronounced as 



Passe — (Past or Perfect). 
avoir eu to have had avoir as above, eu as 

French u. 
Participe present — (Participle present or active). 
ayant having ay as in may, ant as an in 

iv ant, nt mute. 

Participe passe compose— (Compound present participle). 

ayant eu having had ayant as above, eu as 

French u. 



French Speaker. 



211 



Participe passe — (Participle past or perfect, (or) passive). 

eu (mas.) eue( fern.) had eu as French u, cue the 

same, with e as final w 
in English. 

C. 

c has the sound soft as in cedar, as in city and as in cylin- 
der, when it is followed by e, by i and by y : 



ceci 


pronounce e as u in 


citoyen 


pronounce ci as in 


this. 


£ m 6 , ci as in 


citizen. 


city, oy as to a in 




ci'^2/. 




was, en as am in 


cela 


pronounce e as 




sank, n mute. 


that. 


above, a as ah. 


cyclone 


pronounce ci as in 






cyclone. 


city, one as in bone. 



C Sounded as K 

when at the end of words : 



avec 


pronounce a as in 


roc 


pronounce as En- 


tvith. 


French, e as in net. 


rock. 


glish rock. 


echec 


pronounce e as a in 


done 


pronounce on as in 


disappoint- 


fate, e as in net. 


then. 


monk, n mute. 


ment. 










C Mr 


Lte in 




the following words : 






banc 


pronounce an as in 


instinct 


pronounce both ill's 


bench. 


want, n mute. 


instinct, 


as an in sank, net 


echecs 


pronounce e as « in 


temper. 


m ute. 


play. 


fate, e as in net, cs 


respect 


pronounce res as in 




mute. 


respect. 


English, e as in 


escroc 


pronounce es as in 




net, ct mute. 


sharper. 


esteem, o as in 


clerc 


pronounce ere as ere 




not. 


clerk. 


in there. 


blanc 


pronounce an as in 


caoutchouc 


pronounce ca as in 


white. 


want, nc mute. 


India- 


cat, both om's as oo 


franc 


pronounce an as in 


rubber. 


in too. 


bold, brave : 


want, nc mute. 


estomac 


pronounce es as in 


French money. 


stomach. 


esteem, o as in not, 


aspect 


pronounce as as as, 




a as French a. 


aspect, 


c as in net, ct 


tabac 


pronounce both a's 


sight. 


mute. 


tobacco. 


as French a. 



212 



French Speaker. 



tronc pronounce on as in 


suspect 


pronounce s hard, u 


trunk, stock; monk, nc mute. 


suspicious, 


as in French, s 


poor's box. 


suspected. 


sounded, e as in 


circonspect pronounce cir as in 




net, ct silent. 


circumspect. circumstance, on 


*distinct 


pronounce dis as in 


as in monk, n 


distinct. 


English, in as an 


mute, s sounded, e 




in sank, n mute, ct 


as in net, ct silent. 




mute. 



C Sounded as G 

in the following- words and in their derivatives: 



second 


pronounce e as u in 


fecond 


pronounce e as a in 


second. 


tub, on as in monk, 


fruitful, 


fate, ond as in sec- 




nd mute. 


genial. 


ond. 



ANGL.ETERRE. 

Esquisses Historiques — Anecdotes. 

Ses Premiers Habitants — Invasion des Romains — Lies Saxons — 
Emigration des Bretons — Lies Angles. 

IVile 1 de la Grande Bretagne eut 2 pour 3 premiers habi- 
tants 4 des peuples d'origine celtique 5 appeles 6 Bretons et 
Caledoniens. q La religion des ces peuples etait, 8 comme 
celle des 9 Gaulois, 1 ° le Druidisme. 1 1 

Jules-Cesar, apres avoir sounds 12 la Gaule, eut dessein 13 
de reunir 1 4 aussi la Bretagne a 1' empire romain, et, a cet 
effet, 15 il y fit une descente 16 en Tan 17 50 avant 18 Jesus- 
Christ. Mais il repartit 19 bientot pour Rome sans avoir 
mis entierement son projet a execution 20 — Ce fut 21 Cesar 
qui, 22 en raison des 23 falaises 24 de craie blanche 25 qu'il 
trouva 26 en y debar quant, 2 n donna 28 a 1' Angle terre le nom 
d' Albion, duquel 29 on la baptise 30 encore de nos jours. 31 

Environ 32 95 ans apres, 33 l'empereur Claude envoya 34 
20,000 hommes dans cette 35 ile, afin d'en 36 etablir 37 la con- 
quete. Les Bretons furent vaincus, 3 8 et leur chef, Caracta- 
cus, fait prisonnier, 3 9 f ut conduit 40 a Rome avec toute sa 
famille. Arrive en cette ville, 41 et lorsqu'on le menait 42 a 

*They pronounce also the c, but many keep it mute in this word. 



French Speaker. 



213 



travers 43 les rues opulentes 44 de 1' orgueilleuse capitale 45 
du monde, ce barbare philosophe temoigna 4 6 sa surprise de 
tant 47 de magnificence, et "de ce qu'un peuple 48 aussi 
riche et aussi rassasie 49 de tout que 50 les Romains, eut pu 
songer 51 a lui prendre 52 une miserable cabane 53 en Bre- 
tagne ! " 

Enl'annee 77 apres Jesus-Christ, l'empereur Vespasien 
envoy a en Bretagne le general Agricola en qualite 54 de 
gouverneur. Celui-ci reussit 5 5 a introduire 5 6 la civilisation 
romaine parmi^les Bretons qui habitaient le 58 sud de 
l'ile; mais il ne put venir a bout des 59 Caledoniens, ou 
Ecossais, qui en occupaient 60 le nord, et qui ravageaient 6 1 
frequemment leurs voisins. 62 Afin d' empecher 63 leurs 
incursions, les empereurs Adrien et Septime Severe 

To be continued : a continuer. 



1 1/ ile, The island 

2 eut, had 

3 pour, /or, as 

4 premiers habitants, first in- 

habitants 

5 des peuples <T origine celti- 

que, people of Celtic origin 

6 appeles, called 

7 Bretons et Caledoniens, Brit- 

ons and Caledonians. 

8 etait, ivas 

9 comme celle des, as that of 

10 Gaulois, Gallic 

11 Druidisme, Druidism. 

12 apres avoir sou mis, after 

having submitted 

13 ent dessein, projected 

14 de reunir, to gather 

15 a cet effet, in order to, for that 

purpose 

16 il j fit une descente, he went 

there 

17 en 1' an, in the year 



Vocabulary. 

18 avant, before 

19 repartit, went away, departed 

20 sans avoir mis entierement 
son projet a execution, with- 
out having accomplished his 
project. 

21 ce fut, It was 

22 qui, who 

23 en raison des, on account of 

24 falaises, high and steep hill by 
the seaside ; cliff 

25 craie blanche, white chalk 

26 qu' il trouva, which he found 

27 en y debarquant, when he dis- 
embarked there 

28 donna, gave 

29 duquel, from which 

30 on la baptise, they bapttze 

31 de nos jours, in our time. 

32 environs, about 

33 apres, after 

34 envoy a, sent 

35 cette, that 



214 



French Speaker 



36 afin d', in order to 

37 en etablir, establish of it 

38 furent vaincus, were con- 

quered 

39 fait prisoimier, made prisoner 

40 fat conduit, was led 

41 arrive en cette ville, having 

arrrived in that city 

42 lors qu' on le menait, xohen 

they led him 

43 a travers, through 

44 les rues opulentes, the opulent 

streets 

45 de 1' orgueilleuse capitale, of 

the proud capital 

46 temoigna, shown 

47 tant, so much 

48 de cequ'un peuple,/row that 

which a people 

49 aussi rassasie, so satiate 

50 de tout que, with everything as 



51 exit pu songer, could think 

52 a lui prendre, to take of him 

53 cabane, thatched house 

54 en qualite, as 

55 celui-ci reussit, This one suc- 

ceeded 

56 a introduire, to introduce 

57 parmi, among 

58 qui habitaient le, who were 

living in 

59 inais il ne put venir a bout 

des, but he could not succeed 
to master the 

60 qui en occupaient, who were 

in possession 

61 qui ravageaient, who were 

plundering 

62 leurs voisins, their neighbors 

63 afin d' empecher, in order to 

prevent 



D. 

d is mute when it is at the end of words : 



hasard 


pronounce h aspir- 


fond* 


chance,risk. 


ate, a as in French, 


bottom. 




ard as in car. 


lard 


abord 


pronounce a as in 


bacon. 


access. 


cat, ord as ore. 


march and 


lourd 


pronounce ourd as 


merchant, 


heavy, dull. 


oor in poor. 


dealer. 


noeud 


pronounce o3ud as 




knot. 


between French u 


il defend 




and u of us. 


he defends. 


nigaud 


pronounce i as in 




silly. 


city, aud as o in no. 


pro fond 


renard 


pronounce e as u in 


deep. 


fox. 


tub, ard as ar in 






car. 


froid 


bond 


pronounce on as in 


cold. 


jump. 


monk, n mute. 


canard 


pied* 

fool. 


pronounce e as a in 
fate. 


duck. 



pronounce on as in 
monk, n mute. 

pronounce ard as ar 
in car. 

pronounce ar as in 
march, shorter, ch 
as sh, and as an in 
want, nd mute. 

pronounce 6 as a in 
fate, end as an in 
want, nd mute. 

pronounce o as in 
not, ond as on in 
monk, nd mute. 

pronounce oid as wa 
in was. 

pronounce ca as in 
cat, ard as ar in 
car. 



*The d is sounded in pied-a-terre {stopping place), and in do loud- 
en oomble {all through). 



French Speak 



215 



D is Sounded. 



in the following- words : 
David pronounce a as in 

king of Israel, father, i as in city. 
sud pronounce s hard, n 

south. as in French. 

Lamed pronounce a as in 

biblical name. French, e as in net. 
Gad pronounce g as in 

biblical name, game, a as in cat. 
Galaad pronounce ga as 

biblical name, above, aad as ad 

in lad, long. 
Alfred pronounce Al as in 

proper name, salvation, e as in 

net. 



Bagdad 

Turkish 

town. 

Mohamed 

Turkish 

name 

Joad 



pronounce botli a's 

as in cat, g as in 

bag. 
pronounce o as in 

not, a as in cat, e 

as in net. 
pronounce o as in 
in lad. 



high priest of not, ad 
the Hebrews. 

Wilfrid pronounce Wil 

a missionary will, i as in rip 
among Anglo- 
Saxons (654). 



(Angleterre continued.) 

separerent 1 leurs possessions par un mur, 2 et les Bretons 
vecurent 3 paisiblement 4 jusqu' a ce qu' 5 Alaric, roi cles 
Visigoths, 6 a la tete de ses hordes barbares, 7 eut envahi 8 
l'ltalie. Ceci forca 9 1' empereur Honorius de rappeler, 10 
en 410, les legions romaines. 

Apres le depart 11 des Romains, la separation elevee 12 
entre le pays 13 des Bretons et celui des 14 Caledoniens 
n' empecha plus ces derniers 1 5 de faire 1 6 de nouveau 1 7 leur 
apparition. 18 Vortigern, roi des Bretons, demanda du 
secours 19 aux Saxons, 20 peuple qui habitait 21 a 1' Occi- 
dent 22 de 1' Europe, sur les bords 23 de la Mer du Nord. 24 
Ceux-ci repondirent aussitot 25 a 1' appel etdebarquerent 26 
sous la conduite 21 de deux chefs, 28 Hengiste et Horsa. 23 
Les Saxons refoulerent lesenvahisseurs 30 et recurent 31 une 
partie 32 du pays 33 de Kent en paiement 34 de leur assis- 
tance, lis ne repassent pas la mer 35 et s'etablirent 36 dans 
cette contree -, 31 mais au lieu de 38 rester une protection 39 
pour les Bretons, ils devinrent bientot, 40 augmentes par 
1' immigration des leurs, 41 plus dangereux 42 que 43 les Cale- 
doniens eux-memes. 44 



216 



French Speaker. 



Dans le courant 45 du meme siecle, 46 les Bretons, trahis 
par leurs anciens allies, 47 et persecutes 48 tant par eux que 
par 4 9 leurs ennemis voisins, 5 ° se refugierent 5 J dans le pays 
de Galles, 5 2 abandonnant le leur 5 3 aux Saxons. La plupart 
d'entreeux 54 traverserent 55 la mer, et debarquerent dans 
une province 56 de la Gaule, appelee P Armorique, 5 7 a la- 
quelle 58 ils donnerent 59 le nom de Bretagne, 60 tel qu'il 
existe 61 aujourd'liui encore. Les Saxons qui avaient con- 
quis 62 la Grande Bretagne, et les Angles, peuples immigres 
de 63 la Germanie, y fonderent 64 sept royaumes, 65 qui pri- 
rent 66 le nom d' Heptarchie. 



1 separerent, separated 

2 par un mur, by a wall 

3 vecurent, lived 

4 paisiblement, peacefully 

5 jusqu' a ce qu', till that 

6 Visigoths, Visigoths 

7 a la tete de ses hordes bar- 

bares, at the head of his bar- 
barian hordes 

8 eut envahi, had invaded 

9 Ceei for^a, This compelled 

10 de rappeler, to recall 

11 le depart, departure 

12 elevee, erected, built 

13 entre le pays, between the 

country 

14 celui des, that of 

15 n' empecha plus ces derniers, 

did not prevent these 

16 de faire, of doing 

17 de nouveau, again 

18 leur apparition, their appear- 

ance, an apparition 

19 demanda du secours, asked 

for help 

20 aux Saxons, to the Saxony 

21 qui habitait, which was living 

22 a V Occident, in the West 



Vocabulary. 

23 sur les bords, along the sea- 
shore 

24 Mer du Nord, North Sea 

25 ceux-ci repondirent aussitot, 

these responded immediately 

26 debarquerent, disembarked 

27 sous la conduite, led 

28 de deux chefs, by two chiefs. 

29 Hen gist e et Horsa, Hengist 
and Horsa 

30 refoulerent les envahisseurs, 
chased the invaders away 

31 rec,urent, received 

32 unepartie, apart 

33 du pays, of the country 

34 en paiement, as payment 

35 ne repasserent pas la mer, 
did not cross the sea any more 

36 s' eta,X>\irerit,established them- 
selves 

37 dans cette contree, in that 
country 

38 au lieu de, instead of 

39 rester une protection, re- 
maining a protection 

40 ils devinrent bientot, they be- 
came soon 



French Speaker. 



217 



41 augment e par 1' immigration 

des leurs, increased by the 
immigration of their people 

42 plus dangereux, more dan- 

gerous 

43 que, than 

44 eux-memes, themselves 

45 dans le courant, in the course 

46 du meme siecle, of the same 

century 

47 trahis par leurs anciens al- 

lies, betrayed by their ancient 
ally 

48 persecutes, prosecuted 

49 tant par eux que par, as much 

by them than by 

50 leurs ennemis voisins, their 

neighbors and enemies 

51 se refugierent, took refuge 

F and Ph. 

are sounded at the end of words : 



52 dans le pays de Galles, in the 

country of Wales 

53 abandonnant le leur, leaving 
theirs 

54 la plupart d' entre eux, most 
of them 

55 traverserent, crossed 

56 une province, a province 

57 Armorique, Armorica 

58 a laquelle, to which 

59 ils donnerent, they gave 

60 Brcagne, Br it any 

61 tel qu'il existe, as it is existing 

62 qui avaient conquis, which 
had conquered 

63 immigres &e,i7nmigratedfrom 

64 y fonderent, founded there 

65 royaumes, kingdoms 

66 qui prirent, which took. 



pronounce ef as in 

effect. 
pronounce ca as in 

cat, if as if. 
pronounce a as in 

cat, tif as tiff. 
pronounce oeu as 

u in tub* 
pronounce oeu as 

u in tub. 



chef 

chief. 

canif 

penknife. 

natif 

native. 

hoeuf 

ox. 

ceuf 

egg- 

and / ending- all proper names. 

F Mute 

in the following- words : 
chef-d'oeuvre pronounce ef as e 
master-piece. in met, oeu as u in 

tub, vr sounded, 

e mute. 
hoeufs pronounce oeu as 

oxen. between French 

u and u of us, fs 

silent. 
ceufs . pronounce as oeufs 

eggs. above. 



neuf 

new, nine. 

Azof 

sea of 

Europe. 

Joseph 

proper 

name. 



pronounce eu as 

u in tub. 
pronounce A as 

French a, of as 

of. 
pronounce j soft, o 

as in not, s as z, 

e as in net. 



clef 


pronounce e as a 


key. 


in fate. 


clefs 


pronounce the 


keys. 


same, fs mute. 


cerf 


pronounce erf as 


deer. 


ere in there. 


nerf 


pronounce erf as 


nerve. 


ere in there. 



218 



French Speaker. 



Vingt-septieme Exercices de Lecture sur les Idiomes. 

Enferme 1 un jour dans 1 une ville 
Napoleon en sortii 2 dans le ven- 
tre 3 d' un cheval mort ; de sorte 
que^ ses ennemis, qui le croy- 
aienfi leur prisonnier, furent 
bien trompes / 6 

Dieu condamnaX V homme, apres 
son peche 2 de desobeissance, a 
manger* son pain a la sueur de 
son fronts 

Je vais aller 1 avec vous a Vin- 
stant, 2 si vous voulez avoir un 
peu de* patience. 

Au moment meme 1 de son arres- 

tation, cet homme etait encore 

nantfi des amies avec lesquelles 

il avait commis* l'assassinat du 

banquier. 

Je me sens mieux 1 aujourd' hui 
qu' hier, parce que 2 j' ai dormi 3 
paisiblement. 

Vous arrivez toujours en retard ; 1 
faites en sorte, 2 je vous prie, 
d' etre a I 7 heure, 8 car± si vous 
§tes tardi/z demain encore, je 
vous punirai. 

J 7 irai vous voir 1 dimanche s' il 
fait beau ; 2 mais s 1 il fait mau- 



i Shut in 

2 got out of it 3belly 

4 so 

5 who believed him 

6 deceived 

1 condemned 

2 sin 

3 to eat 4 by working for 

1 1 am going 2 directly 
3 a little of 

1 just at the moment 

2 had still on him 

3 he had committed 



1 1 feel better 
2 for 3 I slept 

Mate 

2 in order to 

3 in time ±for 
Mate 



1 I will go to see you »if the 
weather is fair 3 if it is bad *I shall 
not go out 5 from my house 



1 Very well 2at 1 east 
3 we shall wait lor you to take 
dinner with us 



vais, 3 je ne sor Urate pas de chez 
moi. 5 
Tres bien 1 mais au moins, 2 venez 
lundi, nous vous attendrovs a 
diner* 



{Conjugation of the verb Avoir continued.) 

CONJUGATION OF VERBS IN THEIR INTERROGATIVE 
FORM. 

Start your conversation with ivhat follows as the Key : 

In the Interrogative Form, verbs are conjugated only in 
the tenses of the Indicative and Conditional Moods. 



French Speaker. 219 

The disposition of verbs in this form is that they are fol- 
lowed by the subject, which is joined to them by a hyphen: 

ai-je? {have I?) 
recois-je? (do I receive?) 
finit-il? (does he finish?) 

In compound tenses, the subject comes after the auxiliary, 
followed by the past participle: 

avez-vous aim6? (Did you love?) 

avons-nous venchi ? (Did we sell ?) 

aurais-tu marche? (shouldst, wouldst or mightst thou walk?) 

When in verbs e and a end the third person singular, a 
euphonical t is placed between the verb and the subject, 
and this T, joined to both parts by a hyphen, is linked to 
the subject IL: 

parle-t-il? (does he speak?) 
mange-t-il ? (does he eat?) 
donna-t-il ? (did lie give ?) 
embellira-t-il ? (will he embellish?) 

Speaking interrogatively of a third person or of a thing-, 
singular or plural, the name of the person or of the thing, 
which is not the subject of the verb, comes before the verb 
as a citation: 

Pierre a-t-il fini son devoir ? (Has Peter finished his duty ?) 

Jean partira-Ml aujourd'hui? (Will John set out to-day?) 

Mon pere achetera-t-il ce cheval ? ( Will my father buy that horse ?) 
Quelle hauteur cette montagne a- \ 

t-elle (or) Quelle hauteur a cette > (How high is this mountain?) 

montagne ? * 

Par qui cette tour a-t-elle eie batie ) (By whom has this tower been 

(or) Qui a bati cette tour? ) built ?) 

Mon chien, ou est-il ? (or) Ou est > w/ d 

mon chien ? S K y y } 

Vos parents demeurent-ils-la ? (Do your parents live there ?) 

Ces poires-lii 6taient-elles mures? (Were those pears ripe?) 
Quand ces gens arriverent-ils? ( When did those people arrive?) 



220 French Speaker. 

Speaking" to a second person, singular or plural, the name 
of the person, or the title, or the qualifying words Monsieur 
(Sir, Mister), Madame (Madam), etc., followed by the name 
or not, are an appellation, a vocative (Latin appellare 
vocare) and the name, the title or the quality, in speaking 
interrogatively, comes after the verb wholly expressed, or 
before : 

Louis etes-vous pret (or) Etes- ) , . . „„ 

», T . „ ' \ (Are you ready, Louis?) 

vous pret, Louis? S - J 

Retournez-vous aujourd' hui,i 

Monsieur le Docteur, Monsieur I , ~ , . , „ _ 

. _. _ , x ' „ (Do you return to-day, Mr. Doc- 

le Professeur (or) Docteur, Pro- , ,, D , , N ~ A 

_ , v \, . , ' > tor, Mr. Professor (or) Doctor, 



Professor. ) 



fesseur? (or) Monsieur le Doc- 
teur, or Docteur, retournez-vous 

aujourd' hui. 
Madame se port-t-eile bien main- (Does Madame feel well to-day ?) 

tenant ? 
Quels progres a faits Mademoiselle j 

(or) Quels progres Mademoi- > ( What progress is Miss making ?) 

selle a-t-elle faits ? ) 

Voulez-vous, enfants, m' obeir ^ 

(ou) Enfants, voulez-vous > (Will you, children, obey me?) 

m' obeir ? ) 

Mon ami, quelle heure est-il (ou) ) eTTri ... ... , . JOX 

_ , ', , i (Wiiat time is it, my friend?) 

Quelle heure est-il, mon ami ? ) 

Eh bien,* mon enfant, ma fille, "i 

comment vous portez-vous (ou) I ( Wel1 m V cMld ' m ^ daughter, how 

Comment vous portez-vous, f do you feel?) (How do you feel, 

mon enfant, ma fille ? J m » child ' m V daughter ?) 

The e of the personal pronoun je in the Interrogative form 
of the verbs is mute : 
ai-je? (have J?) suis-je? (ami?) 

But when verbs take another form in their Indicative 
present first person singular, the E of je, which pronoun comes 
in this case, before the verb, is still sounded as u in tub : 
fest-ce-que je vends? (do I sell?) 

est-ce-que je lis? (do I read?) 

* In familiar terms. 

f Est-ce is pronounced as ess in less. 



French Speaker. 



221 



MODE INDICATIF. 



Present. 



Ai-je? 
as-tu ? 
a-t-il ? 

avons-nous ? 
avez-vous ? 
Ont-ils? 



Passe deflni. 

Make the present followed by the 

past participle : 
ai-j e eu ? 
as-tu eu ? etc. 



Imparfait. 



Avais-je? 
avais-tu ? 
avait-il ? 
avions-nous ? 
aviez-vous ? 
avaient-ils ? 



Plus que par fait. 

Avais-je eu? etc. 



Passe deflni. 



Eus-je? 
eus-tu ? 
eut-il ? 

eiimes-nous ? 
elites- vous ? 
eurent-ils ? 



Passe Anterieur. 
Eus-je eu? etc 



Futur. 



Aurai-je? 
auras-tu ? 
aura-t-il ? 
anrons-nous ? 
aurez-vous ? 
auront-ils ? 



Futur anterieur. 

Aurai-je eu? etc. 



MODE COXDITIONXEL. 



Present. 



Aurais-je ? 
aurais-tu ? 
aurait-il ? 
aurions-nous ? 
auriez-vous ? 
auraient-ils ? 



Aurais-je eu? etc. 



222 



French Speaker. 



G. 



g sounds soft as/ in bijou when followed by e, i and y 



genou 


pronounce g soft, e 


Georges 


pronounce g soft, 


knee. 


as ^ in tub, ou&s 


George. 


es mute. 




oo in too. 


gymnase 


pronounce ym as 


gigot 


pronounce g soft, i 


gymnasium. 


im in Mm, ase as 


leg of mutton. 


as in ci'^2/, £7 as in 
game, oasin not, 
t mute. 




as. 


Before the vowels a, o, u, g 


sounds as in 


game, in grww : 


gages 


pronounce g as 


gomme 


pronounce om- 


wages. 


in game, a as 


gum. 


me as om in 




in French, g 




Tom, broad. 




soft, es mute. 


guerre 


pronounce g as 


gar^on 


pronounce ar 


war. 


in game, u si- 


boy, waiter. 


as in march, c 




lent, erre as 




as s hard, on 




ere in there. 




as in monk n 


Gustave-Adolph pronounce 




mute. 


King of Swed 


en. g do., m as in 


Gobelins 


pronounce go 




French, 5 


French 


as in got, e 




sounded, a as 


tapestry. 


mute, tins as 




ah,v sounded, 




Ian in land, 




e mute, A as 




nd mute. 




ah, olph as in 
Randolph. 




G ]V 


lute 




at the end of words : 






sang 


pronounce s hard, 


faubourg 


pronounce au as o 


Mood. 


an as in want, 


suburb. 


in no,otirgasx>or 




ng mute. 




in poor. 


coing 


pronounce o com- 


long 


pronounce ow^ as 


quince 


bined with an as 


long. 


o« in monk, ng 




an in sank, ng 


•*- 


mute. 




mute. 


oblong 


pronounce ong as 


poiug 


do. 


oblong. 


on in monk, ng 


fist. 






mute. 


doigt 


pronounce oigt as 


seing 


pronounce eing as 


finger. 


wa in was. 


signature. 


an in sank, ng 


vingt 


pronounce wgri as 




mute. 


twenty. 


an in sank, ngt 
mute. 







French Speaker 



223 



orang-outang pronounce both 
orang-outang. ang's as an in 

tvant, ng mute, 

ou as oo in too. 
hareng pronounce h aspi- 

herring. rate, a as ah, eng 

as <m in ivant, ng 

mute. 



rang 

rank. 
etang 

pound. 



pronounce ang as 

ang above, 
pronounce ang do. 



Vingt-huitieme Exercice de Lecture sur les Idiomes. 



1 who does not dare face somebody 

2 is often 

3 one must distrust him 

4 no business 

5 with such a people 

1 pretend to be 

2 the most 

3 they treat, they call 



1 pretend to have the honor 

2 of having discovered, invented 

3 is the man who did it. 

1 He pretends to be brave 2 he is 
afraid of everything. 

1 One must always take care 

2 to hurt 

3 self-love, self-conceit 

1 Many people 2 speaking very high 
of Charles the Twelfth 3 I do not 
see in him 

* capricious 

5 mule 

1 You speak so high of that man 

2 do you know him 3 to 



Un homme qui n? ose regarder 
quelqu' un enface, 1 est souvent 2 
un homme dangereux ; il faut 
done s' en defter, 3 et il est tou- 
jours mieux de n' avoir aucun 
commerce 4 ^ avec de telles gens. 5 

Les Chinois se piquent d> etre 1 la 
nation la plus 2 policee de 1' Uni- 
vers, car Us traitent* les Euro- 
peans du nom de " Barbares 
d' Occident." 

Beaucoup se piquent de V hon- 
neur 1 d 7 avoir dec o u v ert 2 
1' usage de 1' electricity ; mais en 
reaiite, Edison est V homme de 
la situation. 21 

II se pique de franchise ,* et il a 
peur de tout. 2 

II faut toujour s prendre garde 1 
de froisser 2 ou de blesser 2 
V amour-propre* des autres par 
des questions indiscretes. 

Bien des gens 1 portent Charles 
XII aux nues, 2 et moi, je ne 
vois en lui* et ses actes qu' un 
ambitieux fanatique et entetS* 
comme un muletp d' un carac- 
tere barbare et cruel. 

Vous portez cet homme aux nues ; 1 
le connaissez-vous 2 pour* parler 
ainsi de lui ? 



224 French Speaker. 

{Conjugation of the verb Avoir continued.) 

CONJUGATION OF VERBS IN THEIR NEGATIVE FORM. 

Very Important. 

It will here be observed that the negative ne pas is di- 
vided, or seems to be spread all over the point (verb) in 
which the quintessence of the idea of not being-, not acting 
or not having lies, ne coming between the subject and the 
verb, and pas after this ; and that, in compound tenses, the 
part ne remains between the subject and the auxiliary, after 
which comes the part pas, followed by the past participle 
of the verb, leaving to this its meaning expressed, but neg- 
atively in the part relating to the subject. 

Of course n' for ne (before a verb beginning with a voivel 
or an h mute) is pronounced forming only one sound with 
the first syllable of the verb (See Elision, Page 25). 

MODE INDICATIF. 

Present. Passe Indefini. 

Je n' ai pas. Je n' ai pas eu. 

tu n' as pas, etc. tu n' as pas eu, etc. 

Imparfait. Plus que parfait, 

Je n' avais pas, etc. Je n' avais pas eu, etc. 

Passe deflni. Passe anterieur. 

Je n' eus pas, etc. Je n' euspas eu, etc. 

Futur. Futur anterieur. 

Je n' aural pas, etc. Je n' aurai pas eu, etc. 

MODE CONDITIONED 

Present. Passe. 

Je n'auais pas, etc. Je n' aurais pas eu, etc. 

MODE IMPERATIF. 

n' aie pas. n' ayons pas. 11' ayez pas. 



French Speaker. 



225 



MODE SUBJOXCTIF. 



Present. 
Que je n' aie pas, etc. 

Imparfait. 

Que je n' eusse pas, etc. 



Passe. 

Que je n' aie pas eu, etc. 
Plus que parfait. 

Que je n' eusse pas eu, etc. 



MODE INFINITIF. 

Present. 

Ne pas avoir (ou) n' avoir pas. Ne pas avoir eu(ou)n' avoir pas eu 

Participe present. Participe present compose, 

n' ayantpas. n' ayant pas eu. 

G Mute 
in names ending- in ourg : 
Augsbourg pronounce 



city in Germany. 
Strasbourg ' 

city of Germany since 1871. 
Luxembourg ' 

capital city of a State be- 
tween Belgium, France and 
Germany. 

Fribourg < 

city in Switzerland. 



Au as o in no, gs sounded, ourg 

as oor in poor. 
Stras as in English, ourg as 

above. 
u as French u, x as ks, em as an 

in want, m mute, ourg as oor 

in poor. 



" fri as in friction, ourg 

poor. 

G Sounded in : 
bourg pronounce our as 

borough. in _poor. 

Berg op zoom pronounce er as 
a Belgian toivn. ere in there, op 

as up, oom as 

ome in home. 
grog pronounce o as in 

grog. not. 

zig-zag pronounce i as in 

zig-zag. city, a as in cat. 

joug pronounce ou as 

yoke. oo in too. 

*No particular form for the Past Participle but the one used in the 
Passe de V Infinitif above. 

f See observation given, Second Part, page 159, for the pronunciation 
of foreign nouns. 




Spiizberg pronounce spit as 

cape in Europe, spit, tz sounded, 

er ase?*ein there. 
Nuremberg pronounce u as in 
city of Ger- French, em as 

many. the consonant?/?, 

er as above. 
fWurtemberg pronounce TT'as V 
state of Ger- and the rest as 

many. above. 



226 



French Speaker. 



GG. 



Double gg is sounded only in the following* words and in 
its derivatives ; the first g is heard as in game, as in long, 
etc., and the second g being- before e, is pronounced soft as / 
in bijou : 



suggestion pronounce s hard, 2d 
suggestion. g soft, es as in es- 
teem, t hard, i com- 
bined with on as in 
monk, n mute. 



suggerer pronounce sug as in 
to suggest. suggestion, e and er 
as a in fate. 



LES ECOSSAIS 

Adoptent le Chardon pour Embleme National. 

Les Saxons qui n' avaient plus a disputer aux Bretons 1 le 
patrimoine 2 que ceux-ci 3 avaient abandonne, 4 tournerent en- 
suite 5 leurs vues 6 du cote 7 des Ecossais, chez lesquels 8 ils 
commencerent 9 des incursions qui devinrent 10 de plus en 
plus 1 1 frequentes. Ayant resolu 1 1 de jouir du fruit 1 2 de 
leurs 1 3 agressions sans plus etre desormais inquietes 1 4 par 
leurs voisins, 15 ils formerent 1 6 le plan de surprendre 1 7 et 
d' attaquer 1 8 les Ecossais pendant la nuit -, 1 9 et afin d'y par- 
venir 20 sans bruit 21 et surement, 22 de marcher nupieds 23 
jusqu' a leur campement. 2 4 

Les Saxons se dirig-erent 2 5 ainsi 2 6 un soir 2 7 vers l'endroit 2 8 
ou reposaient 29 ceux 30 dout 31 ils avaient dej a escompte la 
perte, 32 et ils etaient 33 sur le point d'atteindre leur but, 34 
quand un cri pergant 35 de douleur 36 s' echappa de l'un 
d'eux, 37 qui venait de marcher 38 sur un enorme chardon. 39 
Ce cri donna 4 ° 1' alarme aux Ecossais qui, eveilles 4 1 en sur- 
saut, 42 saisirent 43 leurs armes et tomberent 44 sur leurs en- 
vahisseurs nocturnes, 4 5 dont ils firent 4 6 un grand carnag'e, 4 7 
refoulant 48 jusqu' a leurs terres 49 ceux qui n' avaient pu re- 
sister 50 a leurs terribles coups, 51 et qui n' avaient trouve de 
salut que 52 dans une fuite precipitee. 53 

Comme c'etait 54 au chardon qu'ils devaient 55 d' avoir ete 
epargnes 5 6 d' une destruction certaine complete, les Ecossais 



French Speaker. 



227 



ne voyant qu' un sanvenr 3 " clans cette plante quoique 5 * sau- 
\s.ge et grossiere, 5 9 en firent cles P instant 60 leur marque de 
ralliement, 6 1 et l'adopterent 62 en outre 63 eomme embleme 

de leur nation. 



Yocabulary 



1 qui \\ avaient plus a dis- 26 

puter aux Bretons, who had 27 
no more to fight with Britons 2S 

2 lepatrinioine, the patrimony. 

the Iter it a fie 29 

3 ceux-ci, these 

4 avaient abandoime, h a. d 30 

abandoned 31 

5 tournerent ensuite. turned 32 

them 

6 leurs vues, their sight 

7 da cote, on the side I 33 

8 lesquels, which 34 

9 i\s conimeiicererit, they started 

10 qui devinrent, which became 

11 de plus eu plus, more and 35 

more 36 

11 Ayant resolu. having stated. 

12 de jonirdu fruit. to enjoy the 

benefit 

13 tears, theirs 

14 sans plus desormais etre in- 

quietes, without being hence- 
forth more disturbed 4Q 

15 voisins, neighbors 41, 

16 ils formerent. they formed 

17 surprendre. to surprise. 43 

18 d' attaquer, to attack. 44 

19 pendant la nuit, at nigh 45 

20 aim d' y parvenir. in order to 

succeed 46 

21 sans bruit, without noise 47 

22 surement, surely 

23 nu-pieds, bear-foot 4^ 

24 campement, encampment 40 

25 se dirigerent, directed them- 50 

selves 



ainsi. in that manner 

un soir, one evening 

vers 1' endroit, towards the 
place 

oil reposaient. where were 
resting 

ceux, those 

Hoist, from whom 

ils avaient deja esconipte la 
perte, they were already en- 
joying the loss 

ils etaient, they were 

sur le point d' attendre leur 
but, almost reaching the 
point 

cri percant. piercing cry 

de douleur, of pain 

s' ecbappa de l'un d' eux,«/ij> 
ped from one of them 

qui venait de marcher, who 
had just walked 

sur un eiiorme chardon, on 
an enormous thistle 

donna, gave 

42 eveilles en sursaut, start- 
out of their sleep 

saisirent, seized 

toniberent, fell 

envahisseurs nocturnes, noc- 
turnal invaders 

ils firent, they made 

on grand carnage, a great 
destruction 

refoulant, pulling away 

terres, possessions 

qui n' avaient pu resist er. 
who could not resist 



228 



French Speaker. 



57 sauveur, saviour 

58 quoique, though 

59 grossiere, rough 

60 des l 1 instant, at once 

61 marque de railliement, rrt/Zy- 

ing point 

62 l'adopterent, adopted it 

63 en outre, over 



51 coups, stroke 

52 n' avaient trouve de salut 

que, who could not save 
themselves, but 

53 fuite precipitee, quick run 

away 

54 comme c' etait, as it was 

55 qu' ils devaient, that they were 

owing 

56 d' avoir ete epargnes, of hav- 

ing been saved.. 

Conjugation of the verb Avoir continued. 

CONJUGATION OF VERBS IN THEIR INTERROGATIVE- 
NEGATIVE FORM. 

Remarks and Theory. 

The disposition of the verb is the same in this .combined 
form as in the interrogative form, with the exception that 
the negation has been added to it. 

The ne (or n' in case of elision) is placed before the verb 
in the simple tenses, and pas comes after the subject. 

The two parts of the negation keep their place in com- 
pound tenses, but tas, the second part, is followed by the 
past participle ; example : 



n' ai-je pas? 
in? ai-je p as eu? 
n 7 a,vais-jepas? 
n' avais-je pas eii ? 
w' e\xs-jepas? 
n? eus-jepas eu ? 
n' aurai-jepas ? 
•n? aurai-je pas eu? 



n" 1 aurais-je pas 1 
ra' aurais-je pas eu ? 



Mode Indicatif. 

(Present). 
(Passe indefini). 
( Imp ar fait). 
(Plus que par fait). 
(Passe defini). 
(Passe auterieur). 
(Futur). 
( Futur auterieur. ) 

Mode Conditionnel. 

(Present). 
(Passe). 



Then, by placing- the negation to the other persons of the 
interrogative form, the student can easily complete the Inter- 



French Speaker. 229 

rogative-Negative form of a verb, limited also at the Con- 
ditional Mood. 

As to form sentences with verbs conjugated in this form, 
it is needed only to follow the dispositions established, and 
which precede the Interrogative form ; thus : 



(Will you not come to 
Madam ?) 



Madame, ne viendrez-vous pas 

me voir (ou) Ne viendrez-vous 

pas me voir, Madame ? 
N' avez-vous pas froid, mon ami ^ 

(ou) Mon ami, n' avez-vous pas v (Are you not cold, my friend ?) 

froid ? S 

Prepositions the Most Often Used After Avoir. 

a, before an infinitive: avoir a faire (to have to do), a etudier (to 

study), (1 . travailler (to work). 
avec, before a noun, a pronoun, or a conjunction : avoir avec soi un 

bon ami (with one self a good friend), avec lui, je n'ai pas 

peur (with him, I do not fear), avec si, on accomplirait des 

merveilles (with if, one could accomplish marvels). 
chez, before a noun or a pronoun : avoir chez son voisin un ennemi 

mortel (to have a mortal enemy in one's neighbor). 
de, before a noun or a pronoun : avoir de lui (from him), de son 

voi sin , (of his neighbor). 
en, before a noun or a pronoun : avoir en gage (as security), en sa 

possession (in his possession), en France (in France), en 

lui (in him), en vous (in you). 
pour, before a noun or a pronoun: avoir ])o ur nous (for us), j>our 

mon pere, (for my father) . 



When this consonant begins words, it is mute or aspirate. 
In this case, it is pronounced as in hard, heard, etc. When 
mute, it has nothing to do with the pronunciation. 

When h is in. the body of words, it is never sounded. 

Approximate rules could be given to esbtablish the cases 
in which h is aspirate or not, but we think it is better, on 
account of length and complications, to give the most used 
m both cases: 



230 



French Speaker. 



hachette 


pronouce a as in 


small axe, 


French, ch as sh. 


hatchet. 




haie 


pronounce ai as ay 


edge. 


in may, e mute. 


hair 


pronounce a as ah, 


to hate. 


%r as ere in here. 


halle 


pronounce alle as 


market. 


al in salvation. 


hache (and 


der. ) pronounce as 


axe. 


ash. 


hampe 


pronounce am as 


handle of a 


an in mant, m 


flag. 


mute,p sounded, 




e mute. 


hamac 


pronounce both 


hammock. 


a's as in cat, c 



as k. 
hanter (and der.) pronounce an 
to associate as an in want, n 

with. mute, er as a in 

fate. 
harangne (and der. ) pronounce 



harangue, 


a as ah, an as 


speech. 


above, g as in 




bag, ue mute. 


haricot 


pronounce a as 


bean. 


above, i as in 




city, o as in not, 




t mute. 


La Haye 


pronounce a as ah, 


capital city 


of aye as ay in 


Holland. 


may. 


harpe 


pronounce ar as 


harp. 


in parlor, p 




sounded. 


haine (and 


der.) pronounce ai 


hate. 


as ay in may, n 




sounded, e mute. 


hatif (and 


der) pronounce d as 


early. 


ah long, if as if. 


haut(andder.)pronounce aid as 


high. 


o in no. 



H Aspirate in 

hameau (and der.) pronounce a 
hamlet. as ah, eau as o 

in no. 
hardi (and der.) pronounce a?" in 
bold, parlor, i as in 

courageous. city. 

harem pronounce a as ah, 

harem. em as the conso- 

nant m. 
homard pronounce o as o 

lobster. in not, ard as ar 

in car. 
honte (and der.) pronounce on 
shame. as in monk, n 

mute, t sounded. 

e mute. 
hoquet (and der.) pronounce oas 
hickup. in not, u mute, e 

as in net, t mute. 
hors pronounce as ore. 

out, beyond, off. 

hormis pronounce or as 

except. ore, i as in cityi 

s mute. 
hotte (and der. ) pronounce as hot. 
basket. 

hater (and der.) pronounce a as 
to make haste, ah, long, er as a 
to hasten. in fate. 

houblon (and der. ) pronounce ou 
hop, hops. as oo in too, on 

as in monk, n 

mute, 
houe (and der.) pronounce ou as 
hoe. oo in too, e as w. 

houille (and der.) pronounce ou 
coal, pit-coal. as above, ille as 

ye of eye, e of ye 

mute. 
houpe (and der.) pronounce ou 
tuft, tassel. as above, p 

sounded, e mute. 



French Speaker 



231 



housse (and der.) pronounce 
cover, ouse as uss in 

housing. puss. 

heunir (and der.) pronounce en 
to neigh. as an in fan, ir 

as ere in here. 
herault pronounce e as a 

herald. in j ate, wu.lt as o 

in ?io, 7 mute. 
hernie (and der.) prouounce er 
hernia, as ere in there, 

rupture. ie as ee in see. 

heros (not in der.) pronounce e 
hero. as a in fate, os 

as o in no. 
herse (and der.) pronounce er as 
harrow. ere in there, s 

sounded, emute. 
huguenot (and der.) pronounce 
Huguenot. u as in French, 

u niute, e as u in 
tub, o as in «o^, 
t mute. 
hulan pronounce u as in 

Prussian French, an as in 

soldier. want, n mute. 

humer (and der.) pronounce u as 
to suck in, in French, er as 

<o suck tip. a in fate. 

huppe (and der. ) pronounce u as 
tuft, crest. in French, pp 

sounded as p, e 
mute. 



hurler (and der.) pronounce u as 
to howl, French, r rolled, 

to yell. er as a in fate. 

hussard (and fern.) pronounce u 
huzzar. as in French, ss 

sounded, ard as 
ar in car. 
hutte (and der.) pronounce u as 



hut, shed, 


in French, 


tt 


shanty. 


sounded as t 
mute. 


e 


hi bou 


pronounce i 


as 


owl. 


English e, ou 
oo in too. 


as 


hideux (and 


der. ) pronounce i as 


hideous. 


English e, eux 




as between 




French u and 


u 




of us. 




hisser (and der.) pronounce is as 


to hoist. 


in miss, er as 
in fate. 


a 


habler (and der.) pronounce d 


as 


to boast. 


ah long, er as 
in fate. 


a 


hasard (and 


der.) pronounce 


a 


chance, 


as ah, s as z, ai 


>d 


risk. 


as ar in car. 





COMMENT LE TREFLE 
Devint L' embleme National des Irlandais, 

L' eveque St. Patrice 1 qui fut envoye 2 precher 1' Evang-ile 3 
aux Ii'landais, clebarqua a Wicklow vers 4 l'an 433. Entre 
autres difficiiltes 5 qu'il rencontra, 6 etaient celle" de ne 
pouvoir se faire comprendre 8 et d'attirer 9 1' attention de ses 
auditeurs. Un jour que comme de contume, 1 u il prechait 
en plein champ 11 et qu'il parlait 12 du Pere, du Fils et du 



232 



French Speaker. 



Saint-Esprit 1 3 comme faisant 1 4 un seul et meme Dieu, 1 5 il 
ne put parvenir a leur f aire concevoir la moindre idee 1 6 d' un 
seul Dieu en ces trois Etres. 17 II cueillit alors 1 8 un brin 
de trefle, 19 et, faisant remarquer ses 20 trois feuilles dis- 
tinctes: 21 "le Pere, le Fils et le St. Esprit sont un, dit-il, 22 
comme les trois feuilles qui croissent 2 3 sur cette seule tige 24 
sontun seul et meme brin 25 de trefle." Les Irlandais frap- 
pes 26 de cette comparaison, crurent 27 en la Sainte-Trinite ; 
et comme gage de leur foi 28 en un seul Dieu en trois per- 
sonnes, ils placerent 29 tous dans leurs armes 30 un brin de 
trefle quidevint 31 leur sighe, et qu'ils adopterent comme 
embleme national. 

St. Patrice proclame l'apotre 32 de l'lrlande, mourut 33 en 
466 ; et c' est en signe de patriotisme et pour honorer la 
memoire de leur patron, que les Irlandais, au jour de sa 
fete, 34 le 17 Mars, portent 35 a leur chapeau 36 une branche 
de buis, 37 arbuste 38 dont la feuille a la forme du trefle. 

Vocabulary. 



1 LT evegne St. Patrice, the 

bishop St. Patrick 

2 qui fut envoye, who was sent 

3 1' Evangile, the Gospel 

4 vers, at about 

5 Eutre autres difficultes, be- 

tween (or) among other diffi- 
culties 

6 qu'il rencontra, he met with 

7 celles, those 

8 de ne pouvoir se faire com- 

prendre, of not being able to 
make himself understood 

9 d' attirer, to attract 

10 comme de contume, as usual 

11 en plein champ, in an open 

field 

12 qu'il parlait, that he was 

speaking 

13 St. Esprit, Holy Ghost 

14 comme faisant, as doing 



15 un seul et meme Dieu, a sole 

and same God 

16 il ne put parvenir a leur faire 

concevoir la moindre idee, 

he could not make them con- 
ceive the least idea 

17 Etres, being 

18 II cueillit alors, he then gath- 

ered 

19 un brin de trefle, a slip of 

clover 

20 et faisant remarquer, and 

causing the remark 

21 trois feuilles distinctes, three 

distinct leaves 

22 dit-il, said he 

23 qui croissent, which grow 

24 tige, stalk 

25 brin, sprig 

26 frappes, struck 

27 crurent, believed 



French Speaker. 233 



28 foi, faith 

29 ils placerent, they placed, 

they ]? at 

30 armes, weapons 

31 devint, became 

32 apotre, apostle 



33 mourut, died 

34 f&te, feast 

35 portent, bring 

36 chapeau, hat 

37 buis, box-tree 

3S arbuste, small shrub 



L.E CHRISTIAN IS3IE 

Est Introduit en Grande Bretagne — Gregoire ler. 

Quel que temps avaut 1 qu'il fut eleve 2 an souverain pon- 
tificat, Gregoire premier qui fut surnomme le Grand, traver- 
sal 3 nil jour le march e aux esclares 4 a Eome. Y ay ant re- 
marque 5 des enfants d'une beaute particuliere exposes en 
rente, 6 il s'informa 1 de quel 8 pays ils renaient. 9 On lui 
repondit 10 que ces enfants araient ete arnenes 11 de la 
Grande Bretagne et etaient parens. ^ 2 S' ils etaient Chre- 
tiens, repliqua 13 Gregoire transports de surprise 14 et d' ad- 
miration, ils ne seraient plus des Anglais, 1 5 mais bien des 
anges. 1 6 

Ayant ete elu 1 ' pape en 590 a la demande 1 s unanime du 
peuple et du clerge, Greg-oire qui arait concu 1 9 et nourri 20 
le projet de conrertir les habitants de la Bretagne depuis 21 
son passage aumarche des esclares, leur enroya 2 2 Augnstin, 
moine benedictin, arec quarante religieux 23 du meme ordre. 
Ces religieux arrirerent 24 au pars de Kent, ou le roi, Ethel- 
bert, recut 2 5 le premier le bapteme. Dix mille de ses sujets 
V imiterent. 2 6 

Augustin, comme St. Patrice 1' arait ete en Irlande, fut 
surnomme 1' Apotre de la Grande Bretagne, et mourut 2 " a 
Cantorbery, rille de laquelle 28 il arait ete fait 29 le premier 
prince-ereque. 3 ° 

Vocabulary. 
1 Quelque temps avant, some [ 5 Y ayant remarque, having 



time before 

2 fat eleve, was elevated 

3 traversait, was crossing 

4 marche aux esclaves, slave 



remarked there 
exposes en vente, exposed to 

sale 
il s'informa, he took informa- 



market tiov 



234 



French Sjjeaker. 



8 quel, what 

9 ils venaient, they were coming 

10 on lui repondit, they told him 

11 avaient ete amenes, had been 

brought up 

12 paiiens, Pagans 

13 repliqua, replied 

14 transports de surprise, very 

much surprised 

15 ils ne seraient plus des An- 

glais, they would not be Eng- 
lish any more 

16 anges, angels 

17 Ayant ete elu, having been 

elected 



18 demande, demand 

19, 20 qui avait concu et nourri, 

had conceived and kept vj> 

21 depuis, since 

22 leur envoya, sent to them 

23 religieux, monks 

24 arriverent, arrived 

25 recut, received 

26 1' imiterent, imitated him 

27 mourut, died 

28 de laquelle, from which 

29 il avait ete fait, he had been 

made 

30 prince-eveque, prince bishop 



H Mute in 



huit (and der.) pronounce wit. 

eight. 

habile (and der.) pronounce a as 

able, clever. ah, bile as bill. 

habiller (and der.) pronounce a 

to dress. as ah, i as in 

city, 11 liquid, er 

as a in fate. 
habit (and der.) pronounce a as 
coat, dress- ah, i as in city, 

coat. t mute. 

habiter (and der.) pronounce a 
to inhabit. as ah, i as in 

city, er as a in 

fate. 
habitude (and der.) pronounce 
habit, use, habi as above, u 

custom. as in French, d 

sounded, emute. 
haleine pronounce a as ah, 

breath, wind. ei as ay in may, 

n sounded, e 

mute. 
hamecon (and der.) pronounce 
fish-hook. a as ah, e mute, 

c as s hard, on 

as in monk, n 

mute. 



harmonie (and der.) pronounce 

harmony, 

concord. 



ar as in parlor, 
o as in mother 
ie as ee in see. 

pronounce ar as in 
parlor, a as ah, 
g as in game, on 
as on in monk, n 
mute. 

pronounce o as in 
not, e as a in 
fate, ie as ee in 
see. 
homeopathie (and der.) pro- 
nounce o as in 
not, e as a in 
fate, o as in nob 
a as in cat, th as 
t, ie as ee in see. 

pronounce o as in 
not, i as in city, 
ci as in city, d 
sounded, emute. 



Harpagon 

Harpagon, 
miser. 



homelie 

homily, 
sermon. 



homeopathy. 



homicide 

homicide, 
murder. 

horn in age 

homage, 
respect. 



pronounce omm as 
om in Tom, a as 
in lad, g soft, e 
mute. 



French Speak 



235 



homme (and der.) pronounce 
man. online as om in 

Tom, broad. 
homogene pronounce both o's 
homogeneous. as in not, g soft, 

e as ai in said, 

n sounded, e 

mute, 
homonyme pronounce both o's 
homonyme. as in not, yme as 

im in him. 
honneur (and der.) pronounce 
honor. onn as English 

on, cur as ur in 

/«?-, broad. 
hopital pronounce 6 as in 

hospital. not, i as in city, 

al as in salva- 
tion. 
horizon (and der.) pronounce o 
horizon. as in not, i as in 

city, on as in 

monk, n mute. 
horloge pronounce or as 

clock. ore, o as in fog, 

g soft, e mute. 
horreur (and der.) pronounce or 
horror. as ore, ear as ur 

in fur, broad. 
hospice pronounce hos as 

asylum, in hospital, i as 

/jome. in ci^y, c as « 

hard, e mute. 
hostie pronounce hos as 

host, conse- above, ie as ee in 

crated wafer. see. 
hostile (and der.) pronounce hos 
hostile. as above, tile as 

till. 
hotel (and der.) pronounce 6 as 
hotel, hall. in no, el as eZZ in 

bell. 
hote (and der. ) pronounce 6 as in 
guest, land- no, t sounded, e 

lord, visitor. mute. 



heberger (and der.) pronounce 
to harbor, to e as a in /ate, er 

entertain. as ere in there, 

second er as a in 
fate. 
hebdomad aire (and der.) pro- 
weekly. nounce heb as 

ebb, o as in not, 
a as ah, aire as 
air in fair. 
hebreu (and der.) pronounce c'as 
Hebrew. a in /ate, en as 

between French 
m and u of ms. 
hectogramme pronounce hec as 
100 grams ; in Hector, o as 

French weight, in no;!, amme as 
am in ram, 
broad. 
hemoptysie pronounce e" as a 
hemoptysis. in /ate, o as in 

not, y as i in city, 
s as z, ie as ee in 
see. 
herbe (and der.) pronounce eras 
herb, ere in there, b 

grass, weed. sounded, e mute. 

Hercule (and der. ) pronounce er 
Hercules. as ere in there, u 

as French u, I 
sounded, e mure. 
heritier (and der.) pronounce e 
heir. and er as a in 

fate, ri as in rip, 
second i com- 
bined with er 
final. 
heretique (and der.) pronounce 
heretical, both e 1 s as a in 

heretic. fate,tiquea,stick, 

hesiter (and der.) pronounce e 
to hesitate. and e?- as a in 

fate, si as in Aes- 
«'tei££o?i. 



236 



French Speaker. 



heterogene pronounce both e's 

heterogeneous. as a in fate, o as 

in not, g soft, e 

as ai in said, n 

sounded, e mute. 

huile (and der.) pronounce as 

oil. weal. 

huissier pronounce hui as 

usher, bailiff, wi in wit,ss hard, 

summoning i combined with 

officer. er as a in fate. 

humanite ( and der. ) pronounce 

humanity. u as in French, a 

as in cat, i as in 

city, ea.s am fate. 

humidite (and der.) pronounce 

humidity, u as in French, i 

dampness. as in city, e" as a 

in fate. 

hilarite pronounce i as 

hilarity, joy. English e, a as 

in cat, ri as in 

rip, e as a in 

fate. 

humeur (and der.) pronounce u 

humor. as in French, eur 

as ur in fur, 

broad. 

humilite (and der.) pronounce u 

humility. as in French, 

both Vs as in 

city, e as in fate. 

humiliation pronounce u as in 

humiliation. French, i as in 

city, second i 

combined with a 

as ah, t as s hard, 

third i combined 

with on as in 

monk, n mute. 

The consonant h is never 
by Y. 



hier pronounce i com. 

yesterday. bined with er as 

ere in there. 
hiver (and der.) pronounce i as 
winter. in city, er as ere 

in there, broad. 
hierarchie (and der.) pronounce 
hierarchy. i as in city com- 

bined with e, ar 
as in parlor, ch 
as sh, ie as ee in 
see. 
hirondelle pronounce i as 
swallow. English e, on as 

in monk, n mute, 
eZZeas ell in bell. 
histoire (and der. ) pronounce his 
history. as in history, oir 

as o and ar of car 
combined, e 
mute. 
heure (and der.) pronounce eure 
hour. as ur in fur, 

broad. 
heresie (and der.) pronounce 
heresy. both e's as a in 

fate, s as 2, ie as 
ee in see. 
hypothese (and der.) pronounce 
hypothesis. y as English e, 

o as in not, th as 
Z, & as ai in said, 
s as z, e mute. 
hysterie (and der.) pronounce 
hysterics. hys as his in his- 

tory, e as a in 
fate, ie as ee in 
see. 



sounded when it is followed 



French Speaker. 237 

IMPERSONAL OR UNTPERSONAL CONJUGATION OF THE 
VERB AVOIR. 

Remarks on Impersonal Verbs. 

An Impersonal verb is conjugated only in the third per- 
son singular, and has as subject, or better as meant to be 
expressed in all the cases of its conjugation, the personal 
pronoun il. 

The unipersonal conjugation of Avoir is the same as that 
of other verbs, save that Avoir takes, preceding it immedi- 
ately, the adverb Y (there, here) This for the reason that 
this verb as any other means persons or things existing 
or being there or here. Thus, if I say II y a des enfants sur 
la place (There are children on the place) I show that the 
children are being, existing on the place ; from what, the 
conclusion that the pronoun il is merely the apparent sub- 
ject, and children the real subject; moreover, that Avoir 
(to have) used as an auxiliary in the conjugation of the 
verbs said in French Verbs Adjectives, replaces the verb to 
be ( etre) the direct help to all verbs, the Yerbe substantif, 
being in and above all. 

Knowing what has been given about conjugating verbs 
affirmatively, negatively, interrogatively, etc., and what pre- 
cedes about the verb Ayolr as unipersonal verb, we give it 
in two forms at the same time : 

AFFIRMATIVE AND NEGATIVE— MODE 1NDICATIF. 

Present. Imparfait. 

II y* a. 11 y avait. 

II n' y a pas. II n' y avait pas. 

Passe indenni. Plus que parfait. 

Form the compound tenses by adding the past parti- 
ciples eu to the simple tenses. 

Passe defini. Futur. 

II y eut. II y aura. 

II n' y eut pas. II n' y aura pas. 

* Pronounce y as English e. 



238 French Speaker. 



anterieur. Futur anterieur. 

Form them the same as above. 

MODE CONDITIONNEL.. 

Present. 

II y aurait. 

II n' y aurait pas. 

Passe— Formed as above. 

There is no Mode Imperatif in Impersonal Verbs. 

MODE SUBJONCTIF. 
Present. Imparfait. 

Qu' il y ait. Qu' il y eut. 

Qu' il n' y ait pas. Qu' il n' y eilt pas. 

Passe. Pins que parfait. 

Formed as above. 

MODE INFINITIF. 

Present. Participe present. 

Y avoir. Y ayant. 

Ne pas y avoir. N' y ayant pas. 

Participe passe. Participe present compose. 

The past participle eu added to the above form these 
compound tenses. 

Vin^t-neuvieme Exercice de Lecture sur les Idioms. 

1 He is so sleepy 2 that he can not II a si sommeil 1 gw' %l n 1 y tient 

move any more 3 it is better for plus, 2 il est mieux 3 qu 1 il aille se 

him *to go to bed coucherA 

1 If the weather is calm, quiet 2 we Demain, s' il fait cafone, 1 nous 

will go in a boat on the water irons nous promener sur V eau 2 

1 I shall not go 2 for 3 I do not like Je n" 1 irai pas, 1 car 2 je n' aime pas 

to go in a boat les promenades en bateau. 3 

1 He tells stories 2 with such a true Cet homme conle 1 avec un tel 

appearance 3 that they should aplomb, 2 qu 1 on croir ait 3 tout ce 

believe *all he says &if he was qu 7 il dit,* si sa reputation de 

not known as a liar menteur n 1 etait pas faite. 5 

l I wager 2 that you do not know Je parie 1 que vous ne le connais- 

him sez pas. 2 

*y is pronounced as English e. 



French Speaker. 239 

1 1 wager with you 2 that I know Je vous parte 1 que je le connais, 2 

him 3 for he has been brought up car il a ete el eve dans mon voisi- 

in my neighborhood nage s 

i There is no great honor for you J*as grand homieur pour vous 1 

2 in having been brought up with d' avoir ete eleve avec lui / 2 

him 

i He is never faithful II ne tient jamais ni parole ni 

2 He fails to fulfill his engagement promesse 1 il manque a tous ses 

engagements.* 

1 At the very worst 2 if I must Au pis aller, 1 si je doismeme dire 

even say all that I know 3 I hope tout ce que je sai.s, 2 j' espere que 

that I will not hurt him at all in je ne lui ferai en cela aucun 

doing so mal.z 

Are you going to take breakfast Assister ez-vous demain a notre de- 

with us to-morrow ? jeuner ? 

1 Unless something happens A moins d 7 empechement 1 oui; 

2 for the worst 3 I will be here mais au pis aller, 2 je serai ici 

sometime in the afternoon. dans le courant de V apres- 

jnidi. 3 

IMPERSONAL INTERROGATIVE AND INTERROGATIVE- 
NEGATIVE CONJUGATION OF AVOIR. 

MODE INDICAT1F. 

Present. Imparfait. 

Y a-t-il ? Y avait-il ? 

N' y a-t-il pas ? N' y avait-il pas ? 

Passe indeflni. Plus que par fait. 

Add the past participle eu to the simple tenses above to 
form these. 

Passe deflni. Futur 

Y eut-il ? Y aura-t-il ? 

N' y eut-il pas ? N' y aura-t-il pas ? 

Passe anterieur. Futur anterieur. 

Fokmation as above. 

MODE CONDITIONNEL 

Present. 

Y aurait-il ? 

N' y aurait-il pas ? 

Passe — Formation as above. 

No Mode Imperatif nor Mode Subjonctif nor Mode Infini- 
tif in these forms. 



240 



French Speaker 



Verbs Conjugated as Impersonal Verbs. 

When the indefinite pronouns on (one, they), chacun 
(each one), tout (everything), tout le monde (everybody), 
quiconque (any one) and an Infinitive are used as subjects, 
the verbs are also conjugated in the third person singular 
only throughout their conjugation, though these pronouns, 
chacun excepted, have the meaning of plurality. 

Those verbs could be called accidentally Impersonal and 
they do not differ from Impersonal verbs except, that the 
pronouns above, instead of being apparent subjects as il, 
are real subjects. 

Trentieme Exercice de Lecture sur les Idioms. 



1 A flash of lightning appeared un- 
expectedly 2 a nd we saw 3 falling 

mear us 5 it was the shot of a hid- 
den poacher 6 in tbe bush 

7 opposite to us 

8 which had struck him in the 
middle of the breast. 
1 At the time of his last sickness 

2and near dying 3 that contem- 
ner 

*and of the human gender 

^exclaimed : eQreat Heaven, 1 
never will see you ! . . . ?and he 
expired, died. 

1 showed 

2 the greatest hate for August 

3 Elector of Saxony *and for the 

Czar Peter the First. 

1 A morning, unexpectedly 

2 the trap which we had set, 3 had 

disappeared, 
i when he gets up 2 the sick seems 
to be better (or) to feel better 
3 and if he has rested well 4 the 
whole morning 5 the whole day, 
eis generally good. 



Un Eclair jaillit soudain, 1 et nous 
vimes 2 notre ami tomber* a nos 
eotes ;* c' etait la decharge du 
fusil d 7 un braconnier*> embus- 
que dans le buisson* en face de 
nous, 7 qui r avait atteint en 
■pleine poitrine. 8 

Lors de sa dernier e maladie 1 et 
pres de mourir,- Voltaire, ce 
contempteur 2 de toutes les re- 
ligions et du genre humain, * 
s' ecria fi Beau Ciel, je ne te ver- 
rai jamais .' 6 . . . et il expiraJ 

Charles XII montra 1 toujours la 
haine la plus grande a V egard 
d 1 Auguste, 2 Electeur de 8axe, s et 
du czar, Pierre lerA 

Un beau matin,* la trappe que' 
nous avioyis (endue 2 axiait dis- 
paru, s 

Le matin quand il se leve, 1 le ma- 
lade semble mieux, 2 et s' il a 
Men repose,^ loute la matinee, * 
toute la journSe 5 est generale- 
ment bonne.* 



French Speaker. 241 

1 The evening was very warm yes- Tl a fait hier une tres chau.de soi- 
terday, 2 and to-day, we have a ree, 1 et aujourd? hui, nous avons 
fresh morning, very agreeable. une fraiche matinee tres agrea- 

ble.* 

1 But it is still foggy Mas il/ait encore du brouillard, 1 

2 and that is a sign of heat. et cela est un signe de ehaleur. 2 



1/ HEPTARCHIE DISPARAIT. 
Egbert — Alcuin — Le Denier de Saint Pierre. 

L' Heptarchie, formee de quatre royaunies Saxons et de 
trois Angles, avait tou jours ete en guerre. 1 Egbert, fils de 
Cerclic, roi de Wessex, banni 2 en 787 par un usurpateur, 3 
s'etait refugie 4 a la cour de Charlemagne. Ay ant ete rap- 
pele 5 en 800 pour reprendre 6 la succession de son pere, il 
pavint 7 a reunir 8 les quatre royaumes Saxons sous son 
sceptre. En 827, il etendit 9 son pouvoir sur les trois royau- 
mes Angles, lesquels 1 ° garderent toutefois 1 1 des rois qui 
lui payerent tribut. 12 Alors disparut 1 3 le nom d' Heptar- 
chie donne 14 aux sept divisions de la Grande-Bretagne qui 
fut, pour la premiere fois 1 5 et desormais, 1 6 appelee Angle- 
terre. 

Ce fut 17 un peu avant l'avenement 18 d' Egbert au trone 
que Charlemagne, qui s' attachait x 9 a developper 20 Y in- 
struction dans ses etats et a sa cour, avait fait la rencon- 
tre, 21 en 780, a Parme, du savant 22 Anglo-Saxon, Alcuin, 
dont il avait deja, 23 mais en vain, sollicite les services. 24 
En 787, au retour 25 d' un voyage de Rome, d'ou il avait 
emmene 26 dans les Gaules des grammairiens, des calcula- 
teurs, des chantres 27 etc., il manda 28 de nouveau 29 Alcuin, 
lequel consentit, 30 cette fois, 31 a se rendre a 1' invitation 32 
du puissant 33 et eclaire 34 empereur d' Occident, qui se l'at- 
tacha 35 particulierement. Alcuin enseigna 36 a la cour de 
de Charlemagne, qu'il aida 37 aussi dans des refomes eccle- 
siastiques et litteraires; et Charlemagne, afin de donner 
P 



242 



French Speah 



1' exemple, 3 8 et pour s' instruire lui-meme, 3 9 se f aisait un 
devoir d'assister 40 aux legons de ce savant. Egbert etant 
mort, 41 son fils Ethelwulf lui succeda vers 837. 42 Des 43 le 

(To be continued.) 



Vocabulary. 



1 avait toujours ete en guerre, 

had always been fighting 

2 banni, banished 

3 usurpateur, usurper 

4 s' etant refagie, having taken 

refuge 

5 ayant ete rappele, having been 

recalled 

6 pour reprendre, to take again 

7 il parvint, he succeeded 

8 reunir, to gather 

9 il etendit, he extended 

10 lesquels, which 

11 garderent toutefois, kept how- 

ever 

12 qui lui payerent tribut, who 

paid a tribute to him 

13 Alors disparut, then disap- 

peared 

14 donne, given 

15 qui fut pour la premiere ibis, 

which was for the first time 

16 desormais, henceforth 

17 ce fut, it was 

18 un peu avant 1' avenement, a 

little before reaching ; the ac- 
cession 

19 qui s' attachait, who was ap- 

plying himself 

20 developper, to unfold, to de- 

velop 

21 avait fait la rencontre, had 

met 

22 du savant, of the learned 



23 dont il avait deja, from whom 

he had already 

24 sollicite les services, solicita- 

ted the services 

25 au retour, on the return 

26 il avait emmene, he had taken 

along 

27 chantres, singers, musicians 

28 il manda, he summoned 

29 de nouveau, again 

30 lequel consentit, who con- 

sented 

31 cette fois, this time 

32 a se rendre a 1' invitation, to 

go on the invitation 

33 puissant, powerful 

34 eclaire, intelligent, wise 

35 qui se 1' attacha, icho attached 

him to himself 

36 enseigna, taught 

37 qu' il aida, whom he helped 

38 afln de donner 1' exemple, in 

order to show the example 

39 pour s' instruire lui-meme, 

in order to teach himself ; to 
become himself learned 

40 se faisait un devoir d'assis- 

ter, was considering as his 
duty to be present 

41 etant mort, being dead 

42 lui succeda vers 837, suc- 

ceeded him at about 837 

43 Des, from, at the time, since 



French Speaker. 



243 



J has always the soft sound of J in bijou or of s 

PLEASUEE : 



HI 



je 


pronounce e as u in 


Jeudi 


I. 


tub. 


Thursday. 


jamais 


pronounce a as ah, ais 




never. 


as ay in may. 


joie 


injuste 


pronounce in as an in 


joy. 


unjust. 


sank, n mute, u as 


jour 




French u, st sounded, 


day. 




e mute. 


journal 


jesuite 


pronounce e as a in 


journal, 


jesuite. 


fate, uite as wit with 


day-book, 




s as 2. 


newspaper 


Jesus 


pronounce e as « in 


juge 


Jesus. 


fate, s as z, u as 


judge. 




French u, s final 


jugement 




mute. 


judgment. 


Jacob 


pronounce a as «A, o 




Jacob. 


as in no^, 6 sounded. 




Jean 


pronounce ean as an 


justice 


one of the 


in want, n mute. 


justice. 


Apostles. 







pronounce eu as be- 
tween French u and 
■it of us, i as in city. 

pronounce oie as iva 
in was. 

pronounce our as oor 
in poor. 

pronounce our as oor 
in poor, al as in sal- 
vation. 

pronounce u as French 
u, g soft, e mute. 

pronounce u as French 
u, g as j, e mute, ent 
as «?i in waut, nt 
mute. 

pronounce u as French 
u, s sounded, ice as 
injustice, 



Trente et unieme Exercice de Lecture sur les Idiomes. 



1 I could not do better than look, 
watch 2 from my hiding place 3 yet 
* they saw me 
1 I saw only a little of him 

1 They were watching for us 
2 and we had to go 
is suspicious 



*as much as 

2 is kindly appreciated 

1 tbis way 2 if you wish to arrive 

3 sooner 4 the way is shorter 

5 if you go ethat way 

7 bad 

8 crooked 



Je me content ais de regarder 1 die 
coin de V ceil, 2 mais s je fus 
apercu.* 

Je le vis du coin de V ceil settle- 
ment. 1 

On nous regardait du coin de 
V ceil, 1 et nous diimes partir 2 

Cette personne est vue d' un mau- 
vais ceil, dans la soci§te 

Sa presence dans cette maison, 
aussi bien que 1 toute sa con- 
duite, est vue <2' un bon ceil. 2 

II vous faut aller par ici 1 si vous 
voulez arriver 2 plus tot, 3 c' est 
plus court ;* si vous allez 5 par 
la, 6 le cbemin est mauvais 7 et 
detourne $ 



244 



French Speaker. 



iThey meet 2 here and there 

3 negro 

* but they are scarce there. 

x out of breath 

2 to warn 

3 had just joined the enemy ; or 

betrayed 
x \t is by your care 
2 is cured 
3 as well as *my bolstering (or)iny 

constant attention. 
*It is in order to 2 to secure 
3 here 

*is established 
2 in order 3 they say *to maintain 

peace. 



On rencontre 1 'par-ci par-la* des 
gens de race negre 3 dans le nord 
de 1' Europe, mais Us y sont 
rarest 
Un soldat arriva hors d 7 haleine 1 
avertir 2 Napoleon que Moreau 
venait de passer a V ennemi 3 
avec sa division. 
C" est a cause de vos soiiis, 1 Doc- 
teur, que ma mere est guerie, 2 
tout aussi bien que 3 ma presence 
constante a son chevet.^ 
C" est envuede 1 me procurer 2 une 

situation que je suis id. 3 
La triple alliance europeenne est 
etablie 1 en vue, 2 dit-on, 3 de 
maintenir la paixA 
(Z/' Heptarchie continued.') 
commencement de son reg-ne, les Northnians, ou Danois, 
firent invasion 44 dans ses etats. II se defendit 45 contre 
eux 4 6 avec valeur 4 7 et remporta d' eclatantes victoires 4 8 con- 
tre ces farouches 4 9 hommes dn Nord. 

Etant parvenu 50 a assurer 51 la tranquillite dans son roy- 
aume, il fit, en 855, un voyag-e 52 en Europe, accompagne 53 
de son plus jeune fils, 54 Alfred. II passa par 55 la cour de 
France, ou il epousa 56 en secondes noces, 51 une fille du roi 
Charles-le-Chauve. De la, il se rendit 58 a Rome oil il de- 
meura 59 un an, comblant 60 l'Eg-lise de ses liberalites. Ce 
fut alors que le roi Ethel wulf etablit 61 le Denier de Saint- 
Pierre, a la contribution duquel, 62 a son re tour en 63 Ang-le- 
terre, il oblig-ea 64 tous les etats sous 65 sa domination. 

Vocabulary. 



44 firent invasion, invaded 

45 il se defendit, he defended 

himself 

46 contre eux, against them 

47 avec valeur, bravely 

48 remporta d' eclatantes victo- 

ries, gained some glorious 
victories 



49 farouches, savage, wild, fierce 

50 etant parvenu, having suc- 

ceeded 

51 a assurer, to assure 

52 un voyage, he took a trip 

53 accompagne, accompanied 

54 de son plus jeune tils, by his 

youngest son 



French Speaker. 



245 



55 il passa par, he went through 
56, 57 oil il epousa en secondes 

noces, where he ivedded his 

second time to 

58 se reiid.it, tvent 

59 ou il demeura, where he lived 

60 comblant, giving with liberal- 

ity (or) profusion to 



61 etablit, established 

62 a la contribution duquel, 

the contribution of which, 

63 a son retour en, on his 

turn to 

64 il obligea, he compelled 

65 sous, under 



to 



246 



French Speaker. 



CONJUGATION OP THE AUXILIARY VERB 
ETRE— (To be). 

AFFIRMATIVE OK POSITIVE FORM. 



MODE INDICATIF. 



Present — (Present). 



Je suis 


I am 


suis as swee in sweet. 


tu es 


thou art 


e as in net. 


il est 


he is 


e as in net, st mute. 


nous sommes 


we are 


s hard, ommes as om in 
Tom, broad. 


vous etes 


you are 


3 as e in net, t sounded. 


ils sont 


they are 


s hard, on as in monk, n 
mute. 




Passe indefini — (J'reterit indefinite). 


J 1 ai ete 


I have been 


both e J s as a in fate. 


tu as ete 


thou hast been 


do. do. 


il a ete 


he has been 


do. do. 


nous avons ete 


we have been 


do. do. 


vous avez ete 


you have been 


do. do. 


ils ont ete 


they have been 


do. do. 



The compound tenses of the verbs etre are formed by 
adding- the past participle ete of etre (to be), to the simple 
tenses, whole conjugation, of the verb avoir, as shown 
above in the Passe Indefini : 

Imparfait — ( Imp erfect ) . 

Iwas e"a8>axnfate,aias,Ynsaid. 

thou wast do., do. 

he was do., do. 

we were e as a in fate, i-dipht. 

with on as in monk, n 

mute. 
you were e as a in fate, i-dipht- 

with ez as a in fate, 
they ivere e as a in fate, aient as 

ai in said. 



J' etais 
tu etais 
il etait 
nous etions 



vous etiez 



ils etaient 



J' avais ete, etc. 



Jefus 
tufus 
ilfut 

nous fumes 
vous futes 
ils furent 



J' eus ete, etc., 



Je serai 

tu seras 
il sera 
nous serous 

vous serez 
ils seront 



French Speaker. 247 

Plus que parfait — ( Pluperfect). 
1 had been, etc., given. 

Passe defini — (Preterit definite). 

I was u as in French. 

thou wast do. 

he w as do. 

we were do., m sounded. 

you were do., t sounded. 

they were do., r rolled. 



Passe anterieur — {Preterit anterior). 
J had been given. 



Futur — (Future). 
I shall or will be 

thou shalt or wilt be 
he shall or will be 
we shall or will be 

you shall or will be 
they shall or will be 



s hard, e as u in tub, ai 

as ay in -pay. 
s hard, « as ah. 
s hard, a as ah. 
s hard, on as in monk, n 

mute. 
s hard, ez as " in fate. 
s hard, on as in monk, n 

mute. 



Futur anterieur — (Future anterior). 



J' aurai ete, etc., 



I shall or will have given. 
been, etc. 



MODE COXDITIOXXEL. 



Je serais 
tu serais 
il serai t 
nous serions 
vous seriez 
ils seraient 



Present — (Present). 

I should, would, could 

or might be 
thou shouldst, ivouldst, 

couldst or mightst be 
he should, would, could 

or might be 
we should, ivould,co>'ld 

or might be 
you should, would, 

could or might be 
they should, would, 

could or might be 



ai as in said. 



do. 



dc 



i diphthong, with on as 
in monk, n mute. 

i diphthong, with ez as 
a in fate. 

aient as in said. 



248 



J'auraisete, etc., 



sois 
soyons 



French Speakt 



■{Past). 

I should, would, could given, 
or might have been 



MODE IMPERATIF. 

be (thou) 
let us be 



soyez 



Que je sois 
que tu sois 
qu' il soit 
que nous soyons 
que vous soyez 
qu' ils soient 



be (you) 



01 as wa in was. 

oy as wa in was, y for 

two i's, on as in monk, 

n mute. 
oy as wa in was, y for 

two i's, ez as in fate. 



MODE SUBJONCTIF. 



Present — (Present) 
That I may be 
that thou mayst be 
that he may be 
that we may be 
that you may be 
that they may be 



ox as wa in was. 

do. 

do. 
soyons as above. 
soyez as above. 
oient as wa in was. 



Passe — (Past). 
Que j' aie ete, etc., That Imay have been,etc. given. 



Imparfait — ( Imp erfect) . 



Que je fusse 

que tu fusses 
qu' il fut 

que nous fussions 
que vous fussiez 
qu' ils fussent 



that I might be 

that thou mightst be 
that he might be 
that we might be 
that you might be 
that they might be 



u as iri French, ss sound- 
ed. 

do., do. 

do. 
uss as above, ion do. 
uss as above, iez do. 
uss as above. 



Plus que parfait — (Pluperfect). 
Que j' eusseete,etc. That I might have been pronunciation given. 

MODE INFINITUM. 



Present — (Present). 



etre 



etant 



To be 



e as ai in said. 



Participe present — (Present participle). 

being i as a in fate, an as in 

want, n mute. 



French Speaker. 



249 



Participe present compose — (Compound present participle. ) 

ayant ete having been ay as ay in may, y for 

two i's, one i combin- 
ed with an as above. 

Participe passe — {Past participle}. 
ete been both e's as a in fate. 

Participe passe compose — ( Compound past participle) . 

avoir ete to have been a as ah, oir as ar in 

car, preceded by w. 



Trente-deuxieme Exercice de Lecture sur les Idioms. 



i was warned 
2 came 3 at once 
± immediately 

1 We were hidden 

2 we saw 3 thief *who was surely 

not suspecting 

i does not live there 
2 there 3 stopping-place, lodging- 
place 

1 was destroyed 

2 to the foundation 

3 savage n ess 

1 It smells close here 

2 you must open 

3 in order to leave the air penetrate 
1 Many people 2 while 3 showing 

themselves charmed 
* do not hold it 
5 for catching the secrets 
6 of those 7 they speak 

1 They appear to be rigid 

2 that 

3 differs everywhere *then 

5 there is gender and gender G as 



Le medecin fut averts du cas et 
vintf sur le quart d' heure ; 3 
Juies arrival V instant meme* 
aussi. 

Nous nous tinmes en embuscade 1 
et nous vimes* arriver le vo- 
leur, 3 qui ne se doutait guere 
de± notre presence. 

Cette famille ne reside pas Id, i 
elle 2/ 2 a seulement un pied-a- 
terre.^ 

Le palais des Tuilleries fut re- 
duiO- de fond en comble 2 en 1871 
par la sauvagerie 3 communiste. 

II sent le renferne 1 dans cette 
place, 'it faut ouvrir 2 les fenetres 
afin d' y laisser entrer V air. s 

Beaucoup de gens, 1 tout en 2 se 
montrant enchante's,^ d' une con- 
versation, ne la tiennent^ que 
pour tirer les vers du ncz 5 a 
ceux 6 avec qui Us par lent. 1 

On par ait etre a cheval 1 sur 1' eti- 
quette a la cour d' Angleterre et 
a celled de Berlin, mais 1' eti- 
quette differ epartout ; 3 etp>v>is, * 
il y a genre et genrc,5 comme & il 
y a etiquette et etiquette. 



250 French Speaker. 

1 By working hard 2 they reach the A force de travailler 1 onparvient 
aim 3 in working to reach it a son but ;% mais c' est aussi en- 

travaillant a y parvenir 3 que 

4 having worried himself too much V bomme, & force oV efforts,* suc- 

5 fails etask ?without having reach- combed a la tdche 6 sans V avoir 

ed it atteintJ 

1 They spent On a depense 1 plus de 10,000 francs 

2 on that work 3 it is much more a ce travail ; 2 c' est bien plus 

than was needed ! qu 1 il ri 1 en fallait /s 

1 At the last En dernier lieu, 1 V etiquette se 

2 grew slack reldcha* a la cour de Louis XIV. 

Le lion est le roi des animaux 
1 as quadrupedes, ainsi que 1 V aigle 

est le roi des oiseaux. 

1 as De meme que 1 Cesar, Napoleon eut 

2 end, death une./m 2 tragi que. 



ALFRED DIT LE GRAND 

Anecdotes — Conversion des Danois an Christianisme, L' univer- 
site d' Oxford. 

Alfred, quatrieme fils d' Ethelwulf, lui succeda en 871. H 
eut 1 quelque succes sur les Danois, mais regnant en prince 
trop absolu, 2 il fut mal seconde 3 par les Anglo-Saxons, et il 
ne regna que sur 4 les Saxons proprement dits, 5 les Danois 
etant parvenus 6 a occuper 7 tout le pays des Angles. Apres 
sa derniere def aite, 8 en 877, il disparut tout-a-coup, 9 se de- 
robant 1 ° a ses ennemis, et meme 1 1 a ses sujets, cherchant, 1 2 
sous un deguisement de paysan, 1 3 asile dans les plus misera- 
bles chaumieres 1 4 de son royaume. 

Un jour qu'il avait ete recu cliez 15 un fermier dans le 
Somersetshire, la femme de celui-ci 1 6 lui commanda 1 7 de 
faire attention a 18 des gateaux qui cuisaient, 19 pendant 20 
qu'elle vaquerait a 21 d'autres travaux du menage. 22 Mais 
la femme etant sortie, 2 3 Alfred, occupe a reparer un arc, 2 4 
oublia 25 les gateaux, 26 qui brulerent. 27 A son retour, la 
menagere 28 trouvant 29 tous ses gateaux presque reduits en 
cendre, 3 °se mit dans la plus grande colere 3 1 et lui reprocha 
violemment 32 sa negligence. Alfred, dans lequel cette 



French Speaker. 



251 



femme ne soupconnait assure nient qu'un 33 valet, 34 ne re- 
ponclit mot 35 a ses reproches, 30 qu'il savait 31 ' 38 et qu'il 
reconnut meme humblement 39 etre merites. 40 

S' etant ensuite, tou jours deguise, 4 2 procure 4 * une retraite a 
Atheluey, ouil vecut quel que temps 4 3 avec sa femme, un men- 
diant vint 44 lui demander l'aumone. 45 II se disposait a don- 
ner 4 6 la moitie 4 n d' un pain a ce pauvre, quand la reine 1' aver- 
tit 48 qu'il ne possedaient plus que 49 ce seul pain. 50 Le 
roi lui repondit 51 que Celui qui 52 avait pu rassasier 53 

( To be continued. ) 



Vocabulary. 



1 il eut, he had 

2 regnant en prince trop ab- 

solu, being a too severe ruler 

3 il fat mal seconde, he was not 

well supported 

4 il ne regna que sur, he did 
' not rule, but 

5 proprement dits, properly 

said 

6 etant parvenus, having suc- 

ceeded 

7 a occuper, to occupy 

8 apres sa derniere defaite, 

after his last defeat 

9 il disparut tout a coup, he 

disappeared suddenly 

10 se derobant, absconding 

11 meme, even 

12 cherchant, inquiring for 

13 sons un deguisement de pay- 

san, under a countryman'' s 
garment 

14 chaumieres, thatched houses 

15 qu' il avait ete recu chez, that 

he had been ivelcomed at 

16 celui. ci, this one 

17 lui commanda, ordered him 

18 de faire attention a, to pay 

attention to 



19 qui cuisaient, w hie h were 

cooking 

20 pendant, for the time, during, 

etc. 

21 qu'elle vaquerait a, that she 

could attend to 

22 travaux de menage, house- 

hold work 

23 etant sortie, having gone out 

24 occupe a reparer un arc, 

busy repairing a boio 

25 oublia, forgot 

26 gateaux, cakes, pies, ^>ieces of 

pastry 

27 brulerent, roasted 

28 menagere, house-keeper 

29 trouvant, finding 

30 presque reduits en cendre, 

almost burned to ashes 

31 se mit dans la plus grande 

colere, grew very angry 

32 lui reprocha violemment, 

reproached him very bitterly 

33 ne soupconnait assurement 

qu'un, was not surely suspect- 
ing, but a 

34 un valet, a servant, a domes- 

tic 



252 



French Speaker. 



35 ne repondit mot, did not say 

a word 

36 a ses reproches, to her re- 

proaches 
37, 38 qu' il savait et qu' il re- 
coimut, which he knew and 
acknowledged 

39 meme humblement, even 

humbly 

40 etre merites, to be just 

41s' etant en suite procure, hav- 
ing then secured 

42 toujours deguise, still dis- 

guised 

43 ou il vecut, where he was liv- 

ing 



44, 45 un mendiant vint lui de- 
mander 1' aumone, a beggar 
came to him asking alms 

46 II se disposait a donner, he 

was disposing himself to give 

47 la moitie, the half 

48 la reine 1' avertit, the queen 

told him 

49 qu' il ne possedaient plus 

que, that they had no more, 
but 

50 ce seul pain, that only one 

loaf 

51 lui repondit, responded to him 

52 Celui qui, He who 

53 avait pu rassasier, was able 
' to satisfy 



K. 



This consonant has the same sound as in English, and 
there is nothing particular to say about it. 



L is sounded the same as in English when it follows the 

a, e, o and u : 



final 


pronounce i as in 


pilule 


final. 


city, al as in sal- 
vation. 


pill. 


belle 


pronounce as bell. 




nice, fine. 




seul 


soldat 


pronounce ol as in 


alone. 


soldier. 


doll, at as ah. 





pronounce pil 
as in pill, u as in 
French, I sounded, 
e mute. 

pronounce eu as u 
in tub, I sounded. 



L and 11 are generally liquid after i : 

ail, aille. 
See the pronunciation of ail and aille, page 112. 

corail pronounce o as in not, 

coral. ail as above in bail. 

detail pronounce e as a in 

detail, retail, fate, ail as above. 



ail 


pronounce ail as in 


garlic 


nail. 


bail 


pronounce ail as the 


lease. 


pronoun T, bat 




shorter. 



French Speaker. 



253 



eventail 


pronounce e as a in 


caille 


pronunciation given. 


fan. 


fate, en as an in 


quail. 






want, n mute. 


canaille 


pronounce a as ah. 


gouvernail 


pronounce on as oo 


rabble. 




helm. 


in too, er as ere in 


ecaille 


pronounce e as a in 




there. 


shell, scale. 


fate. 


poitrail 


pronounce oi as wa 


feraille 


pronounce e as in 


breast of a 


in iv as. 


oZeZ iron. 


net. 


horse. 




inaille 


pronunciation given. 


serail 


pronounce e as a in 


stitch, mesh 




seraglio. 


fate. 


medaille 


pronounce e as a in 


soupirail 


pronounce cm as oo 


medal. 


fate. 


air hole 


in £oo. 


muraille 


pronounce u as in 


of a cellar. 




ivall. 


French. 


bataille 


pronounce a, as 


taille 


pron unciation given. 


battle. 


«/*, cu7Ze as the 


shape, size, 


height 




pronoun I, but 


(of a person). 




shorter. 







Exception is made for the words aile (wing) and its de- 
rivatives where ail is pronounced as in nail. 

(Continuation of the Conjugation of the verb Eire.) 
NEGATIVE FORM— MODE INDICATIF. 



Present. 

Je ne suis pas. 
tu n' es pas, etc. 

Imparfait. 

Je n' etais pas. 
tu n' 6tais pas etc 

Passe deflni. 

Je ne fus pas. 
ta ne fus pas, etc. 

Futur. 

Je ne serai pas. 

tu ne seras pas, etc. 



Passe indeflni. 
Je n' ai pas ete. 
tu n' as pas ete, etc. 

Plus que parfait. 

Je n' avais pas ete. 
tu n' avais pas ete, etc. 

Passe aiiterieur. 

Je n' eus pas ete. 
tu n' eus pas ete, etc. 

Futur anterieur. 

Jen' aurai pas ete. 

tu n' auras pas ete, etc. 



MODE CONDITIONNEL. 



Present. 

Je ne serais pas. 
tu ne serais pas, etc. 



Je n' aurais pas e»e. 
tu n' aurais pas ete, etc. 



254 French Speaker. 

MODE IMPERAHF. 

ne sois pas. 
ne soyons pas. 
ne soyez pas. 

MODE SUBJONCTIF. 

Present. Passe. 

Que je ne sois pas Que je n' aie pas ete 

que tu ne sois pas, etc. que tu n' aies pas ete, etc. 

Imparfait. Plus que parfait. 

Que je ne fusse pas. Que je n' eusse pas ete. 

que tu ne fusses pas, etc. que tu n' eusses pas ete, etc. 

MODE INFINIT1F. 

Present. Participe present. 

Ne pas etre. n' etant pas. 

Participe passe {compose"). Participe present {compose). 

n' avoir pas ete, or ne pas avoir n' ayant pas ete. 

6te. 

{Alfred dit Le Grand continued.) 

5,000 personnes avec cinq pains et trois poissons, i pouvait 
bien faire que 2 la moitie de ce pain leur suffit ; 3 et au lieu 
de le partag-er, 4 il donna le pain tout entier. 5 La foi d' Al- 
fred fut bientot recompensee, 6 car ses gens arriverenf 7 sur 
1' instant 8 avec d' amples provisions. 

Un jour, en 878, qu' apres tant 9 de perigrinations et d' in- 
fortunes, il etait parvenu a pouvoir considerer 1 ° une ren- 
contre 11 avec les Danois, Alfred voulut s' assurer 12 du 
nombre et des dispositions de ses ennemis. — Dans ce 
temps-la, 13 beaucoup de menestrels et de bardes par- 
couraient 14 l'Angleterre, chantant 15 1' histoire de ses 
anciens rois. Tres habile a jouer 1 6 de la harpe, il revetit 
le costume 11 de ces poetes ambulants, 18 et se presenta 19 
aux soldats danois, chez lesquels 20 il n'eveilla de soupcon 
d'aucune sorte. 21 L' ayant entendu jouer, 22 ils conduisi- 
rent 2 3 Alfred a leur chef, G nth rum qui, admirant son talent 



French Speaker. 



255 



exquis, 24 lui octroy a avec empressement 25 la permission de 
parcourir 26 tout le camp a sa volonte. 27 Naturellement, le 
roi-menestrel et espion non moins accompli, 28 accueillit 
telle faveur 29 avec toutes marques de respect et de recon- 
naissance, et avec plus d' empressement encore. 3 ° 

Lorsqu' Alfred prit conge de 31 ses ennemis, qu' il venait 
de tromper 32 si bien, 33 il rejoignit 34 ses nobles qui 1'at- 
tendaient 35 dans la foret de Selwood; puis il fondit 36 a 
l'improviste 37 sur Guthrum et ses Danois, qui furent com- 
pletement mis en deroute, 38 et resserres ensuite 39 dans 
d' etroites 4 ° limites. Ce fut vers cette epoque que les Danois 
se convertirent 4 * au christianisme. 

Alfred marcha ensuite sur 42 Londres qu' il assiegea 43 et 
prit. 4 4 II vecut 4 5 depuis lors 4 6 consacrant 4 7 les vingt-deux 
dernieres annees 48 de son regne a la religion, a la justice, 
aux sciences, aux lettres, aux arts et au commerce, et batit 49 
l'universite d' Oxford. II etait lui-meme 5 ° tres verse 5 i dans 
les sciences et les langues. 

Alfred-le-Grand mourut 52 en 901; son petit-fils Athelstan 
qui monta 5 3 sur le trone en 824, fut le premier 5 4 qui prit 5 5 le 
titre de roi d' Angleterre. 

Vocabulary. 



1 poissons, fish. 

2 pouvait bien faireque, could 

do that 

3 leur suflfit, should suffice to 

them 

4 au lieu de le partager, in- 

stead of partaking 

5 il donna le pain tout entier, 

he gave the whole bread 

6 La foi d' Alfred fut bientot 

recompensee, the faith of 
Alfred was soon rewarded 

7 arriverent, reached 

8 sur r instant, just at that 

time 

9 tant, so much 



10 il etait parvenu a pouvoir 

considerer, he had become 
to be able to consider 

11 une rencontre, a chance fight 

12 voulut s' assurer, wished to 

assure himself 

13 Dans ce temps-la, at that 

time 

14 parcouraient, were travelling 

over 

15 chantant, singing 

16 Tres habile a jouer, very apt 

to play 

17 il revetit le costume, he put 

on the garment 



256 



French Speaker 



18 poetes ambulants, travelling 

poets 

19 se presenta, -presented him- 

self 

20 chez lesquels, to which 

21 il n' eveilla de soup^on d' au- 

cune sorte, he did not cause 
a sus2)icion of any kind 

22 Li' ayant eatendu jouer, hav- 

ing heard him play 

23 ils conduisirent, they led 

24 admirant son talent exquis, 

admiring his exquisite talent 

25 lui octroya avec empresse- 

inent, granted to him with 
eagerness 

26 de parcourir tout le camp 

to go all over the encamp- 
ment 

27 a sa volonte, as he should de- 

sire 

28 espion non moins accompli, 

not less an accomplished spy 

29 accueillit telle faveur, re- 

ceived such a favor 

30 encore, yet 

31 prit conge de, took leave of 

32 qu' il venait de tromper, 

which he had just cheated 

33 si bien, so smartly 

eil, eille, ieil, ieille. 

See the pronunciation of eil, eille 

page 115. 

pronounce both «'s 



34 il rejoignit, he rejoined 

35 qui 1' attendaieiit, who were 
ivaiting on him 

36 il fondit, he fell 

37 a 1'improviste, unaivares 

38 qui furent completement 
mis en deroute, who were 
completely defeated 

39 reserres, confined 

40 etroites, narrow 

41 se convertirent, converted 
themselves 

42 marcha ensuite sur, walked 
after, towards 

43, 44 qu' il assiegea etprit,w )hich 
he besieged and caused to 
surrender 

45 II vecut, he lived 

46 depuis lors, since that time 

47 consacrant, devoting 

48 annees, yea^s 

49 batit, he built 

50 il etait lui-meme, he was him- 
self 

51 tres verse, well versed 

52 mourut, died 

53 monta, ascended 

54 fut le premier, was the first 

55 qui prit, who took 



ieil and IEILLE 



appareil 

apparatus, 

preparation. 

conseil 

advice, coun 

sel. 

reveil 

awaking. 

pareil 

alike. 



as ah. 

pronounce on as in 
monk, n mute and 
s hard. 

pronounce e as a in 
fate. 

pronounce a as ah. 



soleil 

sun. 

sommeil 

sleepiness. 

abeille 

bee. 

bouteille 

bottle. 

corbeille 

basket. 



pronounce o as in 

not. 
pronounce omm as 

om in Tom, broad, 
pronounce a as ah. 



pronounce on 

in too. 
pronounce or 

corporal. 



oo 



Fr end i Speaker. 



257 



groseille pronounce o as in 

gooseberry, not. 

currant. 

merveille pronounce er as ere 

marvel, won- in there. 

der. 

oreille pronounce o as in 

ear. not. 

oseille pronounce o as in 

sorrel. not, s as z. 



veille pronunciation given. 

the day be- 
fore, sitting up. 

vieil (mas.) pronounce vi as in 
old. view, dipht. — with 

eil. 
vieille(fem.) do., do. 

old. 



(Continuation of the Conjugation of the verb Etre). 
INTERROGATIVE FORM— MODE INDICATIF. 



suis-je? 
es-tu? etc. 



Present. 



Imparfait. 



etais-je? 
6tais-tu? etc. 

Passe defini. 

fus-je ? 
fus-tu? etc. 



Futur. 



serai-jo? 
seras-tu? etc. 



Passe indeflni. 
ai-je ete ? 
as-tu ete ? etc. 

Plus que parfait. 
avais-je ete? 
avais-tu ete ? etc. 

Passe anterieur. 
eus-je ete? 
eus-tu ete ? etc. 

Futur anterieur 
aurai-je ete? 
auras-tu ete ? etc. 



MODE OONDITIONNEL.. 



Present. 

serais-je ? 
serais-tu . etc. 



aurais-je ete? 
aurais-tu ete ? etc. 



iJNTERROGATnrE-NEGATIVE FORM. 



Present. 

Ne suis-je pas? 
n' es-tu pas ? etc. 



Passe indeflni. 
N' ai-je pas ete? 
n' as-tu pas ete ? etc. 



Imparfait. 

N'e"tais-je pas? 
n' etais-tu pas ? etc. 

Q 



Plus que parfait. 

W avais-je pas ete ? 
n' avais-tu pas ete ? etc. 



258 French Speaker. 

Passe defini. Passe anterieur. 



Ne fus-je pas? 
ne fus-tu pas ? etc. 

Futur. 

Ne serai-je pas? 
ne seras-tu pas ? etc. 



N' eus-je pas ete ? 

n' eus-tu pas ete ? etc. 

Futur anierieur. 

N' aurais-je pas ete? 
n' aurais-tu pas ete ? etc. 



MODE COND1TIONNEL. 



Present. 

Ne serais-je pas? 
ne serais-tu pas ? etc. 



N' aurais-je pas ete? 

ri' aurais-tu pas ete ? etc. 



ille. 



See the pronunciation of il and ille, pages 60, 62, 63. 



foabil 


pronounce a as in 


faucille 


pronounce an as o 


prattle, 


cat, il as ee in see. 


sickle. 


in no, e as s hard- 


chatter. 




fille 


pronunciation given. 


peril 


pronounce e as a in 


girl, daught 


er. 


danger,peril 


. fate, il as ee in see. 


grille 


pronunciation given. 


gril 


pronunciation given 


grate. 




grid-iron. 


above. 


guenille 


pronounce g as in 


mil 


pronunciation given 


rag 


game, u mute, e as 


millet. 


above. 




u in tub. 


gresil 


pronounce e as a in 


pastille 


pronounce as as as. 


rime, sleet 


fate, s as z. 


pastil. 




anguille 


pronounce an as an 


vanille 


pronounce a as ah. 


eel 


in want, g as in 


vanilla. 






game, u mute. 


vetille 


pronounce e as a in 


bille 


pronunciation given 


trifle. 


fate. 


billiard ball 


above. 


il brille 


pronunciation given. 


camomille 


a as in cat, o as in 


he shines. 




camomile. 


mother. 


1 cela 2 fourmille pronounce 1 ce ; 


cedille 


pronounce e as a in 


it swarms. 


e as u in tub, a as 


cedilla. 


fate. 




ah ; 2 our as oor in 


chenille 


pronounce ch as sh, 




poor. 


caterpillar. 


e as u in tub. 


je grille 


pronunciation given. 


coquille 


pronounce co as in 


I broil. 




shell 


cock, u silent. 






famille 


pronounce a as ah 






family. 









French Speaker. 



259 



Exception is made in the following- words and for most 
of those ending in He where il and ill are sounded as in mill : 



il 


pronounce as given. 


pistil 


pronounce pis as in 


he. 




pistil of a 


pistol. 


civil 


pronounce ci as in 


flower. 




civil, polite. 


city. 


pueril 


pronounce u as 


cil 


pronounce as sil in 


childish. 


French u, e as a in 


eye-lash. 


silk. 




fate. 


exil 


pronounce ex as egz. 


mil* 


pronunciation given. 


exile. 




thousand. 




bisextil 


pronounce bi as in 


subril 


pronounce u as in 


leap-year. 


bit, s as z, ex as eks. 


quick, subtle 


French. 


fil 


pronunciation given. 


tranquil le 


pronounce an as in 


thread. 




quiet, 


want, u mute. 


viril 


pronounce i in v i as 


tranquil. 




manly, virilt 


'. English e. 


vaudeville 


pronounce au as o in 


volatil 


pronounce o as in 


vaudeville. 


no, both e's mute. 


volatile. 


not, a a.s ah. 


ville 


pronunciation given. 


mille 


pronunciation given. 


city, town. 




thousand, a 


mile. 


Emile 


pronounce E as a in 


pupille 


pronounce u as in 


proper name 


. fate. 


pupil, 


French. 


facile 


pronounce a as in 


scholar. 




easy, facile. 


cat, c as s hard. 


morfil 


pronounce or as in 






wire edge. 


nor. 







CONJUGATION OF ETRE AS IMPERSONAL VERB— POSI- 
TIVE AND NEGATIVE FORMS. 



MODE INDICATIF. 



Present. 



II est. 

il n' est pas. 

Imparfait. 

II Stait. 

il n' etait pas. 

Passe deftni. 

II fut. 

il ne tut pas. 



Passe indefini. 
II a ete. 
il n' a pas ete. 

Plus que parfait. 
II avait ete. 
il n' avait pas ete. 

Passe anterieur. 

II eut ere. 

il n' eut pas ete. 



*In the supputation of years. 



260 French Speaker. 

Futur. Futur anterieur. 

II sera. II aura ete. 

il ne sera pas. il n' aura pas ete. 

MODE CONDITIONNEL.. 

Present. Passe. 

II serait. II aurait ete. 

il ne serait pas. il n' aurait pas ete. 

No Imperatif. 

MODE SUBJONCTIF. 

Present. Passe. 

Qu' il soit. Qu' il ait ete. 

qu' il ne soit pas. qu' il n' ait pas ete. 

Imparfait. Plus que parfait. 

Qu' il rut. Qu' il eut ete. 

qu' il ne fut pas. qu' il n' eut pas ete. 

MODE INFINITFF. 

Present. Participe passe. 

Etre ete. 

ne pas etre. n' avoir pas ete. 

Participe present. Participe present compose. 

6tant. ay ant ete. 

n' etant pas. n' ay ant pas ete. 

HENRI II 

Thomas Becket — Sa naissance — II est mis a mort — Annexion de 
1' Irelande a 1' Angleterre — Adrien IV — Sa naissance. 

L'histoire du reg-ne de ce roi despote et hypocrite, qui 
occupa 1 le trone d' Ang-leterre de 1154 a 1189, est feconde 2 
en faits 3 dont plusieurs 4 meritent 5 d'etre racontes. 6 

Ce fut sous Henri II que 1' archeveque 7 Thomas Becket, 
le premier Saxon qui eut encore occupe 8 un poste disting-ae 
a la cour, fut assassine 9 par quatre emissaires 10 le 29 De- 
cembre 1170, lorsqu' il officiait 11 dans sa cathedrale de 
Canterbury, sous le motif pretendu 1 2 d' avoir excommunie 1 3 
trois eveques ; 1 4 mais en realite 15 pour n' avoir pas voulu 



French Speah 



261 



se plier 1 6 aux volontes 1 ' arbitraires du roi, qu' il n' avait 
pourtant que 18 deja trop servies. 19 

Thomas Becket etait 20 le fils d' un riche citoyen 21 de 
Londres nomnie 22 Gilbert, et de lafille 23 d' un chef mu- 
sulman 24 de la Palestine, auquel 25 il avait ete vendu 26 
comme esclave 21 apres avoir ete fait prisonnier, 28 alors 
qu'il servait dans l'armee 29 des Croises. 30 Dans son 
esclavage, 3 1 Gilbert, qui avait sugagner 32 les graces de la 
fille de son maitre, 3 3 parvint a s' echapper et a rentrer dans 3 4 
son pays, 35 oil celle-ci 36 le suivit 37 environ 38 deux ans 
apres. Arrivee 39 a Londres oil Gilbert etait connu 40 par 
sa richesse et son opulence, elle parvint 41 a le decouvrir 42 
en repetant son nom, 43 le seul 44 qu' elle put prononcer 45 
en anglais. Gilbert habitait 46 dans Cheapside oil il la 
recut, 41 la fit baptiser 48 sous 49 le nom de Mathilde, et 
1' epousa. 5 ° 

Le meurtre 51 de Thomas Becket avait irrite 52 le peuple 
contre 53 Henri, et pour detourner 54 cette colere, 55 il en- 
treprit 56 d'annexer 51 definitivement 58 1' Irlande, qui lui 
avait ete deja concedee en 1156 parle pape Adrien IV, mais 

Vocabulary. 



1 qui occupa, who occupied 

2 est. feconde, is aboundinu 
3-faits, facts 

4 clout plusieurs, from which 

several 

5 meritent, deserve 

6 d' etre racoutes, to be nar- 

rated 

7 1' archeveque, the archbishop 

8 qui eut encore occupe, who 

had, till that time occupied 

9 fut assassine, ivas assassi- 

nated 

10 emissaires, secret agents, em- 

issaries 

11 lorsqu' il offlciait, while offi- 

ciating 



12 sous le motif pretendu, on 

the pretense 

13 d' avoir excommunie, of hav- 

ing communicated 

14 eveques, bishops 

15 mais en realite, but in reality 

16 pour n' avoir pas voulu se 

plier, for having refused to 
bow 

17 volontes, desires 

18 qu' il n' avait pourtant que, 

which he had notwithstand- 
ing, but 

19 deja trop servies, already 

complied with 

20 etait, was 

21 riche citoyen, rich citizen 



262 



French Speaker. 



22 nomme, called 

23 fille, daughter 

24 musulman, mussulman 

25 auquel, to whom 

26 il avait ete vendu, he had 

been sold 

27 comrae esclave. as a- slave 

28 apres avoir ete fait prison- 

nier, after having been made 
prisoner 

29 alors qu' il servait dans 1' ar- 

raee, while serving in the 
army 

30 Croises, Crusaders 

31 esclavage, slavery 

32 qui avait su gagner, who had 

succeeded to gain 

33 maitre, master 

34 parvint a s' echapper et a 

rentrer, succeeded to es- 
cape and to re-enter 

35 son pays, his country 

36 celle-ci, this one 

37 le suivit, followed him 

38 environ, about 

39 arrivee, arrived 

40 etait connu, was known 



41 elle parvint, she succeeded 

42 a le decouvrir, to discover, to 

find him 

43 en repetant son nom, by re- 

peating his name 

44 le seul, the only one 

45 qu' elle put prononcer, that 

she was able to pronounce 

46 habitait, was living 

47 ou il la re^ut, where he re- 

ceived her 

48 la fit baptiser, caused her to 

be baptized 

49 sous, under 

50 1' epousa, married her 

51 meurtre, murder 

52 avait irrite, had irritated 

53 confre, against 

54 pour detourner, in order to 

disturb 

55 cette colere, that anger 

56 il entreprit, he undertook 

57 d'annexer, to annex 

58 definitivement, definitely 

59 qui lui avait ete concedee, 

which had been granted to him 



See the 
pages 129, 

deuil 

mourning. 



ecureuil 

squirrel. 

fauteuil 

arm-chair. 
seuil 

threshold. 



euil, euille, ceil, oeill, ueil, ueille. 

EUIL, EUILLE, CEIL, CEILL, etc., 



pronunciation of 
131. 

pronounce eu as u 
in tub, il as ye in 
eye, e final (of 
ye) slightly ac- 
cented. 

pronounce e as a 
in fate, c as k, u 
as in French. 

pronounce au as o 
in no. 

pronounce 5 hard. 



Je cueille pronounce c as k. 

I gather. 

chevrefeuille pronounce e as ea 

honey-suckle. in bear, eas u in 

tub. 
oeillade pronounce a as in 

glance, look. lad, d sounded, 

e mute. 
accueil pronounce a as ah, 

reception. cc as k. 



French Speaker 



263 



cercueil 


pronounce c as s 


chevreuil 


pronounce ch as sh, 


coffin. 


hard, er as ere in 


deer. 


e as u in tub. 




there. 


oeil 


pronounce as 


recueil 


pronounce e as u 


eye. 


given. 


collection. 


in tub, c as Jc. 


oeillet 


pronounce e as in 


orgueil 


pronounce or as in 


pink. 


net, t mute. 


pride. 


organ, g as in 
gun. 







(Henri II continued.) 

qui etait neanmoins 1 en partie 2 au pouvoir du 3 comte de 
Pembroke. L' annexion definitive de l'lrlande a la cou- 
ronne d' Angleterre eut lieu 4 en 1171. 

Ce pape Adrien IV, dont 5 le regne a ete signale 6 par tant 
d' ambition 7 et d' arrogance, 8 venait pourtant 9 de basse ex- 
traction. 1 ° II est le seul 1 1 Anglais qui ait jamais ete eleve a 1 2 
la dignite de souverain-pontif e. 1 3 Son pere, qui etait do- 
mestique comme 1 4 lui-meme, le delaissa 1 5 et 1' abandonna, 1 6 
ce qui forga 1 7 Adrien de s' expatrier. 1 8 II alia en 1 9 France, 
fut quelque temps a 20 Paris, puis 21 a Avignon, ou il entra 22 
au service des moines. 23 La, 24 il se montra 25 aimable, 
pieux, etudia avec assiduite et parvinta se faire admettre 26 
dans 1' ordre, dont il ne tarda meme pas a devenir 2 7 l'abbe. 2 8 
L'austerite, les talents et les connaissances 29 qui le distin- 
guerent 30 bientot comme tel, 31 firent 32 rapidement 33 de 
lui 34 un des plus hauts 35 dignitaires de l'Eglise. 36 IL fut 
elu 37 pape en 1154, en meme temps 38 que Henri II arrivait 
au 39 trone. 



Vocabulary. 



1 neammoins, however 

2 en partie, partly 

3 au pouvoir du, in possession 

of, ruled by the 

4 eut lieu, took place 

5 dont, from whom 

6 a ete signale, has been signal- 

ized, distinguished 



7 par tant d', by so much of 

8 arrogance, haughtiness 

9 pourtant, notwithstanding 

10 de basse extraction, of low 

birth 

11 seul, sole, only 

12 qui ait jamais ete eleve, who 

13 souverain-pontife, pope 



264 



French Speaker. 



14 corame, as 

15 le delaissa, left him 

16 1' abandon na, gave him up 

17 ce qui for^a, that which com- 

pelled 

18 de s' expatrier, to expatriate 

19 II alia en, he went to 

20 fat quelque temps a, was for 

some time at 

21 puis, then, besides 

22 ou il entra, where he entered 

23 moines, monks 

24 La, there 

25 il se montra, he showed him- 

self 

26 parvint a se faire admettre, 

he succeeded in being ad- 
mitted 



27 dont il ne tarda meme pas a 

devenir, from which he was 
not long to become 

28 1' abbe, the abbot 

29 les connaissances, the knowl- 

edge 

30 le distinguerent, distinguish- 

ed him 

31 comme tel, as such 

32 flrent, made 

33 rapidement, rapidly 

34 de lui, of him 

35 un des plus hauts, one of the 

highest 

36 de V E^lise, of the church 

37 II fat elu, he was elected 

38 en meme temps, at the same 

time 

39 arrivait au, was ascending the 



ouil, ouille. 

See the pronunciation of ouil and ouile, pages 139, 140. 



fenouil 


pronounce e as u 


houille 


pronounce as 


fennel. 


in tub,ou as oo in 


pit-coal. 


given, h aspi- 




too, il as y in eye. 




rate. 


brouille 


pronounce as 


patrouille. 


pronounce a as ah. 


quarrel. 


given. 


patrol. 




citrouille 


pronounce ci as in 


rouille 


pronounce as 


pumpkin. 


city. 


rust. 


given. 


depouille 


pronounce e as a 


Pouille (La.) 


pronounce as 


spoils, crop 


in fate. 


country 


given. 


(of cor 7i.) 




in Italy. 




grenouille 


pronounce e as u 


fouiller 


pronounce ou as 


frog. 


in tub. 


to rake up, 


oo in too, ill as y 


fouille 


pronounce as 


to search. 


combined with 


raking up, search, given. 




er as a in fate. 



LL preceded by i in the body of words and followed by 
other vowels, is also liquid: 



feuillage 

foliage. 



pronounce eu as 
u in tub, ill as 
y in yard, a as 
in lad, g as j, e 
mute. 



enfantillage 

childishness. 



pronounce en and 
aw as an in want, 
n mute ; the rest 
as above. 



French Speaker. 



265 



gaspillage 


pronounce gas as 


brouillon 


pronounce ou as 


squandering. 


in gasp, i as in 


rough copy. 


oo in too, ill as y 




city, 11 liquid, 




combined with 




age as above. 




on as in monk, n 


pillage 


pronounce i as in 




mute. 


plunder. 


city, 11 and age 


bataillon 


pronounce both 




as above. 


batallion 


a's as ah, ill and 


brouillard 


pronounce ow as 




on as above. 


fog. 


oo in too, ill- 


durillon 


pronounce u as in 




ard as yar in 


callosity. 


French, illon as 




yard. 




above. 


babillard 


pronounce a as in 


negrillon 


pronounce e as a in 


prattler. 


cat, % as in city-, 


little negro 


fate, i as in city, 




Hard as yar in 




11 as y combined 


billard 


yard. 
pronounce i as in 




with on as in 
monk, n mute. 


billiard. 


bit, Hard as yar 


papillon 


pronounce a as in 


corbillard 

hearse. 

vieillard 

old man. 


in yard. 

pronounce cor as 
in corporal, bil- 
lard with i and 
Hard as above. 

pronounce i com- 
bined with e as in 
net, Ward as, yar 
in yard, d mute. 


butterfly. 

pavilion 

tent, flag. 

Roussillon 

country in 
France. 


cat, pi as in pit, 
lion as above. 

pronounce a as in 
cat, i and lion as 
above. 

pronounce ou as oo 
in too, ss hard, 11 
as y combined 
with on as in 
monk, n mute. 


L is mute 


in: 






Avril 


pronounce A as 


fusil 


pronounce it as 


April 


ah, i as in c^y. 


gun. 


French u, s as z, 


baril 


pronounce a as a/i, 




i as in city. 


barrel. 


i as in city. 


gentil 


pronounce g soft, 


coutil 


pronounce ou as oo 


gentile, gentle 


en as an in want, 


ticking, 


in too, <i7 as ti in' 


nice. 


n mute, til as ti 


tent-cloth. 


£ip. 




in tip. 


fils 


pronounce as fls in 


chenil 


pronounce ch as 


son. 


./is*. 


dog kennel. 


s h, e as u in tub, 


fend 


pronounce e as w 




i as in city. 


hay -loft. 


in *w6, nil as wi 


outil 


pronounce ou as 




in mjr>. 


tool. 


oo in too, til as 


four nil 


pronounce our as 




<i in tip. 


bake-house. 


oor in poor, nil 






€> 


as m in nip. 







266 

persil 



French Speaker. 



sourcil 

eyebrow. 



soul 

drunk, full. 
pouls 

pulse 



pronounce er as 
ere in there, ci as 
in city, I mute. 

pronounce s bard, 
our as oor in 
poor, ci as in city, 
I mute. 

pronounce ou as oo 
in too, I mute. 

pronounce ou as oo 
in too, Is mute. 



Chatellerault pronounce ch as 

city of France, sh, a as ah, elle 

as ell in bell, 

ault as o in no, It 

mute. 

La Rochefoucauld pronounce a 



celebrated 
French family. 



as ah, Ro as in 
rob, ch as sh, e 
mute, ou as oo in 
too, auld as o in 
no, Id mute. 



LL is sounded generally as one I : 



belle (fern.) 


pronounce as bell. 


mollesse 


pronounce o as in 


nice, pretty. 




softness, 


mother, Hesse as 


folle 


pronounce olle as 


mildness. 


less. 


insane, 


oil in doll. 


follet 


pronounce o as in 


silly, foolish. 




merry, 


mother, e as in 


fol lenient 


pronounce olle as 


playful. 


net, t mute. 


foolishly, 


oil in doll, ent as 


mallette 


pronounce a as ah, 


madly. 


an in ivant, nt 


small 


llette as let. 




mute. 


portmanteau. 





LL is sounded as two Vs when a word begins with ill : 



illettre 


pronounce il as ill, 


illegitime 


pronounce il as ill, 


unlearned. 


let as let, e as a 


illegitimate. 


6 as a in fate, g 




in fate, one t 




soft, i as in city, 




sounded. 




ime as im in 


illegality 


pronounce il as ill, 




Aim. 


illegality. 


second I sound- 


illusion 


pronounce ?7 as iU, 




ed, both e's as 


delusion, 


u as French u, s 




a in fate, g as in 


error. 


as 2, t combined 




game, a as ah, i 




with on as in 




as in city. 




monk, n mute. 


illisible 


pronounce il as ill, 


il lustre 


pronounce il as ill, 


illegible. 


second li as in 


illustrious. 


u as French u, s 




lip, third i as 




sounded, tr also, 




English e, bl 




and e^mute. 




sounded, emute. 




• 



French Speaker. 



267 



CONJUGATION OF ETRE AS IMPERSONAL. VERB— NEGA- 
TIVE AND INTERROGATIVE FORMS COMBINED. 



MODE INDICATIF. 



Present. 

N' est-il pas? 

Imparfait. 
N' etait-il pas? 

Passe defini. 

Ne fut-il pas ? 

Futur. 

Ne sera-t-il pas ? 



Passe Indefini. 

N' a-t-il pas ete ? 

Plus que par fait. 
N' avait-il pas ete ? 

Passe anterieur. 
N' eut-il pas ete ? 

Futur anterieur. 
N' aura-t-il pas ete ? 



MODE CONDITIONED 
Present. Passe. 

Ne serait-il pas ? N' aurait-il pas ete ? 

Prepositions the Most Often Used After the Verb Etre. 

a. 

Before names of cities, of persons and things ; and before 
pronouns and verbs : 

Mon pere est a Bruxelles. (My father is in Brussels.) 

Ce livre est a Pierre. (This book belongs to Peter.) 

Le temps est a la pluie. (It is going to rain.) 

Ma mere est a s' habiller. (My mother is dressing herself.) 



Before nouns preceded or not by a qualifying- adjective, 
and before pronouns : 

(Julius is taking a xoalk with his 

brother.) 
( You are friendly with him (or) 
on good terms with him. ) 
contre 

of persons, of cities, of countries, and 



Jules est a la promenade avec son 

frere. 
Vous etes bien avec lui. 



Before names 
before pronouns : 
Mon ami etait contre Louis. 
Paris etait contre Bruxelles. 
L' Italie a 6te contre la France. 
Nous serons contre vous et contre 

eux. 



(My friend was against Louis.) 
(Paris was against Brussels.) 
(Italy was against France.) 
(We will be against you and 
them,. ) 



268 French Speaker. 

dans 

Before nouns or words used as nouns: 

Dans l'eglise il y a des bancs. (In the church there are benches.) 

Dans venir il y a peu de temps (In the verb to come there are 
reguliers. only a few regular tenses.) 

de 

Before nouns and pronouns : 

Franklin #tait de Boston. (Franklin was from Boston.) 

J e serai de la partie. (I will be of the party. ) 

Cet article est de vous. ( That article is yours.) 



Before names of countries, of nouns, of pronouns and 
present participles : 

La Senne est en Belgique. ( The Seine river is in Belgium.) 

Les soldats russes sont en Crime"e. ( The Bussian soldiers are in Cri- 
mea. ) 
II est en bonne sante\ (He has good health.) 

Nousavonspeudecontianceeneux. (We cannot trust them.) 
En faisant son devoir, on est heu- ( One is happy in doing his duty. ) 
reux. 

e nvers 

Before nouns and pronouns: 

Cet homme est dur en vers les (That man is hard on poor peo- 

pauvres. pie.) 

A-t-il ete respectueux envers (Has he been respectful to you ?)' 

vous? 

pour 

Before nouns, pronouns and infinitives of verbs : 

Cette medecine est pour Charles. (That medicine is for Charles.) 
C est pour lui que j'ai ete~ vous (It is on account of him that I 

voir. have been to see you.) 

Pour montrer son talent, ilchanta. (In order to show his talent, he 

sang. ) 
sur 

Before nouns and pronouns: 

Votre cahier est sur nion pupitre. (Your copy-book is on my desk.) 

Francois est sur son cheval. (Frank is on his horse.) 

L' armee se dirige sur Paris. (The army is going towards 

Paris. ) 
Vous etre trop sur lui, vous lui ( You are too much on him, you 
nuirez. will hurt him.) 



French Speaker. 269 

HENRI III 

Simon de Monfort — Origine du Parlement Britannique — Pre- 
miers recherches pour le Charbon deterre— Defense teinporaire 
de 1' employer — Richesse des mines de houille. 

Ce roi fut appele 1 au trone en 1216, a l'age de neuf ans. 2 H 
s' occupa 3 de bonne heure 4 des affaires de l'Etat, mais il 
ne put yenir a bout 5 de dominer 6 ses fiers et turbulents 
barons 1 qui se revolterent 8 contre lui. 9 L'un d'eux, 10 
Simon de Monfort, reussit meme si bien 1 1 dans sa revolte, 
qu' il fit 1 2 Henri prisonnier avec sa famille et s' empara du 
pouvoir. 1 3 

Afin de se concilier 1 4 le peuple et la noblesse, et de con- 
solider 1 5 son gouvernenient, Monfort ordonna 1 6 aux comtes 
etaux Yilles 1 ' de lui envoyer 1 8 des representants qui for- 
meraient 19 avec lui le conseil de l'Etat. L' assemblee de 
ces delegues devint 20 V origine du Parlement Britannique. 

Nonobstant 21 ses tendances 22 apparentes de democratic, 
il ne tint pas longtemps le pouvoir. 23 Trop 24 ambitieux 
pour les seigneurs, 25 ceux-ci favoriserent 26 1' evasion du 
jeune Edouard, fils duroi, lequel, 21 apres avoir rassemble 28 
une armee avec le concours 29 de ses amis, battit 30 l'usurpa- 
teui*, 31 qui fut tue 32 en 1265, a la bataille d' Evesham. 

Henri IH retabli sur son trone par son fils, et la tran- 
quillite etant rassuree 33 dans ses etats, s'arma 34 et par- 
tit 35 avec sa femme, Eleonore de Castille, pour aller re- 
joindre, devant 3 6 Tunis, Louis IX, roi de France, qui y com- 
battait 37 les infideles. 

Ce fut sous le regne d' Henri III que 1' on fit 3 8 les premieres 
recherches 39 pom* le charbon de terre. 40 Une charte fut 
alors octroy ee 4 1 aux habitants de Newcastle, et 1' usage de 
ce nouveau 42 combustible fut aussitot introduit 43 a Lon- 
dres parmi 44 les industriels. Mais le peuple se plaignit 
des 4 5 incommodites que la fumee 4 6 semblait produire, 4 7 etle 
roi faisant droit a ses reclamations, 48 defendit 49 l'emploi 50 

(d continuer.) 



270 



French Speakc 



Vocabulary. 



1 fut appele au, was called to 

2 a l'age de neufans, when he 

was nine years old 

3 II s' occupa, he took care 

4 de bonne heure, early 

5 mais il ne put venir a bout, 

but he could not succeed 

6 de dominer, to dominate 

7 ses flers et turbulents barons, 

his proud and turbulent ba- 
rons 

8 qui se revolterent, who re- 

volted 

9 contre lui, against him 

10 Li'-un d' eux, one of them 

11 reussit meme si bien, suc- 

ceeded even so well 

12 qu' il fit, that he made 

13 s' empara du pouvoir, made 

himself master of the power 

14 Ann de se concilier, In order 

to conciliate to himself 

15 de consolider, to consolidate 

16 il ordonna, he ordered 

17 aux villes, to the cities 

18 de lui envoyer, to send to him 

19 qui formeraient, who should 

form 

20 devint, became 

21 nonobstant, notwithstanding 

22 tendances, tendencies 

23 ne tint pas longtemps le pou- 

voir, did not keep the power 
long 

24 Trop, too 

25 seigneurs, lords 



26 ceux-ci favoriserent, these fa- 

vored 

27 lequel, who 

28 apres avoir rassemble, after 

having gathered 

29 avec le concours, with the 

help 

30 battit, beat 

31 1' usurpateur, the usurper 

32 qui fut tue, who was killed 

33 etant rassuree,6ew^ re-estab- 

lished 

34 s' arma, armed himself 

35 partit, set out 

36 pour aller rejoindre devant, 

to go and meet near 

37 qui y combattait, who was 

fighting there with 

38 1' on fit, they made 

39 recherches, researches 

40 charbon de terre, coal 

41 fut alors octroyee, was then 

granted 

42 nouveau, new 

43 fut introduit, was introduced 

44 parmi, among 

45 se plaignit des, complained 

about 

46 fumee, smoke 

47 semblait produire, seemed to 

produce 

48 faisant droit a ses reclama- 

tions, receiving kindly their 
claims 

49 defendit, forbidden 

50 1' emploi, the use 



French SjJeaker. 



271 



M. 



The consonant is sounded, in the body of the words when 
it precedes n : 



iiiclemiiite 

indemnity. 



ainnistie 

amnisty, 
pardon. 

omnivore 

omnivorous. 



pron ounce i n as an 
in sank, n mute, 
em as am in ram, 
i as in city, e as 
a in fate. 

pronounce am as 
in ram, nis as in 
amnisty, ie as ee 
in see. 

pronounce omni as 
in omnibus, ore 
as or in nor. 



Agamemnon 

Kin< i of 
Argos. 



pronounce both 
a's, as in cat, g 
hard, mem with 
em as the conso- 
nant m, non with 
on as in monk, n 
mute. 

pronounce omni as 
in English, u as 
in French, s 
sounded. 

pronounce omnias 
in English, o as 
in not, ore as o?- 
in nor. 

And in their derivatives. 
But m followed by n is mute in the following-: 

damner pronounce a as ah, \ automne pronounce a« as o 

to damn. er as a in fate. \ autumn, fall in no, omne as om 

in Tom, broad. 

And in their derivatives. 

M ending a syllable is mute before p and b : 



omnibus 

large 
carriage. 

omnicolore 

of all colors. 



ambassacleur pronounce am 
ambassador 



amphibie 

amjihibious. 



emplette 

■purchase. 



emploi 

use, employ- 
ment. 



as 
an in want, m 
mute, both «'s 
as ah, eur as ur 
in far, broad. 

pronounce am as 
an in want, i as 
in city, ie as ee 
in see. 

pronounce em as 
an in xoant, m 
mute, ette as et 
in net. 

pronounce em as 
an in want, oi as 
?£'« in was. 



impatience 

impatience. 



impenitence 

impenitence. 



ombre 

shade, 
shadoxv. 

ombrelle 

parasol. 



pronounce im as 
an in sank, m 
mute, a as ah, t 
as s hard, en as 
aw in want, n 
mute, c as s hard, 
e mute. 

pronounce im as 
an in sank, e as 
a in /a£e, i as in 
ciYy, £ as t, ence 
as above 

pronounce om as 
o?i in monk, m 
mute, 6?- sound- 
ed, e mute. 

pronounce ovi as 
on in monk, ell 
as e/£ in 6eW. 



272 French Speaker. 

M is sounded at the end of Latin, biblical, historical, geo- 
graphical and foreign nouns, as given, pages 157, 158, 159, 
Second Part. 

{Henri III continued.) 

du charbon de terre. Oette defense 1 devint 2 meme 3 si 4 
stricte que pour 1' avoir violee, 5 un homme f ut condamne, a 
mort 6 et execute. Cependant 1 le prejuge 8 contre 1' usage 
de la houille 9 commenca a disparaitre 1 ° sous le regne de 
Edouard ler, fils et successeur de Henri III, et le nouveau 
moyen 1 1 de chauffage 1 2 fut assez rapidement 1 3 substitue a 
1' ancien. 1 4 

L' abondance du charbon en Angleterre a puissamment 
contribue 1 5 a elever 1 6 ce pays a un des plus hauts degres 1 7 
dans l'industrie manufacturiere. II resulte 18 de calculs 
faits, 1 9 que le produit des ventes 2 ° de houille en Grande-Bre- 
tagne, a depasse 21 jusqu'aujourd'hui 22 celui 23 des mines 
d' argent 24 de Potosi au Perou, et il est dit en outre que 25 
Newcastle et ses alentours seuls, 26 sans compter 27 d'autres 
gisements abondants, 28 peuvent approvisionner le 29 monde 
entier 30 pendant 31 quatre cents ans encore. 32 

Vocabulary. 



1 defense, defence 

2 devint, became 

3 meme, even 

4 si, so 

5 que pour 1' avoir violee, for 

having violated 

6 fut condamne a mort et exe- 

cute, was sentenced to death 
and executed 

7 cependant, however 

8 le prejuge, the prejudication 

9 houille, coal 

10 commenc/a a disparaitre, be- 

gan to disappear 

11 moyen, means, way 



12 de chauffage, of firing 

13 fut assez rapidement, was 

quite rapidly 

14 substitue a 1' ancien, substi- 

tuted for the ancient way 

15 a puissamment contribue, 

has contributed %)ow erf idly 

16 a elever, to raise 

17 a un des plus hauts degres, 

to one of the highest degrees 

18 II resulte, the result is 

19 de calculs faits, from calcu- 

lations made 

20 que le produit de la vente, 

that the amount of the sale 



French Speak 



er 



273 



21 a depasse, has surpassed 

22 jusqu' aujourd 1 hui. till to- 
day 

23 celui, the one 

24 des mines d' argent, of the 

silver mines 

25 et il est dit en outre que. and 

it is said moreover 

26 ses alentours seuls, the sur- 

rounding parts alone 



27 sans compter, without count- 

ing 

28 d' autres gisements abon- 

darits, other abundant beds 

29 peuvent approvisionner le, 

can furnish the 

30 monde entier, whole world 

31 pendant, daring 

32 encore, yet 



MM. 

MM is sounded as one m in almost all cases, but not in 
the following- words, nor after the beginning- im, added to 
words in order to express the reverse of their sense: 

gram in aire pronounce aw as in j immortel pronounce im as in him, 

i nor as in mortal, 
tel as tell, broad. 

pronounce im as in 
him, mi as in emi- 
nent, ent as an in 
u-ant, nt mute. 

pronounce im as in 
him, second m 
sounded, en as an 
in want, n mute, 
5 sounded, e mute. 



grammar. 


ram, m sounded, 
aire as air in 


immortal. 




fair. 


imminent 


Emma 


pronounce Em as 


imminent. 


proper 


the consonant m, 




name. . 


second m sounded, 






a as ah. 


immense 


immoral 


pronounce im as in 


im niense. 


in' moral 


him, mo as in 

mother, al as in 
salvation. 




And in their derivatives. 





VERBES ADJECTIFS. 

As we have said, verbes arfjectifs express qualities, actions 
or the condition of persons and of thing's. 

There are five kinds of verbes adject ifs which are: Jes 
Verbes Actifs, Jes Verbes Passifs, les Verbes Neutres, Jes Verbes 
RejJectifs (or) Pronominaux *et les Verbes ImpersonaeJs (or) 
Unipersonnels. 

The Verbe Actif is the one after which a noun, a pro- 
noun, or another word, or part of a sentence used as direct 
object, can be placed without the help of a preposition : 
R 



274 French Speaker. 

Nous adorons Dieu. ( We worship God. ) 

J' eeris une lettre. (I write a letter.) 

J' aime mon pere. {Hove my father.) 

II a fait un discours long et en- {He made a speech long and te- 
neuyeux. dious. ) 

The Verbe A ctif can have also an indirect object, to which 
it is connected by a preposition : 

Je parle la langue francaise avec {I speak the French language 

faci lite. * with facility. ) 

Nous vous raconterons une his- {We will tell them a story.) 

toire avec plaisir. 
II lui dira un bon mot pourvous. {He will speak a good word for 

you. ) 

In the Verbes Passifs, the subject, instead of making- the 
action shown by the verb, receives it from the indirect ob- 
ject Then, by comparing the examples given below the 
definition of the Verbe Act if, we see that the Verbe Passif 
marks the contrary of the Verbe Actif : 
Dieu est adore 1 par nous. ( God is worshiped by us.) 

Une lettre est ecrite par moi. {A letter is written by me.) 

Mon pere est aime par moi. {My father is loved by me.) 

Je suis aime denies parents. {I am loved by my parents.) 

The Verbes Passifs are conjugated with the auxiliary ttre 
in their simple tenses and a past participle ; in their com- 
pound tenses, they take the auxiliary avoir, whose conjuga- 
tion is followed by the past participle ete (been) and the 
past participle of the Verbe Passif in course of conjugation : 

J' ai ete aime de mes maitres. {I have been loved by my mas- 

ters.) 

II a ete trahi por son frere. {He has been betrayed by his 

brother.) 

The Verbe Neutre is the same as the Verbe Actif but can- 
not have but an indirect object: 

II demeure a Paris. {He lives in Paris.) 

Nous arrivons de Vienne. ' {We arrive from Vienna.) 

Vous etes ne en Californie. ( You were born in California.) 

*In the case of parler meaning to express himself in a language, the 
name of the language being preceded by the article, parler is an active 
verb. 



French Speaker. 275 

The Yerbs Actifs are conjugated in their compound 
tenses with the auxiliary of the Verbe Avoir, and the Verbes 
Xeutres take sometimes Avoir and sometimes Eire. 

The Verbes Reflectifs takes two pronouns of the same 
person, the first as subject and the second as direct object, 
in their whole conjugation. 

The Verbes Reflectifs are conjugated in their compound 
tenses with the auxiliary Etre : 

Je me tlatte. (I flatter myself.) 

Je niesouviens. (I remember.) 

Nous nous sommes flatted. ( We have flattered ourselves.) 

lis se seraient souvenus. {They should have remembered.) 

See definitions on the Verbes Ira personnels, pages 237 to 241. 

All the Yerbs above are Regular or Irregular and form 
four conjugations which end viz : 

The first, in er: aim er (to love). 
The second, in ir : pun ir (to punisli). 
The third, in oir : apercev oir (to perceive). 
The fourth, in re : vend re (to sell). 

The part of a verb which is not the end, is called the rad- 
ical, and a Regular Yerb is the one which does not change 
its radical, nor its ending in the conjugation, but according 
to the tenses, and which has all the tenses and all the persons : 

Example : Caus er (Inf. pres.) to talk. 
Je caus e (Ind. pres.) I talk. 
Je caus erai (Futur) I will talk. 

An Irregular Yerb is the one whose radical or end 
changes in the conjugation, or whose tenses or persons are 
ivanting, which makes a verb irregular then and defective at 
the same time : 

Example : All er (Inf. pres) to go. 
Je vais (Ind. pres.) I go. 
J' irai (Futur) Twill go. 



276 



French Speaker 



NOTICE ON THE PLACE OF THE PRONOUNS OBJECTS. 

When pronouns me (me, to me), te (thee, to thee), se (him, 
to him, her, to her, them, to them), nous (us, to us), vous (you, 
to you) are used as indirect objects with other pronouns 
being direct objects, both indirect and direct objects are 
placed before the verb in the affirmative, negative and inter- 
rogative forms. The indirect object comes first and the 
direct follows : 



Je me le donne. 

Je ne me le clonne pas. 

Me le donne- je ? 

II se T achete. 

Ne vous 1' achetez pas. 

Nous 1' acheterons-nous ? 

II ne vous le donnera pas. 

Nous vous le donnons. 

Vous le donnerons-nous? 



(I give it to myself.) 
(J do not give it to myself.) 
(Do 1 give it to myself?) 
(He buys it for himself.) 
(Do not buy it for yourself.) 
(Will toe buy it for ourselves ?) 
(He will not give it to you.) 
(We give it to yon.) 
(Shall we give it to you ?) 



In the Mode Imperatif used affirmatively, moi, toi for me 
to me) and te (to thee) ; nous (to us), vous (to you), lui=.a lui t ) 
a elle (to him, to her), leur=« eux a elles (to them), come the 
last before the verbs, and if the direct object is a pronoun, 
it precedes the indirect object, if the direct object is a 
noun, it comes after the verb: 

(Give it to me.) 

(Have it for yourself (or) secure 

it for thyself (or) yourself.) 
(Bring it to us.) 
(Say that to yourself.) 
(Make it to him (<>r) for him.) 
(Show it to them.) 
(Read it to John (or) for John.) 
(Forget it for Louisa.) 

(of it) is always placed immediately 



Donnez-le-moi. 
Procure-le-toi. 

Apportez-le-nous. 
Dites-le-vous. 
Faites-le-lui. 
Montrez-le-leur. 
Lisez-la a Jean. 
Oubliez-le pour Louise. 

The pronoun en 
before the verb: 
Je vous en donne. 
Je ne vous en donne pas 
Vous en donnerai-je? 
Ne in' en parlez pas. 



( J give of it to you.) 
(J do not give to you, of it.) 
(Shall J give to you of it?) 
(Do not speak to me of if.) 



French Speaker. 277 

Except in the Affirmative Form, Mode Imperatif, where 
en comes after the verb : 

Donnez-en-moi. (Give it to me.) 

Lisez-en-moi line partie. (Read me apart of it.) 

Parlez-en-moi. (Speak to me of it.) 

Parlons-en. (Let us speak of it.) 

Ix the negative form of the Mode Imperatif, when the in- 
direct object is one of the pronouns lui (Mm, to him, her, to 
her), leur (to them— a. eux, a elles) ex (of it), the indirect ob- 
ject is placed the last before the verb, the direct being- a 
pronoun precedes it ; and when the direct object is a noun, 
it follows the verb : 

Ne le leur demandez pas. (Do not ask it of thjem.) 

Ne lui donnez pas le conteau. (Do not give him the knife.) 

Ne lui en voulez pas. n (Do not be angry at him about it.) 



278 



French Speaker. 



PREMIERE CONJUGATION (FIRST CONJUGA- 
TION) AIMER*— (To love). 

ACTIVE AND REGULAR VERB— (AFFIRMATIVE FORM). 
MODE INDICATIF. 



Present. 



J' aim e, I love. 
tu aim es. 
il aim e. 
nous aim ons. 
vous aim ez. 
ils aim ent. 



Imparfait. 

J' aim ais, I was loving. 

tu aim ais. 

ii aim ait. 

nous aim ions. 

vous aim iez. 

is aim aient. 



Passe indefini. 
J'ai aime, etc., I have loved. 



Plus que parfait. 
J' avais aime, etc., 1 had loved. 



In order to form the compound tenses of active verbs, 
con jug-ate the auxiliary avoik, and to add to each tense and 
to each person of this, the past participle of the active verb 
in course of conjugation : 



Passe deiiiii. 



J' aim ai, I loved. 

tu aim as. 

il aim a. 

nous aim ames. 

vous aim ates. 

ils aim erent. 



Futur. 

J' aim erai, I will love. 
tu aim eras. 
il aim era. 
nous aim erons. 
vous aim erez. 
ils aim eront. 



Passe anterieur. Futur anterieur. 

J' eus aime, etc., I had loved. J' aurai aime, etc., I will have loved. 

*By taking off the r of the end er and placing an acute ( ' ) accent 
over the e, the past participle of the verbs of the first conjugation is 
obtained. 



French Speaker. 279 

MODE COXDITIOXXEL. 

Present. Passe. 

J' aim erais, I should or could or J' auraisaime, Ishould have loved. 

wo ul d or might love. 
tu aim erais. 
il aim erait. 
nous aim erions. 
vous aim eriez. 
ils aim eraient. 

MODE IMPERATIF. 

Aim e Love (thou.) 
aim ons let us love. 
aim ex love (you.) 

MODE SUBJONCTIF. 



Present. 

Que j' aim e, That I may lov 

que tu aim es. 

qu' il aim e. 

que nous aim ions. 

que vous aim iez. 

qu' ils aim ent. 

Passe. 



Imparfait. 

Que j' aim asse. That I might love. 

que tu aim asses. 

qu' il aim at. 

que nous aim assions. 

que vous aim assiez. 

qu' ils aim assent. 

Plus que parfait. 



Que j' aie aime, etc., That I may Que j'eusse aime, etc, That 1 might 
have loved. have loved. 



MODE IXFIXITIF. 



Present. Participe present. 

aim er, To love. aim ant. Lacing. 

Participe passe. Participe present compose, 

aime (mas.), aiinee(fem.),Z.owed. ayant aime. Ha ring loved. 

Participe passe compose. 
avoir aime. To hare loved. 



280 



French Speaker. 



Conjugate in the same manner : 

[The verbs of the following list having an asterisk, a dagger or a 
double dagger are neutral verbs : the ones having a dagger are conju- 
gated with the auxiliary Sire, and those having the double dagger take 
avoir or etre, according to their signification.] 



Abaiss er, to lower, to disgrace. 

abim er, to overthrow, to spoil. 

accepter,, to accept. 

ador er, to worship. 

aid er, to help. 

affect er, to affect. 

farriv er, to arrive. 

*badin er, to be frolicsome, to 

play with. 
bless er, to hurt, to wound. 
bord er, to border. 
boutonn er, to button. 
brid er, to bridle. 
each er, to hide. 
cass er, to break. 
caus er, to cause. 
*caus er, to talk, to speak. 
chant er, to sing. 
cherch er, to inquire for, to look 

for. 
compt er, to count. 
demand er, to ask, to demand. 
*demeur er, to live. 
desir er, to desire. 
destin er, to destine, to design. 
c!6vou er, to devote. 
discut er, to discuss. 
dor er, to gild. 
donn er, to give. 
dout er, to doubt. 
empoeh er, to pocket. 
empir er, to grow worse. 
enseign er, to teach. 
fentr er, to enter, to go in. 
etudi er, to study. 
facilit er, to facilitate. 
felicit er, to congratulate. 
fet er, to feast. 
forcer, to force, to compel. 
fond er, to found. 



frapp er, to hit, to beat. 

fum er, to smoke. 

gagn er, to gain. 

gard er, to keep, to watch. 

*gliss er, to slip. 

graiss er, to grease. 

habit er, to inhabit. 

habitu er, to accustom. 

hat er, to hasten. 

hers er, to harrow. 

honor er, to honor , to respect. 

imagin er, to imagine. 

imiter, to imitate. 

impos er, to impose. 

irrit er, to irritate. 

*jas er, to prattle, to chatter. 

jet er, to throw. 

*jeiin er, to fast. 

jou er, to play. 

jug er, to judge. 

jur er, to swear. 

lav er, to ivash. 

lev er, to raise, to lift up. 

lign er, to line. 

livr er, to deliver, to give, to 

tray. 
mang er, to cat. 
*march er, to walk. 
m<5rit er, to merit, to deserve. 
mesur er, to measure. 
meubl er, to furnish. 
*murmur er, to murmer. 
nou er, to tie, 
:f nag er, to swim. 
occup er, to occupy. 
ombr er, to shade. 
ordonn er, to order. 
oubli er, to forget. 
*parad er, to make parade. 
*parl or, to speak. 



be- 



French Speakei 



281 



pari er, to wager. 
partag er, topartake. 

{pass er, to pass. 

port er, to bring. 

perc er, to pierce, to bare. 

pli er, to fold, to bow. 

raisonn er, to reason. 

ras er, to shave. 

rappel er, to recall. 

renonc er, to renounce. 

renvers er, to throw, to pull down. 

respir er, to breath. 

roul er, to roll, to run on wheels. 

saut er, to jump. 

sauv er, to save. 

sech er, to dry. 

second er, to help. 

somm er, to summon. 

-song er, to dream, to think. 

-soup er, to sup. 



specul er, to speculate. 

tap er, to tap, to pat. 

ftomb er, to fall. 

touch er, to touch. 

tourn er, to turn. 

tripot er, to huddle, to intrigue. 

tromp er, to deceive. 

troubl er, to trouble. 

valid er, to ratify. 

vant er, to vaunt, to cry up, to 

extol. 
vari er, to vary, to change. 
vex er, to vex, to trouble. 
vid er, to empty. 
vol er, to fly, to rob. 
*vot er, to vote. 
visit er, to visit. 
vers er, to pour. 
verifi er, to verify. 
verier er, to venerate. 



AIMER — (Negative Form of Verbs Adjectives). 

For conjugating' the verbs adjectives negatively, make, as 
in the auxilaries, the subject followed by ne* and pas, ne 
between the subject and the verb in simple tenses, and pas 
following the verb. — In the compound tenses, xe comes be- 
tween the subject and the auxiliary, and pas between the 
auxiliary and the past participle of the verb. Example = 
Je o' aime pas. ( I do not love. ) 
Je n' ai pas aime, (I shall not love.) 

AIMER (Interrogative Form. ) 

In this form of the Verbes Adjectives, they are conjugated 
as the auxiliaries by placing the verb first, followed by the 
subject. 

In compound tenses the subject comes immediately after 
the auxiliary (avoir or etre), and is followed by the past 
participle of the verb being in course of conjugation. 

-But in aimer, as in any other verb beginning by a vowel, ne is 
changed to n ', and j ' used in the affirmative form, becomes je being 
now placed before the consonant n. 



282 French Speaker. 

In the verbs of the first conjugation, in the Indicatif 
present, fisrt person singular, the ending e of the verb, 
which is mute, takes an acute accent ( e ) and this e is 
sounded as between ay of may and ai of said. — In the in- 
terrogative form of verbs the e of the pronoun je is mute. 
Examples : 

aime-je? (Do I love?) 
ai-jeaim£? (Did I love?) 
as-tuaim6? (Hast thou love?) 

AIMER — (Negative — Interrogative Form ) . 

The Yerbes Adjectives are conjugated in the combined 
form by placing the first part of the negation ne or n' be- 
fore the verb, and the second part pas, after both the verb 
and the subject. 

In compound tenses, ne or n' comes before the auxiliary, 
after which the subject is placed, and pas and the past par- 
ticiple of the verb follow. Examples : 

N' aime-je pas ? (Do 1 not love ?) 
n' ai-je pas aime ? (Did not I love ?) 

Prepositions the most used after Aimer. 

a before an infinitive: II aime a. travailler, (He loves to work.) 

de do. do. J' aime de vous voir heureux (1 love to 

see you happy.) 
contre before a noun : aimer contre la volonte de ses parents 

( To love against the will of his parents. ) 
aimer avec passion ( To love withpassion. ) 
aimer pour Dieu (To love for God.) 
aimer sur condition ( To love on condition) 

CONJUGATION OP THE VERBES PASSIFS. 

From what has been said on the Verbes Passifs, ice give 
here a model for all:* 

Etre pardonne {to be forgiven), etre aime (to be loved), etre 
loue (to be praised), etre recompense (to be reivarded), etre 
effraye (to be afraid.) 

*The Verbes Aetifs only can be conjugated passively. 



avec 


do. 


do. 


pour 


do. 


do. 


sur 


do. 


do. 



French Speaker 



283 



Present. 

Je suis, Turn, etc. t 



MODE INDICAT1F. 

Imparfait. 

J' etais, I w as, etc m 



tu es 
il est 

nous sommes 
vous etes 
ils sont 



pardonne\ 
aime. 

loue.f 

recompense. 
I effraye. 



tu etais 
il etait 
nous etions 
vous &t\ez 
ils etaient 



pardonne. 
aime. 
loue\ 
recompense". 

effraye. 



Passe indefini 

J'ai ei6, I have 

been, etc. 
tu as ete" 
il a §te" 

nous avons ete 
vous avez ete" 
ils ont ete" 



pardonne\ 

aime. 

loue, 

recompense. 

effraye\ 



Plus que parfait 

J ' avais ete, I had ( 

been, etc. 
tu avais 6te 
il avait ete" 
nous avions 6te 
vous aviez eie" 
ils avaient ete 



pardonne\ 

aime, 

loue\ 

recompensed 

effray6. 



Conjugate these verbs throughout the conjugation in all 
tenses and persons from the theory on Terbes Passifs, page 
274. 

For the interrogative, negative and interrogative-negative 
form, see pages 218, 224, 228, auxiliaries avoir and etre and 
the model for regular verbs. 



N ending French words is always mute. 



Kenan pronounce e as u 

French writer in tub, an as an 
and member of in xvant, n mute. 
the French 



consolation 

consolation. 



Academy. 






enfln 




pronounce en as 




at last. 




an in want, n 








mute, in as an 


tribun 






in s a n k , n 


Roman 






mute. 


magistrate 


serin 




pronounce e as n 


Verdun 


canary 


bird. 


in tnb, in as «?i 


city of 






in sank, n mute. 


France. 


mon 




pronounce on as in 


un 


my. 




monk, n mute. 


one, a. 



pronounce both 
on's as in monk, 
n mute, 5 hard, 
o as in not, a as 
ah, i combined 
with on, t in Hon 
as 5 hard. 

pronounce i as in 
trick, un as in 
hunter, n mute. 

pronounce er as ere 
in there, un as in 
hunter, n mute. 

pronounce as 
above. 



fThe three persons plural of the participles of verbs conjugated 
with etre take an s. But the second person is used for the singular 
also, in which case the past participle has not the sign of the plural. 



284 



French Speaker. 



N is mute also in the body of words when it precedes a 
consonant other than h or n : 



incertain 

■uncertain. 



incendie 

industry. 



pronounce %n as 
an in sank, n 
mute, er as ere 
in there, ain as 
an in sank, n 
mute. 

pronounce in as 
an in sank, c as 
s hard, en as an 
in want, n mute, 
ie as ee in see. 



Industrie 

industry. 



inferieur 

inferior. 



pronounce in as 
an in sank, u as 
in French, s 
sounded, ie as ee 
in .sec. 

pronounce in as 
an in sank, e as 
a in fate, i cohk 
bined with ear 
as ?*r in /«r, 
broad. 



N before H and N. 



inhumain 

inhuman. 



inhospitalier 

inhospitable. 



inhabile 

incapable, unfit 

incompetent. 

innocence 

innocence. 



pronounce in as 
in, h mute, u as 
French a, ain as 
an in sank, n 
mute. 

pronounce inhos 
as in inhospita- 
ble, i as in city, 
a as in lad, bl 
sounded, e 
mute. 

pronounce in as 

, in, a as ah, bile 
as bill. 

pronounce in as 
in, no as in not, 
c as 5 hard, en 
as aw in want, n 
mute, c as s, e 
mute. 



i innombrable 
! innumerable. 



innovation 

innovation. 



inhabite 

inhabited. 



inhumer 

to bury. 



pronounce in as in 
iv ant, om as in 
monk, m mute, 
a as in lad, bl 
sounded, e mute. 

pronounce in as in 
want, no as no in 
not, a as ah, t as 
s hard, i combin- 
ed with on as in 
monk, n mute. 

pronounce in as 
English in, h 
mute, a as ah, bi 
as in bit, e" as a 
in fate. 

pronounce in as 
above, u as in 
French, er as a 
in fate. 



NN. 



NN is sounded in : 



annuel pronounce an as 

annual. in /aw, u as in 

French, el as ell 

in 6eZZ. 



amiullemeiit pronounce annu- 

annually. elle as annuel 

above, ent as an 

in want.nt mute. 



French Speaker. 



285 



annihiler 

to annihilate. 



annales 

annals. 

annuler 

to annul, to 
abolish. 



pronounce an as in 
fan, both i\sasin 

city, er as a in 

fate. 
pronounce an as in 

fan, ales as al in 

salvation. 
pronounce an as 

in fan, u as in 

French, er as a 

in fate. 



in nover 

^o innovate. 



anneler 

^o ring. 



aimuite 

annuity. 



pronounce in asm, 
o as in novation, 
er as a in fate. 

pronounce ann as 
in fan, broad, e 
mute, er as a in 
fate. 

pronounce anas in 
fan, ui as wi in 
wu£, e as a in 
fate. 



286 



French Speaker. 



CONJUGATION OP THE IRREGULAR VERBS 
OF THE FIRST CONJUGATION. 

Aller— (To go)— (Neutral ; Auxiliary Etre.) 



Present. 



Je vais, I go. 
tu vas. 
il va. 

nous allons. 
vous allez. 
ils vont. 



these two persons 
are regular. 



MODE INDICATIF. 

Imparfait. 

This tense being regular, take the 
radical all and the ending of 
each person, ais, etc., of the im- 
perfect of the regular verbs, and 
make tne whole tense preceded 
by the proper subject. 



The compound tenses are formed as in the regular verbs 
(see aimer), and the past participle of this verb (alle=gone), 
is regular. But aller, instead of the auxiliary avoir, takes 
etre ; thus : 



Passe indeflni. 

Je suis alle, etc., I have gone. 
Passe defini. 

I went, etc. 

Is regular. 



Passe anterieur. 

Je fus alle, etc., I had gone. 



Plus que parfait. 

J'6taisall6, etc., I had gone. 

Futur 
J' irai, I will go, etc. 
tu iras. 
il ira. 

nous irons, 
vous irez. 
ils iront. 

Futur anterieur. 

Je serai alle\ Twill have gon< 



MODE CONDITIONNEHj. 

Present. Passe. 

J' irais, etc., 1 should go. 



tu irais. 
il irait. 
nous irions. 
vous iriez. 
ils iraient. 



Je serais alle, etc., T should have 
gone. 



French Speaker. 287 

MODE IMPERATIF. 

va, go (thee.) 

allons, Let us go. ) thege twQ persons are regu i ar . 

allez, go (you.) ) 

MODE SUBJONCTIF. 

Present. Tmparfait. 

That I may go. I tvas going. 

The only irregularity in this tense This tense is regular, 
is an i between a and He, lies, 
lie, llions, lliez, llent, thus 
making aill, which is pro- 
nounced as the pronoun I, but 
a little shorter. 



Plus que parfait. 

Que je sois all 6, etc., That I may Que je fusse alle, etc., That 7 
have gone. might have gone. 

MODE INFINITIF. 

Present. Participe present. 

aller, to go. allant, going. 

Participe passe. Participe present compose. 

alle (mas.) allee (fern.) gone. etant alle, having gone. 

Participe passe compose. 

etre alle\ to have gone. 
For the negative, interrogative and interrogative-nega- 
tive forms, see auxiliary etre and regular verbs (model), 
pages 218, 224, 228 and 274, 282 and 283. 

Prepositions Used After ALLER, and Observation, 
a before names of cities, or of places and pronouns : 

Aller a Paris, a Berlin (To go to Paris, to Berlin.) 

Aller a la ban que, a 1' ecole (To go to the bank, to school.) 

Aller a eux (To go to them.) 
en before names of countries and of things, and present participles : 

Aller en Italie, en Chine (To go to Italy, to China.) 

Aller en voiture (To go in a carriage, to drive.) 

Aller en promenade (To take a walk.) 

Aller en vacances (To go in vacation.) 

Aller en chantant (To go in singing.) 



288 French Speaker. 

chez before names of persons only : 

Aller chez son pere, chez le Docteur, chez Jean {To go to one's 
father, to the Doctor, to John.) 

No preposition is ever used between Allek and an Infini- 
tive. 



OBSERVATIONS ON VERBS ON THE FIRST CONJUGATION. 

In the conjugation of verbs ending- in their infinitive with 
ger, the g must be followed by an e before the vowels a and 
o in order to make g soft. — This added e is mute — 
nous mangeons. • ( We eat. ) 

Je partageais. (I was partaking.) 

il dirigea. (he managed, directed.) 

So it is in the verbs : 

affliger (to afflict), changer (to change), corriger (to correct), inter- 
roger (to interrogate), juger (to judge), menager (to manage), pro- 
teger (to protect), songer (to dream.) 

In verbs ending with cer in their infinitive, the c takes a 
cedilla ( q ) under the c before the vowels a, o, u, to make it 
soft or have it sounded as s in sea, in son : 

J' annoncais. (I was announcing.) 

nous avancons. (we advance.) 

il renonca. (he renounced.) 

je recus. (I received.) 

So it is in the verbs : 

menacer (to threaten), annoncer (to announce), avancer (to ad. 
vance), prononcer (to pronounce), renoncer (to renounce), effacer 
(to efface), enfoncer (to sink), espacer (to spare), exercer (to drill, to 
train), forcer (to compel), placer (to place), percer (to bore), tracer 
(to imprint). 

The verbs ending" their infinitive by eler and eter double 
their final consonant before an e mute : 
appeler (to call.) j'appelle (I call.) 

niveler (to level.) je nivelle (I level.) 

jeter (to throw.) je jette (I throw.) 

projeter (to project.) je projette (Tproject.) 



French Speaker. 289 

So it is in the verbs : 

acheter (to buy), becqueter (to peck), cacheter (to seal), caqueter 
(to tattle, to cackle), crocheter (to pick a lock), einpaqueter (to pack 
up), epousseter (to dust), etiqueter (to label), feuilleter (to peruse), 
fureter (to ferret), souffleter (to slop), arnonceler (to heap up), atteler 
(to put the horses to), bourreler (to rack, to torture), chanceler (to 
totter, to stagger), ciseler (to chase), ensorceler (to bewitch, to fasci- 
nate), epeler (to spell), 6tinceler (to shine), ficeler (to cord), geler 
(to freeze), harceler (to torment), peler (to peal, to pare), renouveler 
(to renew, to repeat.) 

Remark. — The French Academy does never double the 1 and the t 
in the verbs acheter, bourreler, geler, harceler and peler, which follow 
the rule hereafter. 

But the verbs ending their infinitive by eler and iter do 
never double their final consonants I and t, but take a grave 
accent ( v ) on the e preceding them, leaving ele and ete final 
sounded as ell in bell and as et in net, as it is the case for 
elle and ette in the verbs above : 
reveler (to reveal.) je r6vele (I reveal.) 

rep6ter (to repeat.) je repete (I repeat.) 

celer (to conceal, to keep secret.) je cele (I conceal.) 
empieter (to encroach.) j' empiete (I encroach.) 

The verbs ending their present particle by iant as priant 
{praying), liant {binding, obliging), niant {denying), have two 
i's following one another in the first and second persons 
plural of the imperfect {mode indicatif) and of the present 
{mode subjonctif) : 

nous priions. (we were praying.) 

vous liiez. (you were binding, obliging.) 

nous etudiions. (we were studying.) 

que nous copiions. (that we may copy.) 

que vous alliiez. (that you may ally.) 

So are the verbs : 

amplifier (to amplify), appr^cier (to appreciate), associer (to asso- 
ciate), bonifier (to bonify), certifier (to certify), colorier (to color), 
decrier (to decry), d§dier (to dedicate), etudier (to study), expier (to 
expiate), gratifier (to gratify), initier (to initiate), lier (to bind), 
manier (to handle), negocier (to negotiate), parier (to wager), plier 
(to fold, to boiv), remercier (to thank for), sacrifier (to sacrifice), sup- 
plier (to supply), simplifier (to simplify), terrifier (to terrify), varier 
(to vary), verifier (to verify), vicier (to vitiate.) 
S 



290 French Speaker. 

Verbs ending their present participle in yant as payer 
(to pay), envoyer (to send), employer (to employ), appuyer 
(to lean, to press upon), whose verbs the present participle 
are payant (paying), envoyant (sending), employant (em- 
ploying), appuyant (leaning), have their y followed by an i 
in the first and in the second persons plural of the imperfect 
(mode indicatif) and of the present (mode subjonctif ':) 
nous payions. ' (we were paying.) 

vous envoyiez. (you were sending.) 

que nous employions. (that we may employ.) 

que vous appuyiez. (that you may lean or press upon.) 

The added i in the verbs above is slightly accented, and 
the ier forming- a diphthong has er, as in all the verbs of the 
first conjugation, sounded as a in fate. 

In the conjugation of the verbs above, the y is replaced 
by i before an e mute : 

Je paie (Ipay),y envoie (I send), j'appuie (I lean, I press upon.) 
The verbs ending in their infinitive in eer as creer (to cre- 
ate), agreer (to agree), have two e's following one another in 
their whole conjugation, except before the vowels a, o, i : 

Je cr6e (I create), jecreerai (I will create), que je cr6e (that I may 
create.) 

Je creais (I was creating), nous cniions (we were creating), nous 
creons (we create.) 

J' agree (I agree), j' agreerai (I will agree), etc. 

J' agr6ais (1 was agreeing), vous agreiez (you were agreeing), etc. 

The past participle feminine of the above verbs has three 
e's ; two having an acute accent and being pronounced each 
as a in fate, and one, the last, said to be an e mute, is slightly 
accented. 

creee (created), agree (agreed.) 

Remarks. 

The verbs above could be called irregular verbs, but save 
the modifications which have been demonstrated, and having 
all their tenses and persons, they are conjugated as the reg- 
ular verbs (see the model aimer.) 



French Speaker. 291 

EDOUARD III 

Le Baron Mortimer — Premier usage de 1' artillerie — Van Arte- 
velde — Siege de Calais — Devouement de six patriotes — LT Ordre 
de la Jarretiere— Le Chateau de Windsor— Genre de taxation— 
Domesticite et consommation a la eour d 1 Angleterre. 

Edouard n' avait que seize ans lorsqu' il prit, en 1327, les 
renes du gouvernment 1 des mains de sa mere, et d' un baron 
nomme Mortimer, qu' elle avait associe au pouvoir. 2 La 
reine fut enfermee etroitement 3 au chateau de Rising-, ou 
elle resta 4 les vingt-sept dernieres annees de sa vie, 5 et 
Mortimer, dont l'intimite scandaleuse avec elle avait revolte 
le jeune Edouard, fut pendu. 6 

Ce fut 1 a la bataille de Crecy, en 1346, que les Anglais, 
les premiers, se servirent d' artillerie. 8 Les Francais y 
durent leur defaite 9 a cette nouvelle arme. 

Edouard qui avait passe sur le continent d' apres les con- 
seils 10 de Jacques van Artevelde, le fameux brasseur gan- 
tois, 1 1 avec le projet de conquerir la France, dont il s' etait 
deja donne le titre de roi, mit le siege devant 1 2 Calais peu 
de temps apres 1' affaire de Crecy. Calais, malgre 1 3 les plus 
vigoureuses attaques, resista un an, 1 4 et ce ne fut que la 
faim qui la fit ceder. 15 Cette resistance avait exaspere 16 
Edouard qui, pour punir les assieges, avait resolu de livrer 
leur ville au pillage. 1 7 II ne consentit a se departir de cette 
cruelle 18 mesm-e desastreuse, qu' apres bien des suppli- 
ques, 19 et a la condition que six des habitants notables 20 lui 
seraient livres. 2 1 Six des plus nobles patriotes ayant a leur 
tete 22 Eustache de Saint Pierre, se sacrifierent et paru- 
rent 23 devant le roi d' Angleterre la corde au cou. 24 Celui- 
ci allait reconnaitre une telle humiliation et ce noble devoue- 
ment en les f aisant mettre a mort, 2 5 quand, sur les instances 
pressantes 26 de sa femme, il revoqua 1' ordre de leur execu- 
tion. Calais resta deux cents ans aux mains 27 des Anglais 
depuis cette epoque. 

Ce fut Edouard III qui institua 28 1' Ordre de la Jarre- 



292 French Speaker. 

tiere, ordre aujourd'hui encore 1' objet d'une si grande con- 
voitise 2 9 parmi la noblesse anglaise. Un j our que le roi assis- 
tait a un bal 3 ° avec la comtesse de Salisbury, pour laquelle il 
avait une attention tres marquee, 3 1 celle-ci perdit une de ses 
jarretieres. 3 2 Le roi la ramassa, 3 3 et se la mit au genou 
g-auche 34 en disant ces mots: 35 "Honni soit qui mal y 
pense," qui devinrent sa devise 36 dans 1' etablissement de 
1' ordre, institue bientot apres ce futile 31 evenement. 

On donne un autre recit de 3 8 1' institution de la Jarretiere, 
mais il resulte 39 de 1' histoire meme, 40 que celui qui pre- 
cede est le plus vraisemblable. 4 1 

Edouard, afin de celebrer le lieu de sa naissance, 42 fit 
batir 43 le chateau de Windsor. Pour obvier aux depenses 44 
que necessiterait cette entreprise, il fit une levee d' ouvriers 
dans toute 45 l'Angleterre, en taxant tons les comtes, qui 
eurent a lui fournir les meilleurs 4 6 hommes de tous les me- 
tiers, 47 en proportion du nombre de leur population, tout com- 
me s' il s' etait agi 4 8 d' un corps d' armee. Ceci peut 4 9 donner 
une idee de la condition encore servile du peuplede la Grande- 
Bretagne a cette epoque. On peut en encore juger par les 
depenses de son fils et successeur, Richard II, duquel le 
nombre de domestiqnes, oil figuraient 50 trois cents cuisi- 
niers, s' elevait a 5 1 dix mille. On consommait 52 vingt huit 
bceufs et trois cents moutons par jour a Westminster Hall, 
lorsque la Cour allait y passer 5 3 les fetes de Noel 5 4 Richard, 
un jour, pay a quatre-vingt mille livres sterling pour un 
vetement. 5 5 



1 lorsqu' il prit les renes du 

gouvernment, when he seized 
or took the power 

2 qu' elle avait associe au pou- 

voir, with whom she ivas par- 
taking the power 

3 fut enferme etroitement, was 

confined narrowly 



Vocabulary. 

4 oil elle resta, where she lived 

5 sa vie, her life 

6 fut pendu, was hung 

7 Ce fut, It was 

8 seservirent d'artillerie, made 
■use of artillery 

9 y durent leur defaite, owed 
their defeat to that 



French Speaker. 



293 



10 d' apres les conseils, on the 

advice 

11 brasseur gantois, a brewer 

from Ghent 

12 mit le siege devant Celais,f>e- 

sieged Calais 

13 malgre, not withstanding 

14 an an, one year 

15 ce ne fut que la faim qui la 

fit ceder, did not surrender, 
but on account of hunger 

16 avait exaspere, had highly ex- 

cited 

17 livrer leur ville au pillage, to 

give their toivn to pillage 

18 a se departir decettecruelle 

mesure, to give up that cruel 
decision 

19 bien des suppliques, many 

supplications 

20 habitants notables, principal 

inhabitants 

21 livres, abandoned to his dis- 

■posal 

22 ayant a leur tete, headed 

23 parurent, appeared 

24 la corde au cou, the rope on 

the neck 

25 en les faisant niettre a mort, 

causing them to die 

26 sur les instances pressantes, 

on the prayers 

27 resta deux cents ans aux 

mains, was two hundred years 
under the power 

28 qui institua. who established 

29 encore l'objetd'une si grande 

convoitise, still so much de- 
sired 

30 assistait a un bal, was at a 

ball 



31 pour laquelle il avait une 

attention tres marquee, for 
whom he had a very particu- 
lar attention 

32 jarretieres, garters 

33 la ramassa, took it up 

34 se la mit au genou gauche, 

put it on his left knee 

35 en disant ces mots, saying 

these words 

36 qui devinrent sa devise, 

which became his motto 

37 futile, futile, trifling 

38 On donne un autre recit,they 

tell another story of 

39 il resulte, it appears 

40 meme, itself 

41 est le plus vraisemblable, is 

the most apparent as being 
the truth 

42 lieu de naissance, birth-place 

43 fit batir, caused to build 

44 obvier aux depenses, to avoid 

expenses 

45 il fit une levee d' ouvriers 

dans toute, he raised up la- 
borers in the whole 

46 les meilleurs, the best 

47 metiers, trades 

48 tout comme s' il s' etait agi d' 

the same exactly as if it had 
been a question of. 

49 peut, can 

50 ou figuraient, where were 

numbering 

51 s' elevait a, raised to 

52 on consommauVAey were eat- 

ing 

53 y passer, to spend there 

54 Noel, Christmas 

55 vetement, suit 



294 



French Speaker. 



Trente-troisieme Exercice 

1 During the day stakes a walk 
3 by turns *in the evening 
6 he reads 6 they enjoy themselves 
in the family. 

1 had a narrow escape 

2 went off the rails 

3 instantly ±were injured so they 

died 
i has a desire for everything she 



2 with the little money 3 that her 
husband makes * to satisfy 5 her 
desires 

1 that you will feel better 

2 in the future 3 I wish very hearti- 

ly 4 that you may be successful 
with my lessons. 

1 with his higher temper 

2 exasperated 3 illness 

* losses 5 grows suddenly very an- 

gry 6 at the least word. 

i More than one is seen 

2 who are reduced 3 to the fate 

* after having possessed 5 the great- 

est 
i You don't care 2 you say, 3 if you 
become 

* I do care for that 5 you may keep 
6 your goods. 



de Lecture sur les Idioms. 

Le jour, 1 mon ami etudie et se 
promene 2 tour-a-tour : 3 le soir* 
il Jait une lecture, 5 et on se re- 
cree en families 

Ce machiniste V a echappe belle 1 
lorsque son train derailla, 2 car 
plusieurs voyageurs furent tues 
sur le coup, 3 et d' autres furent 
blesses a morlA 

Cette femme a envie de lout ce 
qu 1 elle voit, 1 et il est difficile, 
avec lepeu 2 quegagne son man 3 
de contented ses gout*. 5 

J' espere que vous vous portercz 
mieux 1 a V avenir, 2 et je souhaite 
de tout mon coeur 3 que vous 
profttiez de mes lec.onsA 

Mon voisin, v if de son naturel,* 
et aigri 2 qu' il est par des mala- 
dies 3 et des pertes,* monte sur 
son cheval debataille 5 aumoin- 
dre mot. 6 

On en voit plus d' un l de nos 
jours qui sont reduits 2 au sort 3 
de Belissaire, apres avoir pos- 
sede* les plus grandest richesses. 

Peu vous imported dites-vous, 2 si 
vous devenez 3 pauvre ; mais moi, 
xl m J importe que* vous conser- 
viez 5 vos Mens .' 6 



French Speaker. 295 

HENRI VIII 

Son aveuement au trone — Catherine d'Aragon — Perspective du 
penple — Anne Boleyn — Thomas Wolsey — Sa mort — Son origine — 
Henri recoit le titre de Defenseur cle la Foi Catholique — Son ab- 
juration si innltanee anprotestantisme— Levied eveque Fisher — 
Son heroisme et sa mort — Thomas More — Sa condemnation et 
son execution — Marguerite sa fille — Elle obtient du bourreau 
la tete de son pere — Anne Boleyn accusee d' inceste et d' adul- 
tere — Son execution — Jeanne Seymour — Sa mort — Anne de 
Cleves — Son renvoi — Puniiion de Cromwell — Catherine Ho- 
ward — Accusee aussi d 1 inceste et d 1 adultere — Condamnee a 
mort et executee — Catherine Parr derniere femme de Henri 
VIII— Elle echappe au sort des autres femmes d' Henri — La 
comtesse de Salisbury — Son envoi a la mort — Son execution — 
Scene revoltaute — Fitz-William — II est appele chez le roi — Sa 
franchise — II est nomine chevalier et conseiller prive. 

Ce roi, un des plus cruels qui ait gouverne l'Angleterre, 
fut couronne en 1509, a l'age de 17 ans, avec Catherine 
d'Aragon, veuve 1 du prince de Galles, a laquelle il avait ete 
fiance 2 cinq ans auparavant. Les premieres annees de son 
regne semblaient promettre une ere de paix et de bonheur a 
ses sujets. Mais son caractere capricieux, que vinrent 
bientot stimuler 3 des passions et des gouts 4 desordonnes, 
ne tarda guere a 5 reveler en lui un tyran despote affreux. 6 
Apres dix-huit annees de rnariage avec Catherine d'Arag-on, 
Henri, qui s' etait epris " l d'Anne Boleyn, une de ses dames 
d'honneur, voulut marier celle-ci, apres avoir repudie sa 
femme, et lorsqu' il en aurait obtenu 1' assentiment du pape 
Clement YH. Cet assentiment lui fut refuse. Le cardinal 
Wolsey, qui s' etait lui-meme, quoique Grand Chancelier, 
oppose a cette mesure, fut releve de sa charge, depouille 8 
de ses biens ; et un acte d' accusation ayant ete redige 9 contre 
lui, il allait etre juge et assurement condamne a mort, lors- 
qu' il mourut empoisonne, croit-on. 1 ° 

Le cardinal Wolsey etait le fils d' un boucher. II devint 
aumonier 1 1 d' Henri lorque celui-ci n' etait encore que Prince 
de Galles. Devenu roi, Wolsey 1' avait accompagne lors 1 2 
de la guerre contre la France, et avait ete fait commissaire 



296 French Speaker. 

des approvisionnements de 1' armee. La ville de Tournai 
s' etant rendue, Wolsey fut nomme eveque de ce diocese, 
et peu de temps apres, il devint archeveque d'York. Ce 
fut de la qu' il fut cree cardinal, nomme leg-at du pape et 
Grand Chancelier d' Ang-leterre. 

Quoiqu'a cette epoque Henri VIII exit ecrit 1 3 contre la 
doctrine naissante 14 de Luther, ce pourquoi 15 il recut de 
Leon X le titre de Defenseur de la Foi, il n'en embrassa pas 
moins 16 la religion reformee dont il se declara meme le 
chef, apres le refus qu' il avait essuye 1 7 de Rome. II epousa 
alors secretement Aune Boleyn, qui fut couronnee en 1533, 
lors de la prononciation de nullite de son mariage avec 
Catherine d'Arag-on, par le nouvel et reforme archeveque de 
Cantorbery. 

II exig*ea des eveques le serment d' obedience, et beaucoup 
reconnurent sa suprematie, 1 8 Parmi ceux qui resterent 
fideles 1 9 a 1' autorite de Rome, etait 1' eveque Fisher de Roch- 
ester. II etait age de plus de quatre-vingts ans, 2 ° et quoi- 
qu'ayant toujours joui de la confiance du roi, il ne voulut 
point se soumettre, 21 et prefera porter 22 sa tete sur le bil- 
lot. 23 Fisher, lorsqu' il fut execute, venait d' etre eleve 24 a 
la dig-nite de cardinal par le 'pape Paul III. 

Le Grand Chancelier qui avait succede a Wolsey, Sir 
Thomas More, plutot non-seulement que de ne pas recon- 
naitre 25 la suprematie d' Henri comme chef de l'Eg-lise 
d' Ang-leterre,mais aussi pour ne plus avoir a apposer le sceau 
a 26 des decrets sang-uinaires, 2 ^ se demit de ses f onctions. II 
n' en fut pas moins envoye 28 comme prisonnier a la Tour, 
ou, malg-re 29 son grand ag-e, il souffrit pendant long-temps, 
les plus horribles vexations, et fut ensuite condamne a etre 
pendu 30 et ecartele. 31 Les juges, par pitie pour ce vene- 
rable vieillard, et aussi par horreur de leur propre jug-ement, 
qu' ils n' avaient rendu que pour obeir aux ordres du roi, 
demanderent 32 sa g-rdce. La seule faveur qu' Henri accorda 



French Speaker. 297 

a leur requete, 3 3 fut celle d' epargner a More la honte 34 
cl' etre pendu, mais il ordonna qu' il serait decapite. 3 5 

More avait une fille nominee Marguerite, modele de dou- 
ceur, 3 6 de piete filiale, et d' abnegation heroique, qui avait, 
mais en vain aussi, 37 ecrit au tyran les suppliques les plus 
poignantes. Elle ne reussit 3 8 a obtenir, apres les difficultes 
les plus inouies, 3 9 que la permission de partager la prison de 
son pere, auquel elle fut, jusqu a son dernier moment, de la 
plus inexprimable tendresse 40 — Marguerite ^ecut du bour- 
reau, qui la lui ceda a poids d' or, 4 1 la tete de 1' inf ortune 
auteur de ses jours. Elle la fit embaumer, et se retira avec 
sa relique, dans la plus profonde 42 solitude, oil elleresta 43 
toute sa vie dans une douleur ininterrompue 44 et la priere. 

Anne Boleyn n' etait mariee que depuis cinqans,qu' Henri, 
fatigue d'elle 45 comme il 1' avait ete de Catherine d'Aragon, 
la fit accuser faussement 4 6 d' adult ere et d' inceste. Con- 
damnee par vingt-six pairs, qui avaient des orclres en conse- 
quence, 47 elle suivit de pres 48 Thomas More, avec sa fa- 
mille a la Tour, 49 et y fut decapitee avec tous les siens 50 le 
19 Mai 1536. Ce jour-la meme, 5 1 Henri assistait a unepartie 
de chasse. 5 2 et le lendemain, 5 3 il se remariait a Jeanne Sey- 
mour, laquelle mourut peu apres 54 en donnant naissance a 
un fils, ^ 5 qui devint plus tard 5 6 Edouard YI. — A Jeanne Sey- 
mour succeda Anne de Cleves. Mais apres une union 
de quelque temps seulement, il en eut assez de celle-ci 
comme de celles qui 1' avaient precedee, et, sous pretexte 
qu'on ne la lui avait pas representee 57 comme dans son 
portrait, ou elle paraissait plus belle, 5 8 ilia repudia disant 5 9 
"qu'on ne lui avait amene qu'une 60 jument 61 de Flandre." 
Cromwell un des ministres d' Henri, fut condamne a mort 
pour le motif de 1' avoir trompe 63 en negociant ce ma- 
nage ! Le clerge servile de cette brute couronnee, apres avoir 
bassement 63 annule cette union encore, asservit 64 une autre 
victime aux passions de ce monstre, et lui procura Catherine 
Howard qui, a son tour, 65 eut la tete tranchee 66 en 1542, 



298 French Speaker. 

sous les memes imputations que celles qui avaient servi a 
faire mourir Anne Boleyn. En 1543, Henri VIII maria 
Catherine Parr, sa sixeime et derniere femme. 

Un jour que celle-ci avait ose 67 manif ester une opinion 
contraire a la sienne en matiere de questions religieuses, le 
roi en fut tres pique, 68 mais il ne lui repondit mot, 69 et il 
signa nonobstant 70 contre elle 71 un acte d'accusation dont 
les termes, furent arretes entre lui et 1' eveque Gardiner. 
Catherine allait etre emprisonnes le lendemain, lorsque, 
ay ant connu 72 indirectement de ce qui allait lui arriver, 73 
elle chercha et trouva le moyen de dire 7 4 a son perfide mari 
— qui etait venu la voir comme aux plus beaux jours — 
qu'elle ne se permettrait pas de penser autrement 75 que lui, 
lui qui, par ses connaissances superieures, avait le droit 76 
d' en imposer au monde entier ! et que si elle avait ose aller 
jusqu'a 77 la discussion la veille, c' etait simplement pour 
qu' il voulut bien P eclairer. 7 8 Cette flatterie satisfit le tyran ; 
et le Grand Chancelier, muni 79 d'un ordre d' arrestation 
s' etant presente juste a ce moment, il le chassa brutalement 
en Paccablant des injures 80 et des epithetes les plus 
grossieres. 8 1 

Parmi les victimes de ce cruel Lovelace, 8 2 fut la comtesse 
de Salisbury, dont le fils, le cardinal Pole, avait condamne 
son pro jet de divorce avec Anne Boleyn et qui, pour ce fait 
et sa conduile inebranlable, 8 3 avait du fuir 84 et se refugier 
en Italie. Le simple acte naturel de correspondre avec son 
fils suffit pour la faire arreter, et sans proces ni jug*ement 
prealable, elle fut envoyee a la mort. Au moment de mettre 
sa tete sur le billot fatal, elle s' echappa des mains du bour- 
reau et s'enfuit 85 au milieu de la foule, 86 ou l'executeur la 
poursuivit la hache levee. 8 7 Apres 1' avoir atteinte d' un 
coup 8 8 qui P abattit a ses pieds, 8 9 il V acheva sur place, 9 ° la 
mutilant, jusqu' a ce qu' elle ne donna plus signe de vie. ! 

L' alderman Fitz-Williams, bien pluscoupable 91 que l'in- 
fortunee comtesse de Salisbury, tint tete 9 2 au tyran et dut 9 3 



French Speaker. 299 

a sa bravoure de conserver sa vie. Fitz-Williams, qui avait 
ete le protege clu cardinal Wolsey au temps oil ce dernier 
etait Premier Ministre, avait donne asile a son ancien bien 
faiteur, dans sa residence de Milton, lorsqu'il fut baoni 
de la cour et decrete d' accusation. 94 Ce fait fut rapporte 
et il fut appele chez le roi. Lorsqu' Henri lui demanda 
compte 95 de sa conduite, Fitz-Williams repondit brave- 
ment et sans detour 96 que s'il avait recu chez lui Wolsey 
au temps de sa disgrace et quoiqu' il le sut poursuivi, 9 7 
il 1' avait fait en reconnaissance des faveurs dont il avait 
ete autrefois l'objet autrefois 98 de sa part, 99 mais non 
toutefois afin de soustraire 1 00 1' ex-Chancelier, aux re- 
cherches 1 ° 1 pratiquees contre lui. Devant telle reponse, 1 ° 2 
qui denotait tant de desinvolture et de franchise, A ° 3 
le despote, frappe 104 de trouver 105 un homme sans bas- 
sesse, comme aussi exempt 106 de tout 107 sentiment de- 
crainte 1 08 nonobstant tant 1 ° 9 de barbarie et le sort de tant 
d' autres malheureux, 1 1 ° affecta soudain un air de satisfac- 
tion : " J' admire votre droiture 1 x 1 et vos sentiments, dit il, 
et si tous mes sujets etaient comme vous, ils connaitraient 

mieux 1 1 2 la renonnaissance qu'ils me doivent I" 1 1 3 

Et il fit sur-le-champ 1 1 4 Fitz-Williams chevalier 1 1 5 et con- 
seiller prive. 

Autre Neron, insatiable debauche, 1 x 6 criminel perfide et 

t par jure, Henri VIII mar qua le trone d' Ang-leterre d' une 
tache honteuse et sang-lante, 1 1 7 dont 1' indelebilite transmet- 
tra 1 1 8 son nom a une lointaine 1 1 9 posterite ! 

Vocabulary. 

1 veuve, widow 7 qui s' etait epris, who fell in 

2 fiance, betrothed love 

3 que vinrent stimuler, that , 8 depouille, deprived 

came to stimulate 9 redige, written 

4 gouts, tastes 10 croit-on, they believe 

5 ne tarda guerea, did not take 11 aumonier, chaplain 

long to 12 lors, at the time 

6 affreux, frightful 13 eut ecrit, had written 



300 



French Speaker. 



14 doctrine naissante, new doc- 

trine 

15 ce pourquoi,/o?' that which 

16 il n' embrassa pas moins, he 

did not less adopt 

17 qu' il avait essuye, which he 

had bom 

18 sasuprematie,/u'.s supremacy 

19 qui resterent fideles, who re- 

mained faith} 'ul 

20 Iletaitagedeplusdequatre- 

vingts ans,/*e was more than 
eighty years old 

21 ne voulut point, would not 

22 porter, to bring 

23 billot, deadly block 

24 venait d' etre eleve, had just 

been elevated 

25 plutotnon seulement que de 

ne pas reconnaitre, rather 
not only to not recognize 

26 a apposer le sceau a, to put 

the seal on 

27 sanguinaires, bloody 

28 pas moins envoye, not less 

sent 

29 malgre, notwithstanding 

30 a etre pendu, to be hung 

31 ecartele,forn topieces by four 

horses 

32 demanderent, asked for 

33 accorda, granted. 

34 la honte, the shame 

35 decapite, beheaded 

36 douceur, kindness, good na- 

ture 

37 en vain aussi, in vain also 

38 Elle ne reussit, she did not 

succeed 

39 inouies, unheard 

40 tendresse, affection. 

41 qui la lui ceda a poids d'or, 

who sold it (or gave) for an 
exceedingly high price. 



42 la plus profonde, the deepest 

43 ou elle resta, where she lived 

44 unedouleurininterrompue, 

in an uninterrupted grief 

45 fatigue d 1 elle, tired of her 

46 la fit accuser faussement d', 

caused her to be accused on 
the false pretext of 

47 qui avaient des ordres en 

consequence, who had or- 
ders for 

48 elle suivit de pres, she fol- 

lowed near 
47 Tour, state prison in London 

50 avec tous les siens, with all 

her relations 

51 Ce jour-la raeme, That same 

day 

52 assistait a une partie de 

chasse, was of a hunting 
party 

53 le lendemain, the next day 

54 laquelle mourut peu apres, 

who then died a little after 

55 en donnant le jour a un fils, 

while giving birth to a son 

56 plus tard, later 

hi qu' on ne la lui avait pas re- 
presentee, that they had 
represented her 

58 on elle paraissait plus belle, 

where she appeared prettier 

59 disant, saying. 

60 qu' on ne lui avait amene, 

that they had not brought to 
him but 

61 unejument, a mare 

62 de T avoir trompe, of having 

deceived (or) cheated (or) 
betrayed him 

63 bassenient, meanly 

64 asservit, enslaved 

65 a son tour, on her turn. 



French Speak 



301 



66 eut la tete tranchee, was be- 

headed 

67 avait ose, had dared 

68 tres pique, much htrrt 

69 ne lui en repondit ruot, did 

not answer a word to her 

70 ncmobstaiit, notwithstanding 

71 contre elle, against her 

72 ayant conau, having known 

73 ce qui allait lui arriver, that 

was going to happen to her 

74 elle chercha et trouva le 

moyen de dire. sh e inquired 
and found the means of say- 
ing 

75 autrement, otherwise 

76 avait le droit, had the right 

77 et que si elle avait ose aller 

jusqu' a, and if she had 
dared to go until 

78 pour qu' il voulut bieu re- 

claimer, in order to be in- 
structed by him 

79 muni, bearing 

80 en 1'accablant des, loading 

him wit I, 

81 les plus grossieres, the rud- 

est 

82 Lovelace, hero of a novel 

written by Clansse Har- 
lowe, personifying immor- 
ality 

83 inebranlable, firm 

84 avait du fair, had been com- 

pelled to fiy away 

85 s' enfuit, flew away, escaped, 

ran away from 

86 au milieu de la foule, among 

the crowd 

87 levee, raised 

88 Apres 1' avoir atteinte d' un 

coup, after having give)) 
her a stroke 



89 qui 1' abattit a ses pieds, 

which made her fall down at 
his feet 

90 il 1' acheva sur place, he 

killed her on the spot 

91 plus coupable, more guilty 

92 tint tete, resisted 

93 dut. owed 

94 decrete d' accusation, a writ 

having been issued for his 
arrest 

95 demanda coinpte, asked 

about 

96 sans detour, without turning 

97 quoiqu' il le sut poursuivi, 

though he knew that he was 
going to be arrested. 

98 dont il avait ete autrefois 

1' objet, which he had receiv- 
ed formerly 

99 de sa part, from 

100 afln de le sonstraire aux, in 

order to keep him away 
from 

101 reeherches, researches 

102 telle reponse, s*tc/i an ansirer 

103 qui denotait taut de desin- 

volture et de franchise, 
showing as much of free do- 
ing and of boldness 
101 frappe, surp>rised 

105 de trouver, of finding 

106 corarne aussi exempt de, as 

also free of 

107 de toute, of any 

108 crainte, fear 

109 tant, so much 

110 le sort de tant d' autres mal- 

lievLvexisiJhe fate of so many 
unfortunate people 

111 droiture, righteousness 

112 ils connaitraient nxieuxfhey 

should know better 



302 



French Speaker. 



113 la reconnaissance qu' ils mc 

doivent, how thankful they 
ought to be to me 

114 sur-le-champ, directly 

115 chevalier, knight 

116 insatiable debauche, insati- 

able rake 



117 une tache honteuse et san- 

glante an ignominious and 
bloody spot 

118 transmettra, will transmit 

119 lointaine, far 



This consonant is mute in the body of the following- 
words : 



compter pronounce om as 

to count. on in monk, m 

mute, er as a in 

fate. 
dompter pronounce om as 

to conquer, on in monk, m 

to vayiquish. mute, er as a in 

fate. 

And in their derivatives. 



P is mute also in : 

pronounce a as ah, 
em as the conso- 
nant m long and 
broad. 

pronounce a as ah, 
i as in city, s as 
z, er as a infate. 

But p is sounded in : 

baptismal pronounce a as ah, 

tis as in tissue, 
al as in salva- 
tion. 
pronounce baplis 
as above, aire as 
air in fair, 
baptiste as in En- 
glish. 



bapteme 

baptism 



baptiser 

to baptize. 



baptismal. 



exempter 

to exempt. 



sculpter 

to engrave. 



baptiseur 

baptizer. 



pronounce ex as 
egs, em as an in 
want, m mute,er 
as a infate. 

pronounce sc as sk, 
u as in French, 
I sounded, e?*as 
a in fate. 



pronounce a as ah, 
i as in city, s as 
z, eur as ur in 
fur, broad. 



baptistaire 

certificate of 
baptism. 
baptiste 
baptist. 

P is mute in : 
prompt pronounce ompt as on in monk, mpt mute. 

prompt, quick. 



baptist ere pronounce a as ah, 



book for the 
ceremony of 
baptism. 
sceptre 

dominion. 



i as in city, ere as 
ere in there. 



pronounce sc as s 
hard, e as in net, 
p sounded, tr 
also, e mute. 



French Speaker. 



303 



But not in : 

promptitude pronounce om as in 
promptitude. monk, m mute, p 
sounded, i as in 
city, u as French 
u, d sounded, e 
mute. 



promipteraent pronounce om as 
promptly. on in monk, m 

in ute,p sounded, 
t sounded, e as u 
in tub, ent as an 
in want,nt mute. 



P ending words is silent, even when followed by 



corps pronounce orps as 01 

corpse, body, in nor. 



temps 

time. 
drap 

cloth. 
trop 

too much. 
galop 

great haste 

galloping, 

dance. 

coup pronounce 

stroke, in too. 

knock, hit. 



pronounce emps as an 

in want, mps mute, 
pronounce ap as ah, 

broad, 
pronounce op as o in 

not. 
pronounce a as ah, op 

as o in not, both 

broad. 

oup as oo 



camp pronounce amp as an 

camp. in want, mp mute. 

beaucoup pronounce eau as o in 
much,many. do, oup as oo in too. 



champ 


pronounce ch as sh, 


field. 


amp as an in want, 




mp mute. 


loup 


pronounce oup as oo 


wolf. 


in too. 


sirop 


pronounce si as ci in 


syrup. 


ci'^2/, op as o in no<. 


sept* 


pronounce as English 


seven. 


set. 



Except in the words given 
sounded in the body of words. 
PP is sounded as one p. 



on page 302, p is generally 



Trente-quatrieme Exercice de Lecture sUr les Idiomes. 



i You will not agree with 

2 unless you may be 

3 very prudent *and armed with 

patience 
Were you not on bad terms with 

your uncle, last year? 
i if we had such a disagreement 

with him 2 now 
3 so much better friends 



Vous nevous accorderezpas 1 avec 
vos voisins, & moins que vous 
soyez% plein de prudence* et 
arme de patience.^ 

N 1 etiez-vous pas en contradiction 
avec votre oncle V an passe? 

Oui, mais si nous avons ete si fort 
en desacord, 1 nous sommes ft 
present* d 1 aitiant mieux remis. 3 



*But p is sounded in septante (seventy), in the whole series to 
septan te-neuf (seventy-nine), in septuagenaire (seventy years old), 
and m septuagesime (septuagesima) , etc. 



304 



French Speaker. 



Do you agree with your aunt 
also? 

1 but in my opinion, 2it is easier to 
get along with her 3 than with 
my uncle, who, 4 with his defect of 
being a capricious man, 5 is how- 
ever very honest, 6 I acknowl- 
edge it 

1 Do you know Entirely 

1 I know some of it 2 I do not 

know it 3 entirely 
1 In the main 21 believe that 
3 was not wrong* to scold him well 

1 Entirely well 3 I agree with you 

3 I was assured before 

4 was right 

5 all over the line (or) the point 

i Somebody told me confidentially 
this morning 2 that war was go- 
ing to be declared 



Etes-vous cV accord avec voire 
I ante aussi? 

Oui, mais a mon avis, 1 elle est plus 
facile a conduire 2 que mon oncle 
qui, 5 avec son defaut d J etre ca- 
pricieux,^ est pourtant un tres 
brave homme, 5 je le reconnais. 6 

Connaissez-vous 1 cette histoire a 

fond ?2 
J en sais un peu, 1 mais je ne la 

connais pas* a fond. 3 
Au fond, 1 je crois que z son pere 

?i' eul pas tort 3 de lui faire un 

bon savon.^ 
Du tout au tout, 1 je pense comme 

vous, 2 etj'etais assured 1 avance 3 

que le pere etait dans son droits 

sur tout la ligne.$ 
On m' a glisse ce matin 1 que la 

guerre allait etre de'claree* en 

Europe. 



This consonant is sounded as k 



bouquet 


pronounce oh as oo 


quotidien 


bouquet. 


in too, u silent, e 
as in net, t mute. 


daily. 


chaque 


pronounce ch as sh, 




each. 


a as ah, u mute, e 






final also. 


question 


cheque 


pronounce ch as sh, e 


question. 


check. 


as ai in said, ue 
mute. 




quolibet 


pronounce u mute, 




low joke. 


o as in not, li as 


quelqu' un 




in lip, e as in net, 


some one. 




t mute. 




liquide 


pronounce first i as 




liquid. 


in city, 2d i as En- 
glish e, u mute, d 
sounded, e mute. 





pronounce : u silent, 
o as hi not, ti as in 
tip, i combined 
with en as an in 
sank, n mute. 

pronounce u mute, 
es as in esteem, t 
hard as t, i com- 
bined with o n as in 
monk, n mute. 

pronounce : u mute, 
el as ell in bell, 
second n mute, un 
as in hunter, n 
mute. 



French Speahei 



30; 



Q is sounded in cinq {five) when this word is followed by 
another word beginning- by a vowel or a mate k, and when 
the number cinq is expressed alone. But in cinq followed 
by a consonant, q is silent : 



ciuq anes pronounce cinq as 

jive asses. sank, n mute, 

dnes as an in fan, 

but longer and 

broad. 

cinq homines pronounce cinq as 

jive men. above, homines as 

om in Tom broad. 

1 ce 2cinq 3 est *petit pronounce *c 

this Jive as 5 hard, e as u 

is small. in tub, %cinq as 

above, 3 est as e in 

net, st mute, *e 

as u in tub, tit as 

ti in tip. 

cinq tableaux pronounce cinq as 

jive pictures. san in sank, n 

mute, a as ah, 

eaux as in ?io. 



cinq chiens 

jive dogs. 



cinq crayons 

jive pencils. 



cinq livres 

/fye books. 



pronounce cinq as 
s«« in sank, n 
mute, ch as sh, i 
combined with 
ens as aw in sank, 
ns silent. 

pronounce cinq as 
above, n mute, 
cray with aj/ as 
in may, ons as 
on in monk, ns 
mute, y is used 
for two Vs. 

pronounce cinq as 
above, i as En- 
glish e, vr sound- 
ed, es mute. 



306 



French Speaker. 



DEUXIEME CONJUGAISON (SECOND CONJU- 
GATION) SAISIR*— (To seize, to grasp.) 

ACTIVE AND REGULAR VERB— (AFFIRMATIVE FORM). 



MODE INDICATIF. 



Present. 



Je sais is, I seize. 

tu sais is. 

il sais it. 

nous sais issous. 

vous sais issez. 

ils sais issent. 



Imparfait. 

Je sais issais, I was seizing. 

tu sais issais. 

il sais issait. 

nous sais issions. 

vous sais issiez. 

ils sais issaient. 



See how to form the Compound tenses Premiere Conju- 
gaison, page 



Passe indefini. 

J' ai saisi, etc., I have seized. 



Plus que parfait. 

J' avais saisi, etc-, I had seized. 



Passe deftni. 



Je sais is, I seized. 

tu sais is. 

il sais it. 

nous sais iraes. 

vous sais ites. 

il sais irent. 



Futur. 

Je sais irai, I will seize. 

tu sais iras. 

il sais ira. 

nous sais irons. 

vous sais irez. 

ils sais iront. 



Passe anterieur. 

J' eus saisi, etc., I had seized. 



Futur anterieur. 

J' aurai saisi, etc., I will have 
seized. 



* The first 5 is sounded hard as in sea, and the second as z ; ir has 
the sound of ere in here. — The past participle of the regular verbs of 
the second conjugation is obtained by taking off the r of the end ir ; 
thus, finir (to finish), fini ; saisir — saisi. 



French Speaker. 

MODE COXDITIOXXEL. 



307 



Present. 

Je saisirais. I should, could, would J' aurais saisi. etc., I should, could, 
o r m ight seize. ic<;> uld have 

tu sais irais. seized. 

il sais irait. 
nous sais irions. 
vous sais iriez. 
ils sais iraient. 

MODE DIPEKAlIF. 

sais is — seize (t/ioa.) 
sais issons — let us seize. 
sais issez — seize (you.) 



MODE SUBJOXCTIF. 



Present. 

Que je sais isse. That I may seize. 

que tu sais isses 

qu' il sais isse. 

que nous Sais issions. 

que vous sais issiez. 

qu' ils sais issent. 

Passe. 



Imparfait. 

Q ue j e sais i sse. Th at I m igh tse : . 

que tu sais isses. 

qu'il sais it. 

que nous sais issions. 

que vous sais issiez. 

qu' ils sais issent. 

Plus que parfait. 



Que j'aie saisi. etc.. That I may have Que j'eusse saisi. etc.. 27* a? I might 

seized. have seized. 



MODE IXFIXITEF. 



Present. 
Sais ir. To seize. 



Participe present. 
Sais issant seizing. 



Participe passe. Participe present compose. 

Sais i (mas.) seized, sais ie (fern. ) Ayant saisi. having seized. 

Participe passe compose. 
Avoir saisi. To Jui.ce seized. 



308 



French Speaker. 



Conjugate in the same manner 



[The verbs of the following list having an asterisk are neutral verbs. ] 

Abol ir, to abolish. 

*about ir, to come to, to end in 

abrut ir, to render stupid, to stu- 



pify. 

accompl ir, to accomplish. 

adouc ir, to so/ten, to alleviate, to 
mitigate. 

*ag ir, to act, to work, to operate. 

aguerr ir, to inure to war. 

amine ir, to make thin or slender, 
to lessen. 

amort ir, to deaden, to moderate. 

an6ant ir, to annihilate. 

apian ir, to level, to smooth. 

aplat ir, to flatten. 

applaud ir, to applaud. 

assain ir, to promote the health of. 

assort ir, to match, to suit. 

assoup ir, to make sleepy. 

avil ir, to render contemptible, to 
depreciate. 

bann ir, to banish. 

bat ir, to build. 

ben ir, to bless, to consecrate. 

bl§m ir, to grow pale. 

brand ir, to brandish. 

brun ir, to make brown, to bur- 
nish. 

cher ir, to cherish. 

convert ir, to convert, to trans- 
mute. 

cr6p ir, to rough-cast, to parget. 

*croup ir, to stand, to lie, to wal- 
low. 

d6fin ir, to determine, to decide. 

dgmol ir, to demolish, to pull 
down. 

dure ir, to harden. 

Sblou ir, to dazzle, to beguile. 

e"clairc ir, to clear, to clarify. 

embell ir, to embellish, to adorn. 



empl ir, to fill. 

enfou ir, to hide, to bury. 

ennobl ir, to ennoble. 

enrich ir, to enrich, to adorn. 

ensevel ir, to put in a shroud, to 

bury. 
etabl ir, to establish. 
fare ir, to stuff, to cram. 
fin ir, to finish, to end. 
*fleur ir, to blossom, to bloom. 
fourn ir, to furnish, to provide, to 

supply. 
*fr6in ir, to quiver, to shake, to 

rage. 
garant ir, to guarantee, to affirm. 
garn ir, to garnish, to trim, to 

furnish. 
*g6m ir, to groan, to moan. 
*grand ir, to grow. 
*gu6r ir, to recover from an ill- 
ness. 
gross ir, to increase, to swell. 
ha ir, to hate. 
*henn ir, to neigh. 
invest ir, to invest. 
jaill ir, to spout out, to spurt out. 
*jou ir, to enjoy, to possess. 
*langu ir, to languish. 
*maigr ir, to grow lean, to fall 

away. 
*moll ir, to soften, to grow soft 
mun ir, to supply, to provide. 
*mur ir, to ripen, to mature. 
nant ir, to give as a pledge (or) 

security. 
*obe ir, to obey, to bend. 
obscure ir, to obscure, to darken. 
ourd ir, to warp, to plot. 
*pal ir, to grow pale. 
petr ir, to bake, to knead. 
*per ir, to perish. 



French Speaker. 



309 



pol ir, to polish, to civilize. 

*pourr ir, to rot, to grow putrid. 

raccourc ir, to shorten. 

rafraich ir, to refresh, to cool, to 
refit (or) repair. 

rav ir, to ravish, to take away, to 
steal. 

*r6flech ir,f to consider attentive- 
ly, to reflect. 

refroid ir, to make cold, to quiet. 

r6g ir, to govern, to rule, to man- 
age. 

r6tr6c ir, to make narrow. 

reun ir, to reunite, to annex, to 
combine. 



*reuss ir, to succeed, to prosper. 

rot ir, to roast, to burn. 

rouss ir, to grow red, to make 

look red. 
sais ir, to seize. 

sal ir, to soil, to dirty, to tarnish. 
sub ir, to undergo, to suffer. 
*surg ir, to rise, to land. 
*sur ir, to grow sour. 
tar ir, to train, to dry. 
*trans ir, to chill, to shiver, to 

quake. 
verd ir, to become green. 
*vieill ir. to grow old, to grow out 

of date. 



For the Negative, Interrogative and Negative-Interroga- 
tive forms, conjugate the verbs ending in ir from the indi- 
cation given, pages 282, 283, for those of the first conjugation. 



R. 



II final after the vowels 



a, i, o, u, 



y is sounded : 



car pronounce as in En- 

for, because, glish. 

par pronounce ar as in 

by. car. 

obeir pronounce o as in not, 

to obey. 6 as a in fate, ir as 

ere in here. 

sentir pronounce en as an in 

to feel. want, n mute, ir as 

ere in here. 

pouvoir pronounce ou as oo in 

to be able. too, oir as o combin- 
ed with ar as in 
car. 



avoir pronounce a as ah, oir 

to have. as o combined with 

ar as in car. 
honheur pronounce on as on, 
happiness. eur as ur in fur, 

broad. 
malheur pronounce al as al in 
misfortune, salvation, eur as ur 

in fur, broad. 
peur pronounce eur as ur 

fear. in fur, broad. 

Tyr pronounce yr as eer in 

city in A sia deer, 
(history.) 



For r final following e, see pages , Second Part. 

f According to their signification some of the neutral verbs above 
may be considered as active verbs. 



310 French Speaker. 

R final is not sounded in the words : 



Monsieur pronounce on as o in 

Sir, Mister, mother, shard, ieur: 

i diphthong with eu 

as between French u 

and u of us. 



Messieurs pronounce Mess as 
Misters. mess, ieurs — diph- 

thong—as between 
French u and u oi* 
us, rs mute. 



RR. 



The second r is sounded in words beginning by 



irr 



irrespectueux pronounce %r as ere 
disrespectful. 



in here, res as in 

rest, pec asin re- 
spect, u as in 

French, eux as 

between French 

m and ?« of us. 
pronounce ir as ere 

in here, e as a in 

fate, a as ah, a 

as in lad, b I 

sounded, e mute, 
pronounce ir as ere 

in here, i as in 

city, er as a in 

fate. 

Both rr's are sounded also in the following words : 
pronounce horr as in 

horror, eur as ur in 

fur, broad, 
pronounce err as ere 

in there, eur as -wr 

in /wr, broad. 



irreparable 

irreparable. 



irr iter 

to irritate. 



irreverent pronounce ir as ere 
irreverent. in here, both e's 

as a in /a£e, ew£ 
as an in want, n 
mute. 
irreprochable pronounce irr as 
irreproachable, ere in Aere, e as 
a in fate, o as in 
not, a as in £arf 
long, bl sounded, 
e mute, 
pronounce irr as 
ere in here, e" as 
a in/a£e, o as in 
wo<, a as in lad 
long, 5 /sounded. 



irrevocable 

irrevocable. 



horreur 

horror. 

Terreur 

epoch of the 
French revo 
lution. 
terrible 

terrible. 



horrible 

horrible. 
torrefter 

to torrefy, 
to roast. 



pronounce err as ere 
in there, i as English 
e, bl sounded in 
diphthong, e mute. 

pronounce horr as in 
horror, ible as above 

pronounce torr as in 
torrefy, e as a in 

fate, i combined 
with er as a in fate. 



torrent 


pronounce torr as in 


flow, flood. 


torrefy, ent, as an 




in w ant, nt mute. 


torride 


pronounce toi r as in 


torrid. 


torrefy, i as En- 




glish e,d sounded, 




e mute. 


arriere 


pronounce ar as in 


back. 


parlor, % combined 




with ere as ere in 




there. 


erreur 


pronounce err as ere 


error, mis- 


in there, eur as ur 


take. 


in fur, broad. 


errato 


pronounce err as ere 


mistake in 


in there, both a 7 s 


printing. 


as ah, o as in no. 



French Speaker. 



311 



There are some more words where rr are both sounded, 
but this doubled consonant is generally sounded as one r : 



terre 


pronounce erre as 


arreter 


pronounce arr as ar 


earth, 


ere in there. 


to arrest. 


in parlor, e as e in 


ground. 






we£, er as a in /ate. 


serre 


pronounce erre as 


arroser 


pronounce a?-?- as ar 


green-house 


ere in there. 


to sprinkle. 


in parlor, o as in 


talon of a bird 




wo£, s as z, er as a 


of prey. 




- 


in /«(!e. 


arranger 


pronounce arr as ar 


arriver 


pronounce arr as ar 


to arrange, 


in parlor, an as in 


to arrive. 


in parlor, i as in 


to fix. 


want, n mute, g 
soft as j, er as a in 
fate. 

S 




city, eras a in fate. 


When s 


begins words its so 


und is always hard as in son, 


as in sea : 








secours 


pronounce e as u in 


soif 


pronounce oi as wa 


help, assis- 


tub, ours as oor in 


thirst. 


of was, f sounded. 


tants. 


poor. 


sucre 


pronounce u as 


signe 


pronounce si as ci in 


SMgrar. 


French u, cr sound- 


sign, signal. 


ci£?/, #n as in mig- 




ed, e mute. 




nonette, e mute. 


suer 


pronouuce u as 


soir 


pronounce oir as o 


to sweat, to 


French u, er as a 


evening. 


combined with ar 


perspire. 


in fate (two sylla- 




of ca?\ 




bles. ) 



When s beginning- words is followed by eh, sch is pro- 
nounced as English sh : 



scherif pronounce e as a in 

sheriff. fate, if as if . 

schisme pronounce is as in 

schism. fist, m sounded, e 

mute. 



schiste pronounce is as in 

schist e, slate, fist, t sounded, e 
clay-slate. mute. 

Schah pronounce a as ah, 

king of Persia, broad. 



When s beginning words is followed by c, sc sounds as 
hard before the vowels e and i : 



sceptre 

sceptre, do- 
minion. 



pronounce e as m 
net, p sounded, tr 
sounded, e mute. 



scene 

scene. 



pronounce e as ai in 
nail, n sounded, e 
mute. 



312 

scelerat 

villainous, 
scoundrel. 
sceau. 

sciure 

saw-dust. 



French Speaker. 



pronounce both e's 
as a in fate, at as 
ah. 

pronounce eau as o 
in no. 

pronounce sci as ci 
in city, u as in 
French, r rolled. 



escient 



pronounce es as in 



knowledge,in est eem,ci as in city, 
good earnest, combined with ent 

as an in want, nt 

mute. 



S between two vowels or between a vowel and an h, has 
the sound of z ; it sounds the same in words beginning by 
the Latin preposition trans, though following- the conso- 
nant n : 



rose 

rose. 
chemise 

shirt. 

alose 

shad. 

fraterniser 

to live like 
brothers. 



transatlantiq 

transatlantic. 



pronounce as in 
English. 

pronounce e as u 
in tub, i as En- 
glish e,emute. 

pronounce a as 
ah,o as in nose, 
e mute. 

pronounce a as 
ah, er as ere in 
there, i as in 
city, er as a in 
fate. 
[ue pronounce both 
an's as in want 
n mute, a as 
ah, tl sounded 
in diphthong — 
tique as tick. 



transaction 

transaction. 



deshabille 

undress, morn- 
ing-wrapper. 



deshonneur 

dishonor. 



pronounce an as 
in want, n 
mute, a as ah, 
t as 5 hard, i 
combined with 
on as in monk, 
n mute. 

pronounce both 
e's as a in fate, 
h mute, a as 
ah, i as in city, 
11 as y combin- 
ed with e. 

pronounce e as a 

in fate, h mute, 

onn as on, eur 

as ur in fur, 

broad. 



S is sounded also as z in a few words though not between 
two vowels : 



Alsace 

country of 
Germany 
since 1871. 
balsam in e 

balsamine. 



pronounce Al as in 
salvatio'n, a as ah, 
c as 5 hard,e mute. 

pronounce al as in 

salvation, a as ah, 
inc as in. 



balsamique pronounce al as al 
balsamic. in salvation,mique 

as mik, with i as 

in city. 



French Speaker. 



313 



When a word beginning- with s takes a prefix, s, though it 
may be between two vowels, retains its hard sound: 



vraisemblable pronounce ai as 

likely, probable, ay in may, em 

as an in want, 

m mute, a as in 

lad,bl sounded, 

e mute. 

resaluer pronounce e as u 

to salute again. in tub, a as ah, 

u as French u, 

er as a in fate. 



monosyllabe pronounce monosy 



monosyllable. 



resigner 

to sign again. 



as in English, 
a as in lad, b 
sounded, e mute 
pronounce e as u 
in tub, si as ci 
in city, gn as in 
mignonette, er 
as a in fate. 



S ending- the following words is sounded in : 



cens 

census. 

*mais 

corn. 
*moeurs 

manners. 

vis 

screw. 

Reims 

city of 

France. 

fils 

son. 

sens 



pronounce c as s hard, 

en as an in want, n 

mute, 
pronounce a as ah, is 

as is. 
pronounce oeur as ur 

in fur. 
pronounce is as is. 

pronounce eim as aw 
in sank, m mute. 



pronounce Us as is in 

pronounce en as an in 
signification, want, n mute. 
lis pronounce is as is. 

lily. 



*Mars 


pronounce ar as in 


3d month 


parlor. 


of the year 




*tandis 


pronounce an as in 


whilst, 


want, n mute, is as 


while. 


is. 


ftous 


pronounce ous as uss 


all. 


in puss. 


jadis 


pronounce j soft as in 


formerly. 


bijou, is as is. 


*plus 


pronounce u as in 


more. 


French. 


*ours 


pronounce our as oor 


bear. 


in poor. 


helas ! 


pronounce h mute, e 


alas ! 


as a in fate, as as 




as. 



But s is silent in : 

sens pronounce ens as an 

our natural in want, keeping ns 
faculties. mute. 



fleur-de-lis pronounce eur as ur 

lily flower. in fur broad, e as u 

in but, is as i in city. 



*Many people sound the 5 in these words. 

f When a pronoun, s is sounded in ious ; s is mute in tous when it 
precedes an article followed by a noun, tous determining also this 
noun. 



314 



French Speaker. 



S ending- Latin and foreign words is sounded also : 



gratis 

free, gratis. 
t>locus 

blockade. 

angelus 

prayer. 



pronounce a as 

ah, is as is. 
pronounce o as in 

not, u as u in 

French, 
pronounce an as 

in want n mute, 

g soft, e as u in 

tub, u as u in 

French. 



Atlas 

mountain 
in Africa. 
Negus 

King of 
Abyssinia 



pronounce At as 
at, las as lass. 



pronounce e as a 
in fate, g as in 
game, u as in 
French. 
habeas-corpus pronounce ha as 
warrant. ah, e as a in fate, 

as as as, u as in 
French. 



S is sounded in the body of words : 



estime 

esteem. 

prestation 

prestation. 



testament 

testament, 
will. 



pronounce es as in es- 
teem, ime as im in 
him. 

pronounce es as in es- 
teem, a as ah, t as 5 
hard, i combined 
with on as in monk 
n mute. 

pronounce es as in es- 
teem, a as ah, ent as 
an in want, n mute. 



faste pronounce as as as, t 

pageantry, sounded, e mute. 
magnificence. 

destinee pronounce es as in es- 
fate, teem, i as in city, e" 

desti7iy. as a in fate, e slight- 

ly accented. 
distance pronounce is as is, aw 
distance. as an in want, n 

mute, c as * hard, 
e mute. 



S is silent in the third person singular, present tense, in- 
dicative mood, of the verb etre (to be), and in the body of 
words having for prefix les and des : 



il est pronounce il as ill, est 

he is. as e in net, st mute. 

lesquels pronounce es as e in 

which ones, net, s mute, u mute, 
els as ell in bell. 



desquelles pronounce es as e in 
of which, net, s mute, u mute, 
from which, elles as ell in bell. 



Except in the words given above, pag-es 313, 314, s ending- 
French words is always mute : 

des 

of the. 
les 

the. 



pronounce es as e 


mes 


pronounce es do. 


in net. 


my. 




pronounce es do. 


ses 
his, her. 


pronounce es do. 



French Speaker. 



315 



ils (mas.) 


pronounce as ill. 


Louis 


pronounce ou as oo 


they. 




Louis. 


in too, is as i in 


elles (fern.) 


pronounce as ell in 


. 


city. 


they, them. 


bell. 


Thomas 


pronounce Th as t, 


dans 


pronounce as an in 


Thomas. 


o as in not, as as 


in. 


want, ns mute. 




ah. 


alors 


pronounce a as ah, 


divers 


pronounce ias En- 


then. 


ors as ore. 


diverse, 


glish e, ers as ere 


clous 


pronounce ous as 


different. 


in there. 


nails. 


oo in too. 


vous etes 


pronounce ous as 


*tous 


pronounce as too, 


yon are. 


oo in too, 6 as e 


all. 


or ous as uss in 




in net,t sounded, 




puss. 




es mute. 


livres 


pronounce i as En- 


nous donnons 


pronounce ous as 


books. 


glish e, vr sound- 


we give. 


oo in too, onn as 




ed, es mute. 




on, ons as on in 


crayons 


pronounce y for 




monk, ns mute. 


pencils. 


two i's, ay as in 


tu recois 


pronounce u as in 




may, ons as on 


thou receivest. 


French, e as u in 




in monk,ns mute 




in £w&, 5 as s 


plumes 


pronounce u as in 




hard, ois as wa 


pens. 


French, m sound- 
ed, es mute. 




in w as. 



ss. 



This double consonant has the sound hard as in English, 
or as s beginning* words. 



*When an adjective. 



316 French Speaker. 



CONJUGATION OP THE IRREGULAR VERBS 
OP THE SECOND CONJUGATION. 

The verbs venir (to come), advenir (to happen), circonve- 
nir (to circumvent, to cheat), devenir (to become), intervenir 
(to intervene, to come betiveen), parvenir (to reach to), revenir 
(to come back), convenir (to agree), prevenir (to prevent, to 
inform), provenir (to proceed from), having for model the 
first, venir, follow in all the same method of conjugation ; 
if we consider their common end enir, we may say they are 
regular among them, enir being subject to the same changes 
for all in their course of conjugation, and the prefixes placed 
before enir not changing at all. They are all neutral verbs 
and, save cir convenir, which takes avoir as auxiliary, the 
others are conjugated with etre. 

The same theory is to be followed exactly for the verbs 
tenir (to hold), appartenir (to belong), contenir (to contain), 
detenir (to detain), entretenir (to entertain), obtenir (to 
obtain), soutenir (to support), appartenir (to belong), mainte- 
nir) to maintain.) 

Among these, appartenir is the sole neutral verb ; the 
others, tenir, etc., are active verbs, and they are all conju- 
gated with the auxiliary avoir. 

Venir.* 

MODE INDICATIF. 

Present. Imparfait. 

Je viens, I come. Je ven ais, I was coming. 

tu viens. tu ven ais. 

il vient, il ven ait. 

nous ven cms. nous ven ions. 

vous ven ex. vous ven iez. 

ils viennent. ils ven aieat. 

*A11 verbs of the categories above form their past participle by 
changing the end of their infinitif ir to u ; example, venir — venu, 
tenir — tenu. 



French Speak 



er. 



317 



Passe iudenni. 
Je suis venu, etc., I have come. 

Passe defini. 
Je vins, T came. 
tu vins. 
il vint. 
nous vinmes. 
vous vintes. 
ils vinrent. 

Passe anterieur. 

Je fus venu, etc., I had come. 



Plus que parfait. 
J' etais venu, etc., I had come. 

Futur. 
Je vien drai, I will come. 
tu vien dras. 
il vien dra. 
nous vien drons. 
vous vien drez. 
ils vien dront. 

Futur anterieur. 

Je serai venu. Twill have come. 



MODE COXDITIOXNEL. 



Present. 
Je vien drais, I should come. 
tu vien drais. 
il vien drait. 
nous vien drions. 
vous vien driez. 
ils vien draient. 

MODE FMPERAT1F. 

viens — come (thou.) 
ven oxtis— let us come. 
ven ez — come (you.) 

MODE STJBJOXCTIF 



Passe. 

Je serais venu, etc., I should have 
come. 



Imparfait. 

Que je vin sse, That I might come. 

que tu vin sses. 

qu' il vin t. 

que nous vin ssious. 

que vous vin ssiez. 

qu' ils vin ssent. 

Plus que parfait. 

Que je sois venu, etc., That I may Que je fusse venu, etc., Tha* I'm ight 
have come. have come. 



Present. 
Que je vien 7ie, That T may come. 
que tu vien nes. 
qu' il vien ne. 
que nous ven ions. 
que vous ven iez. 
qu' ils vien nent. 



Present. 

Ven ir, To come. 



MODE INFINITIF. 

Participe present. 
Ven ant, Coming. 



318 



French Speaker. 



Participe passe Participe present compose, 

ven u (mas. ) come, ven ue (fern.) 6tant venu, having come. 
Participe passe compose, 
etre venu, To have come. 



Tenir. 



MODE 1NDICATIF. 



Present. 
Je tiens, I hold. 
tu tiens. 
il tient. 
nous ten ons. 
vous ten ez. 
ils tien nent. 

Passe indefini. 
J'ai tenu, etc. , I have held. 

Passe defini. 
Je tins, I held. 
tu tins. 
il tint. 

nous tin mes. 
vous tin tes. 
ils tin rent. 

Passe anterieur. 

J' eus tenu, etc., I had held. 



Imparfait. 
Je ten ais, I was holding. 
tu ten ais. 
il ten ait. 
nous ten ions. 
vous ten iez. 
ils ten aient. 

Plus que parfait. 
J' avais tenu, I had held. 

Futur. 
Je tien drai, I will hold. 
tu tien dras. 
il tien dra. 
nous tien droas. 
vous tien drez. 
il tien dront. 

Futur anterieur. 

J' aurai tenvL.etc.,1 will have held. 



MODE CONDiTIONNEL. 

Present. 



Je tien drais, I should hold. 

tu tien drais. 

il tien drait. 

nous tien drions. 

vous tien driez. 

ils tien draient. 



J' aurais tenu, etc., I should have 
held. 



MODE IMPERATIF. 

tiens — hold (thou.) 
ten ons — let us hold. 
ten ez — hold (you.) 



French Speaker. 

MODE SUBJONCTIF. 



319 



Present. 

Que je tien ne, That I may hold. 

que tu tien nes. 

qu' il tien ne. 

que nous ten ions. 

que vous ten iez. 

qu' ils tien nent. 



That I may 
have held. 



Que j' aie tenu, etc., 



Imparfait. 

Que je tin sse, That I might hold. 

que tu tin sses. 

qu' il tint. 

que nous tin ssions. 

que vous tin ssiez. 

qu' ils tin ssent. 

Plus que parfait. 

Que j' eusse tenu,etc, That I might 
have held. 



MODE INFINITIF. 



Present. 

ten ir, To hold. 

Participe passe. 

ten u (mas.) held, ten ue (fern.) 



Participe present. 
Ten ant, holding. 

Participe present compose. 

Ayant tenu, having held. 



Participe passe compose. 

avoir tenu, To have held. 



T. 

This consonant sounds as s hard in the combinations tial, 
tiel, tien, tion, atie, etie, eptie, otie, utie and in the verbs whose 
infinitive are tier and utier : 



abbatial 

abbatial, 
abbot's. 

essentiel 

essential. 



Venitien 

Venitian. 



pronounce both a's 
as ah, i combined 
with al as in salva- 
tion. 

pronounce ess as in 
esteem, en as an in 
want, n mute, % 
combined with el 
as ell in bell. 

pronounce Ye with 
& as a in fate, ni as 
in nip, i combined 
with en as an in 
sank, n mute. 



mention pronounce en as an 
mention. in want, n mute, i 

combined with on 

asinracm&,7imute. 
suprematie pronounce u as in 
supremacy. French, e as a in 

fate, a as ah, tie as 

see. 
facetie pronounce a as ah, c 

facetiotisness. as s hard, tie as 

see. 
ineptie pronounce i as En- 

ineptness, glish e, eas in nei,p 

silliness. sounded, tie as see. 



320 



French Speaker. 



Venitie 


pronounce e as a in 


minutie 


pronounce i as in 


territory of 


fate, ni as in nip, 


trifle. 


city, u as in French, 


the republic 


tie as see. 




tie as see. 


of Venice. 




balbutier 


pronounce al as in 


initier 


pronounce both i's 


to stammer, 


salvation, u as in 


to initiate. 


as in city, i com- 


to stutter. 


French, tier same 




bined with er as 




as in initier, with 




a in fate. 




t as s hard. 



T keeps its proper sound in the conjugation of verbs, 
the combinations tien. tions, tiez : 



je soutiens pronounce j as in 

I support. bijou, e as u in 

tub, ou as oo in 
too, i combined 
with ens as an in 
sank, ns mute. 
nous habitions pronounce ous as 
we were living. oo in t o o , h 
mute, a as ah, bi 
as in bit, i com- 
bined with ons 
as on in monk, 
ns mute, 
vous etiez pronounce ous as 

you were. oo in too, e as a 

in /a£e, i com- 
bined with ez as 
a in/a^e. 



vous portiez pronounce ous as 
2/cm were bear- oo in £00, or as 
ina. in porter, tiez 

as above. 

nous sentions pronounce ous as 

we were feeling. 00 in too, ew as 

an in want, n 

mute, tions as 

in habitions 

above. 

vous mentiez pronounce cms as 

you were lying. 00 in too, en as 

an in want, tiez 

as in etiez above 



When s 
sound : 



precedes tied and Hon, t keeps also its proper 



bestial 

bestial, 
beastly. 
gestion 

managem 



bastion 

bastion. 



pronounce es as in 
esteem,i comb, with 
al as in salvation. 
pronounce g soft, es 
ent. as in esteem, i with 
on as in monk, n 
mute, 
pronounce as as as, 
Hon as in gestion 
above. 



digestion 

digestion. 

question 

question. 

suggestion 

suggestion. 



pronounce % as in 
city, gestion as 
above. 

pronounce : u mute, 
es and Hon as in 
gestion above. 

pronounce w as in 
French, g as in bag, 
gestion as gestion 
above, 



French Speakei 



321 



When t in tion is sounded in English as sh, the t of that 
combination has the sound of s hard in French : 



ambition pronounce am as in 

ambition. want, m mute, bi as 

in bit, t as s hard, 

i com bined with on 

as in monk,n mute. 

adoption pronounce a as ah, o as 

adoption. in pot, tion as above. 

resolution pronounce e as a in 

resolution. fate, u as in French 

tion as above. 

ostentation pronounce os as in 

ostentation. hospital, en as an 

in want, n mute, a 

as ah, tion as above- 



attention 

attention. 



intention 

intention. 



punition 

punishment. 



pronounce at as at, 

en and tion as 

above. 

pronounce in as «?>, 

in sank, n mute, 

en and tion as 

above. 

pronounce u as in 

French, ni as in 

nip, tion as above. 

observation pronounce ob as in 

observation. object, s hard, er 

as ere in there, a 

as «A, ^'o ri as above. 



T is sounded in sept {seven), and in huit (eight), when ex- 
pressed alone and when they end numbers having- no fol- 
lowing word, or when the following word begin with a 
vowel or a mute It : 



sept 

seven. 
huit 
eight. 
dix-sept 

seventeen. 
dix-huit 

eighteen. 



as En- 



pronounce 

glish set. 
pronounce 

glish wit. 
pronounce dee set. 



as En- 



pronounce deez wit. 



dix-sept oranges pronounce dee 
seventeen set, o as in not, an 

oranges. as in want,n mute, 

g soft, es mute. 
dix-huit homines pronounce deez 
eighteen wi torn {torn broad) 

men. 



But / is silent in sept, huit and in composite numbers 
when they are followed by a consonant : 



sept garcons pronounce ept as e 
seven boys. in net, pt mute, g 
as in gam, ar as in 
■parlor, cas s hard, 
ons as on in monk, 
n and 5 mute. 
trente sept francs pronounce en 
thirty-seven as an in want, n 
francs. mute, t sounded, e 

mute, ept as e in 
net, ancs as an in 
want, ncs mute. 
U 



huit chiens pronounce huit as wi 

eight dogs. in wit, ch as sh, i 

combined with ens 

as an in sank, ns 

mute. 

quarante huit pages pronounce: 



forty-eight 
pages. 



u mute, a as ah, an 
as above, t sound- 
ed, e mute, huit as 
wi in wit, a as in 
lad broad, g soft as 
j, cs mute. 



322 



French Speaker 



T is mute in vingt {twenty), but it is sounded in vingt el 
un {twenty -one) to vingt neuf {tioenty-nine). The t of vingt is 
not sounded in the series quatre-vingts {eighty). (See Cardi- 
nal Numbers, pages 114, 134, 135.) T is not pronounced in 
cent {hundred), when this number is expressed alone, and in 
all other cases it follows the same rule as sept and huit. 
(See Cardinal Numbers, pag-es 111, 137). 

T is sounded in the following' words : 



brut 


pronounce u as in 


fat 


pronounce a as ah, 


rough. 


French. 


fox, coxcomb, broad. 


chut! 


pronounce ch as sh, 


mat 


pronounce a as ah, 


hush, silence 


u as in French. 


dull, color. 


broad. 


^correct 


pronounce as in En- 


lest 


pronounce as in En- 


correct. 


glish. 


ballast. 


glish. 


*direct 


pronounce i as En- 


toast 


pronounce as in En- 


direct. 


glish e, the rest as 


toast. 


glish . 




English. 


fbut 


pronounce u as in 


fexact 


pronounce as in En- 


but, design. 


French. 


exact. 


glish. 


Jnet 


pronounce as in En- 


dot 


pronounce as in En- 


cleanly, at 


glish. 


marriage- 


glish. 


once, short. 




portion. 




Ouest 


pronounce ou as oo 


Est 


pronounce es as in 


West. 


in too, es as in es- 


East. 


esteem, t sounded. 




teem, t sounded. 


But t is 


not sounded in : 






aspect 


pronounce as as as, 


instinct 


pronounce both in's 


aspect, sight 


ect as e in net, ct 


instinct, 


as an in sank, n 




mute. 


temper. 


mute, s sounded, 


respect 


pronounce res as in 




ct mute. 


respect. 


English, ect as ein 


suspect 


pronounce u as 




net, ct mute. 


suspicious, 


French u, s sound- 


circonspect pronounce cir as in 


suspected. 


ed, ect as above. 


circumspect. 


circumspect, on as 


distinct 


pronounce is as is, 




in monk, n mute, 


distinct. 


Unci as in instinct 




s sounded, ect as 




above. 




above. 







*And in their derivatives. 

fThey pronounce also this word without sounding the /. 

jOnly when net is in the adverbial location clair et net (clearly and 
neatly) ; to say a thing without hesitation or fear to somebody : Dire 
une chose a qiielqu' un clair et net. 



French Speaker. 
T ending- Latin words is sounded : 



323 






accessit 


pronounce as in En- 


preterit 


pronounce both e's 


honorable 


glish. 


preterit. 


as a in fate, the 


mention. 






rest as in English. 


exeat 


pronounce egs, e as 


rapt 


pronounce as in En- 


exeat, pass. 


a in fate, at as at. 


rapt, abduc- 


glish. 


deficit 


pronounce e as a in 


tion. 




deficit. 


fate, the rest as in ■ 


tacet 


pronounce a as ah, c 




English. 


pause, si- 


as s hard, et as in 


occiput 


pronounce oc as in 


lence. 


net. 


occiput. 


occurrence, ci as 


transit 


pronounce an as in 




in city, u as in 


transit. 


want, n mute, s as 




French. 




z, it as it. 


iudult 


pronounce in as an 


rit 


pronounce it as in 


indult. 


in sank, n mute, u 
as in French, It 
sounded. 


rite. 


bit. 


T is sounded in : 






Christ 


pronounce i as in city 


: Crist. 




Christ. 








But not 


in : 






Jesus-Christ pronounce J as in 


Metz 


pronounce Mess. 


Our Savior. 


bijou, e as a in 


city of Cer- 






fate, u as u in 


nxany since 






French, 5 mute, 


1871. 






Christ as Cri with 








i as in city. 







Couvrir (to cover), decouvrir (to uncover), qffrir (to offer), 
ouvrir (to open), recouvrir (to cover again), souffrir (to suf 
fer), assaillir (to assault), tressaillir (to startle, to give a- 
sudden leap). 

The verbs above having- a common way for ending- their 
tenses, we place them tog-ether as a categ-ory of the irreg-u- 
lar verbs of the second conjugation. We may say that these 
verbs are regular between them as those preceding. 

There is, however, a small exception in assaillir and tres- 
saillir, whose past participle is formed as in regrdar verbs 



324 



French Speaker 



by leaving out the r of the infinitive, thus giving- assdilli 
and tressailli- The six verbs above change ir of their infini- 
tive to ert ; thus : couvrir—couvert, etc. 

*Souffrir and tressailli?- are neutral verbs, and the others 
are active ; all are conjugated with the auxiliary avoir. 

Ouvrir— (To open). 

MODE INDICATIF. 



Present. 

J' ouvr e, I open. 
tu ouvr es. 
il ouvr e. 
nous ouvr ons. 
vous ouvr ez. 
ils ouvr ent, 

Passe indefini. 

J' ai ouvert, etc., I have opened. 

Passe defini. 

J' ouvr is, I opened. 
tu ouvr is. 
il ouvr it. 
nous ouvr imes. 
vous ouvr ites. 
ils ouvr irent. 



Imparfait. 
J' ouvr ais, I to as opening. 
tu ouvr ais. 
il ouvr ait. 
nous ouvr ions. 
vous ouvr iez. 
ils ouvr aient. 

Plus que parfait. 

J'avais ouvert, etc., I had opened. 

Putur. 
J' ouvr irai, I will open. 
tu ouvr iras. 
il ouvr ira. 
nous ouvr irons. 
nous ouvr irez. 
ils ouvr iront. 



Passe anterieur. Putur anterieur. 

J' eus ouvert, etc., I h ad opened. J' aurai ouvert, etc., I will have 

opened. 

MODE CONDITIONNEL. 

Present. Passe. 

J' ouvr irais, I should open. J' aurais ouvert, etc., I should have 

tu ouvr irais. opened. 

il ouvr irait. 
nous ouvr irions. 
nous ouvr iriez. 
ils ouvr iraient. 



* Souffrir is an active or neutral verb according to its signification. 



French Speaker. 325 

MODE FMPERATIF. 

ouvr e — open {thou.) 
ouvr ons — let us open. 
ouvr ez— open {you.) 

MODE SUBJONCTIF. 

Present. Imparfait. 

Que j' ouvr e, That we may open. Que j' ouvr isse, That I might open. 

que tu ouvr es. que tu ouvr isses. 

qu' il ouvr e. qu' il ouvr it. 

que nous ouvr ions. que nous ouvr issions. 

que vous ouvr iez. que nous ouvr issiez. 

qu' ils ouvr ent. qu' ils ouvr issent. 

Passe. Plus que parfait. 

Que j' aie ou vert, etc., That I may Que j'eusse ouvert, etc., That I 
have opened. might have 

opened. 

MODE INFINITIF. 

Present. Participe present. 

Ouvr ir, To open. Ouvr ant, Opening. 

Participe passe. Participe present compose. 

Ouvert* (mas.) Opened. Ou Ayant ouvert, Having opened. 
verte (fern.) 

Participe passe compose. 

Avoir ouvert, To have opened. 

Assaillirf— (To assault, to attack). 

MODE INDICATIF. 

Present. Imparfait. 

J'assaill e, I assault. J'assaill ais, I was assaulting. 

tu assaill es. tu assaill ais. 

il assaill e. il assaill ait. 

nous assaill ons. nous assaill ions. 

vous assaill ez. vous assaill iez. 

ils assaill ent. ils assaill aient. 

* Pronounce ert as ere in there. Pronounce the t in the feminine 
and leave e final mute, 
f Pronounce aill as the pronoun I, but a little shorter. 



326 



French Speaker. 



Passe iiidefini. 

J' ai assailli, I have assaulted. 

Passe defini. 

J'assaillis, I assaulted. 
tu assaill is. 
il assaill it. 
nous assaill imes. 
vous assaill ites. 
ils assaill irent. 



Plus que parfait. 

J'avais assailli, etc., Ihad assaulted 

Futur. 

J' assaill irai, I will assault. 

tu assaill iras. 

il assaill ira. 

nous assaill irons. 

vous assaill irez. 

ils assaill iront. 



Passe anterieur. Futur anterieur. 

J'eus assailli, etc., Ihad assaulted. J' aurai assailli, etc., I will have as- 



saulted. 



MODE CONDITIONNEL. 



Present. 
J' assaill irais, T should assault. 
tu assaill irais. 
il assaill irait. 
nous assaill irions. 
vous assaill iriez. 
ils assaill iraient. 



Passe. 

J' aurais assailli, etc., I should have 
assaulted. 



MODE IMPERATIF. 

assaill e — assault (thou.) 
assaill ons — let us assault. 
assaill ez — assault (you.) 



MODE SURJONCTIF. 



Present. 

Que j' assaill e, That I may as- 
sault. 
que tu assaill es. 
qu' il assaill e. 
que nous assaill ions. 
que vous assaill iez, 
qu' ils assaill ent, 

Passe. 

Que j' aie assailli, etc., That I may 
have assaulted. 



Imparfait. 

Que j' assaill isse, That I might 

assault. 
que tu assaill isses. 
qu' il assaill it. 
que nous assaill issions. 
que vous assaill isslez. 
qu' ils assaill issent. 

Plus que parfait, 

Quej'eusse assailli, etc., That I 
might have assaulted. 



French Speaker. 327 

MODE INFINITIF. 

Present. Participe present. 

Assaill ir, To assault. Assaill ant, Assaulting. 

Participe passe. Participe present compose. 

Assaill i (mas.) assaulted, assail- A yant assaill i, having assaulted. 
lie (fern.) 

Participe passe compose. 

Avoir assailli, To have assaulted. 

Bouillir*— (To boil.) 

' (Active verb — Auxiliary avoir— Past participle : nouilli.) 

The only difference in the conjugation of this verb with 
the above is in the Indicative, present tense, first, second 
and third persons singular, where ill, and e, ending the same 
persons in the said verbs, have disappeared, e having been 
replaced by s, s, t, viz : 

MODE INDICATIF. 

Present. 

Je bou s, I boil. ) 

tu bou s. k irregular with the above verbs, 

il bou t. 

nous bouill ons, 1 

vous bouill ez. } regular with the above verbs. 
J 



ils bouill ent. 



Conjugate after the same manner as usual the compounds 
of the verb Bouillir. 



Accueillir (to welcome), cueillir (to gather), recueillir {to 

collect). 

These three verbs are conjugated the same and are active 
verbs. They take avoir and form their past participle 
regularly. 

* Pronounce ou as oo in too, ill as y in beyond, ir as ere in here. 



328 



French Speaker. 
Cueillir.* 

MODE INDICATIF. 



Present, 

Je cueill e, I gather. 
tu cueill es. 
il cueill e. 
nous cueill ons. 
vous cueill ez. 
ils cueill ent. 

Passe indefini. 

J'aicueilli, etc., I have gathered. 

Passe defini. 

Je cueill is, I gathered. 
tu cueill is. 
il cueill it. 
nous cueill iraes. 
vous cueill ites. 
ils cueill irent. 

Passe anterieur. 

J' eus cueilli, etc., I had gathered. 



Imparfait. 
Je cueill ais, I was gathering. 
tu cueill ais. 
il cueill ait. 
nous cueill ions. 
vous cueill iez. 
ils cueill aient, 

Plus que parfait. 

J' avais cueilli, etc., I had gathered. 

Futur. 
Je cueill erai, Twill gather. 
tu cueill eras. 
il cueill era. 
nous cueill erons. 
vous cueill erez. 
ils cueill eront. 

Futur anterieur. 

J' aurai cueilli, etc., I will have 
gat lie red. 



MODE CONDITIONNEL. 



Present. 
Je cueill erais, I should gather. 
tu cueill erais. 
il cueill erait. 
nous cueill erions. 
vous cueill eriez. 
ils cueill eraient. 



J' aurais cueilli, etc., I should ha or 
gathered. 



MODE IMPERATIF. 

cueill e — gather (thou.) 
cueill ons — let us gather. 
cueill ex— gather (you.) 



*Pronounce c as k, eu as u in tub, ill as y in beyond, ir as ere in 
here. 



French Speaker. 329 

MODE SUBJONCTIF. 

Present. Imparfait. 

Que jecueill e, That I may gather. Que je cueill isse, That I might 

gather. 
que tu cueill es. que tu cueill isses. 

qu' il cueill e. qu' il cueill it. 

que nous cueill ions. que nous cueill issions. 

que vous cueill iez. que vous cueill issiez. 

qu' ils cueill ent. qu' ils cueill issent. 



Plus que par fait. 

Que j'ais cueilli, etc., That I may Que j'eusse cueilli, etc., That I 
have gathered. might have gathered. 

MODE INFINITIF. 

Present. Participe present. 

Cueill ir, To gather. Cueill ant, gathering. 

Participe passe. Participe present compose. 

Cueilli (mas.) gathered : cueillie Ayant cueilli, having gathered. 
(fern.) 

Participe passe compose. 
Avoir cueilli, To have gathered. 



Acquerir (to acquire), conquerir (to conquer), requerir (to 

require.) 
These verbs are conjugated in the same manner. They 
take avoir and are active verbs. Their past participle is 
formed by changing- erir to is ; thus : conqu erir — conqm's. 
The u after q is mute. 

Conquerir— (to conquer.) 
MODE INDICATIF. 

Present. Imparfait. 

Je conquier*s, I conquer. Je conque" rais, I was conquering. 

tu conqnier s. tu conque 1 rais. 

il conquier t. il conque 1 rait. 

nous conquer ons. nous conque rions. 

vous conquer ez. vous conque" riez. 

ils conqu ierent. ils conque raient. 

*ier : diphthong— i combined with er sounded as ere in there ; s 

final and u after q are mute. 



330 



French Speaker. 



Passe iiitlefini. 

J' ai conquis,etc., I have conquered. 

Passe defini. 

Je conqu is, I conquered. 

tu conqu is. 

il conqu it. 

nous conqu imes. 

vous conqu ites. 

ils conqu irent. 

Passe anterieur. 

J' eus conquis, etc., I had con- 
quered. 



Plus que parfait. 

J' avais conquis, etc., I had con- 
quered. 

Futur 

Je conqu errai, 1 will conquer. 

tu conqu erras. 

il conqu erra. 

nous conqu errons. 

vous conqu errez. 

ils conqu erront. 



Futur anterieur 

J' aurai conquis, etc., I 



will have 
conquered. 



MODE CONDITIONNEL. 

Present. Passe. 

Je conqu errais,7 should conquer. J' aurais conquis s etc., I should 
tu conqu errais. - have conquered. 

il conqu errai t. 
nous conqu errions. 
vous convu erriez. 
ils conqu erraient. 

MODE 1MPERATIF. 

conquier s — conquer (thou.) 
conque rons — let us conquer. 
conque rez — conquer (you.) 



MODE SIIBJONCTIF. 



Present. 
Que je conqu iere, That I may 



conquer 



que tu conqu ieres. 
qu' il conqu iert. 
que nous conqn6 rions. 
que vous conque riez. 
qu ils conqu ierent. 



Que j' aie conquis,etc, That Imay 
have conquered. 



Imparfait. 

Que je conqu isse, That I might 

conquer. 
que tu conqu isses. 
qu' il conqu it. 
que nous conqu issions. 
que vous conqu issiez. 
qu'ils conqu issent. 

Plus que parfait. 

Que j' eusse conquis, etc., That I 
might have conquered. 



French Speaker. 331 

MODE INFINITIF. 
Present. Participe present. 

Conqu erir, To conquer. Conqu erant, Conquering. 

Participe passe. Participe present compose. 

Conqu is (mas.) Conquered, con- AygLiiteonquis, Having conquered. 
quise (fern.) 

Participe passe compose. 
Avoir conquis, To have conquered. 



Accourir (to hasten), eoncourir (to complete, to concur), courir 
(to run), discourir (to discourse, to descant), encourir (to 
incur) parcourir (to travel over), recourir (to apply to). — 
(All conjugated in the same manner.) 

All these verbs except encourir, which is active, are neu- 
tral verbs. They are all conjugated with avoir, but courir 
and accourir take both auxiliaries according to their signi- 
fication. Their past participle is obtained by changing ir, 
final of the infinitive, to u ; thus cour ir — cour u. 



Courir*— (to run.) 

MODE INDICAT1F. 

Present. Imparfait. 

Je cour s, I run. Je cour ais, I was running. 

tu cour s. tu cour ais. 

il cour t. il cour ais. 

nous cour ons. nous cour ions. 

vous cour ez. vous cour iez. 

ils cour ent. ils cour aient. 

Passe indefini. Plus que parfait. 

J' ai couru, etc., I have run. J' avais couru, etc., I had run. 

* Courir is an active or neutral verb according to its signification. 



332 



French Speaker 



Passe defini. 

Je cour us, I ran. 
tu cour us. 
il cour ut. 
nous cour times. 
vous cour utes. 
ils cour urent. 



Futur. 
Je cour rai, I will run .. 
tu cour ras. 
il cour ra. 
nous cour rons. 
vous cour rez. 
ils cour ront. 



MODE CONDITIONNEL.. 
Present. Passe. 

Je cour rais, T should run. J' aurais couru, etc., T should have 

tu cour rais. run. 

il cour rait. 
nous cour rions. 
vous cour riez. 
ils cour raient. 

MODE IMPERATIF. 

cour s — run (thou.) 
cour ons — let us run. 
cour ez — run (you.) 

MODE SUBJONCTIF. 



Present. 

Que je cour e, That I may run. 

que tu cour es. 
qu' il cour e. 
que nous cour ions. 
que vous cour iez. 
qu' ils cour ent. 

Passe. 



Imparfait. 
Que je cour usse, That I might 

run. 
que tu cour usses. 
qu' il cour ut. 
que nous cour ussions. 
que vous cour ussiez. 
qu' ils cour ussent. 

Plus que parfait. 



Que j' aie couru, etc., That I may Quej'eusse couru, etc., That I 
have run. might have run. 

MODE INFINITIF. 

Present. Participe present. 

Cour ir, To run. Cour ant, Running. 

Participe passe. Participe present compose. 

Cour u (mas.) run, courue (fern.) Ayant couru, Having run. 
Participe passe compose. 

Avoir couru, To have run. 



French Speaker. 333 

Mourir— (to die.) 

(Neutral verb — Auxiliary etre— Past participle : mort.) 

Conjugate this verb after the same manner as courir and 
others above, observing- the change hereafter in its radical : 

M,ODE INDICATIP. MODE SUBJONCTTF. 

Present. Present. 

Irregular with the verbs above : Irregular with the verbs above : 

Je meur s,* I die. Que je meur e, That I may die. 

tu meur s. que tu meur es. 

il meur t. qu' il meur e. 

Regular ivith the verbs above : Regular with the verbs above : 

nous mour ons. que nous mour ions. 

vous mour ez. que vous mour iez. 

Irregular ivith the verbs above : Irregular with the verbs above : 

ils meur ent. qu' ils meur ent. 



XConsentir (to consent, to agree) *dementir (to belie, to con- 
tradict), \dormir (to sleep), §partir (to go atoay), mentir (to 
lie), *pressentir (to foresee), *ressentir (to resent), *revetir 
(to clothe again), * servir (to serve), §sortir (to go out), *oc- 
tir (to clothe), \repartir (to reply), and their derivatives. 

Consentir, dementir, partir, mentir, pressentir, ressentir, 
sortir and repartir lose the t in the second person sing-ular 
of the Indicative present and in the second person, same 
number, of the Imperative mood. 

Dormir, servir, revetir, vetir : 

Dormir and servir lose the m and the v in the three per- 
sons singular of the Indicative mood, present tense, and in 
the second person sing-ular, same number, of the Imperative 
mood. Revetir and vetir keep their radical un touched in 
their whole conjugation, and are conjugated the same as all 
*eur as ur in fur broad, s mute. 



334 



French Speaker. 



the above verbs which, aside of the given observations, are 
entirely uniform. 

The past participles of these two last verbs are revttu and 
vetu, having- chang-ed the end ir to u ; and in the other verbs 
of this list, the r final being- taken out, it remains consenti, 
dor mi, parti, sorti, reparti, etc., reg-ular participles. 

Remark. — The above verbs marked with an asterisk (*) are active 
verbs, those marked with a dagger (f) are neutral ; when marked with 
a double dagger (J) they are active or neutral, according to their sig- 
nification ; and when they have a section mark (§) they take the aux- 
iliary etre, and are also neutral. 



Consentir — (To consent, to agree.) 



MODE INDICATIF. 



Present. 

Je consen s, I consent. 

tu consen s. 

il consen t. 

nous consent ons. 

vous consent ez. 

ils consent ent. 



Tmparfait. 

Je consent ais, I was consenting. 

tu consent ais. 

il consent ait. 

nous consent ions. 

vous consent iez. 

ils consent aient. 



Passe indefini. 



Plus que parfait. 



J'ai consenti, etc., I have consented. J' avais consenti, etc., I had con- 
sented. 



Passe defini. 

Je consent is, I consented. 

tu consent is. 

il consent it. 

nous consent imes. 

vous consent ites. 

ils consent ireut. 



Futur. 

Je consent irai, Twill consent. 

tu consent iras. 

il consent iras. 

nous consent irons. 

vous consent irez. 

ils consent iront. 



anteneur. 

J' eus consenti, etc 



I had con- 
sented. 



Futur anterieur. 

J' aurai consenti, etc 



I will have 
consented. 



French Speaker. 335 

MODE COXDITIONNEIj. 

Present. Passe. 

Je consent irais, I should consent. J'aurais oonsenti, etc., I should 
tu consent irais. have consented. 

il consent irait. 
nous consent irions. 
vons consent iriez. 
ils consent iraient. 

MODE EtfPERATIF. 

consens (thou.) 
consentons — let us consent. 
consentez — consent (you.) 



MODE SUBJOXCTIF. 

Present. Imparfait. 

Que je consent e. That I may con- Que je consent isse. That I might 

sent. consent. 

que tu consent es. que tu consent isses. 

qu'il consent e. qu' il consent it. 

que nous consent ions. que nous consent issions. 

que vous consent iez. que vous consent issiez. 

qu' ils consent ent. qu* ils consent isseut. 

Passe. Plus que parfait. 

Quej'aie consenti, etc.. 27*'/? I may Quej' eusse consenti, etc.. That I 
have consented. might have consented. 



MODE LVFINITIF. 

Consent ir, To consent. Consent ant. Consenting. 

Partieipe passe. Participe present compose. 

Consent i (mas. ) consented, con- Ayant oonsenti, Having consented. 

sent ie (fern.) 

Participe passe compose. 

Avoir consenti, To have consented. 



336 Frencli Speake?\ 

MODE INDICATIF. 

Present of 

Dormir, revetir, servir, vetir, partir and sortir : 

Je — dors* — revets— sers — vets — pars — sors. 

tu — dors — revets — sers — vets — pars — sors. 

il— dort* — revet — sert — vet — part — sort. 

nous— dorm ons— revet ons — serv ons— vet ons — part ons— sort— ons. 

vous— dorm ez— revet ez— serv ez — vet ez— part — ez — sort— ez. 

ils— dorm ent— revet ent— serv ent — vet— ent— part ent— sort ent. 



Fuir— {To fry.) 

(Neutral verb— Takes avoir. — Past participle : fuir.) 
MODE INDICATIF. 



Present. 

Je fui s,f I fly. 
tu fui s. 
il fui t. 

nous fuyj ons. 
vous fuy ez. 
ils fui ent. 

Passe indettni. 

J'ai fu i, etc., I have flown. 

Passe deflni. 

Je fu is, I flew. 
tu fu is. 
il fu it. 
nous fu imes. 
vous fu ites. 
ils fuir ent. 

Passe anterieur. 

J' eus fui, etc., I had flown. 



Imparfait. 

Je fuy ais, I was flying. 

tu fuy ais. 

il fui ait. 

nous fuy ions. 

vous fuy iez. 

ils fuy aient. 

Plus que parfait, 

J' avais fui, etc., I had flown. 

Futur. 
Je fui rai, I will fly. 
tu fui ras. 
il fui ra. 
nous fui rons. 
vous fui rez. 
ils fui ront. 

Futur anterieur. 

J' aurai fui, etc., I will have flown. 



*s and t final mute all over. 
fuis pronounced as wee. 

Jy is used for two i's ; one goes with fu and the other on ons with 
which it forms a diphthong. 



French Speaker. 



337 



MODE CONDITIONNEL. 

Present. Passe. 



Je fui rais, 1 should fly. 

tu fui rais. 

il fui rait, 

nous fui rions. 

vous fui riez. 

ils fui raient. 



J' aurais f ui, etc., I should have 
flown. 



MODE IMPERATIF. 

Fu is— Fly {thou.) 
fuy ons — let lis fly. 
fuyez—fly (you.) 

MODE SUBJONCTIP. 



Present. 

Quejefuie, That I may fly. 

que tu fui es. 
qu' il fui e. 
que nous fuy ions. 
que vous fuy iez. 
qu' ils fui ent. 



Imparfait. 
Que je fu isse, That I might have 

flown. 
que tu fu isses. 
qu' il fu it. 
que nous fu issions. 
que vous fu issiez. 
qu' ils fu issent, 



MODE INFINITIF. 

Present. Parlicipe present. 

Fu ir, To fly. Fuy ant, Flying. 

Participe passe. Participe present compose. 

Fu i (m&s.) flow7i, fu ie (fern.) Ayant fui, Having flown. 

Participe passe compose. 

Avoir fui, To have flown. 



Paillir— (To/ail.) 

(Neutral verb — Takes avoir — Vast participle : failli.) 

This verb is conjugated by some authors jefaux {I fail), 
tu faux, il faut in its Indicative mood, present tense, and 
nons faillons, vous faillez, ils faillent, the plural, which does 
not hurt the ear. 
V 



338 French Speaker. 

But the singular je faux, tu faux, il faut, sounds to much 
like the impersonal verb falloir {to be needed, to be neces- 
sary), il faut {it is necessary or needed), same tense, and 
which being- so often used, may, in many cases, cause misun- 
derstanding. — We should then adopt the way of many 
people : 



MODE INDICATIF. 

Present. 

Je fais faillite (literal translation), I make fail. 

tu fais faillite. 

il fait faillite. 

nous faill ons, etc., as above, or : 

Je faill is, I fail. 

tu faill is. 

il faill it. 

nous faill ons, etc. 

Je fais faillite, etc., for the meaning of giving up pay- 
ments to creditors, and Jefaillis, etc., for that of not being 
faithful in promises or engagements, the latter form often 
used in conversation for the present of faillir. 

Some admit the imperfect Je faillais, etc , {Iivas failing) 
and some. do not. But as this form is perfectly right in its 
consonance we adopt it, sending the student to the conju 
gation of the verb assaillir, page 325, whose imperfect is a 
model for that of faillir. 

The compound tenses, all in use, are formed as prece- 
dently. 

See Assaillir for the Passe defini and the Imparfait {Mode 
Subjonctif), which derives from the first. 

For the same reasons as those given for the Indicatif 
Present, we think that, instead of giving as some do, jefau- 
drai, tu faudras, il faudra, etc., (the Futur of falloir is again 
the same : il faudra) we would conjugate faillir in the two 
following tenses as Assaillir also : 



French Speaker. 



339 



Futur. 

Je faill irai, I will fail. 
tu faill iras. 
il faill ira. 
nous faill irons. 
vous faill irez. 
ils faill iront. 



3IODE CONDITIONNEL. 

Present. 

Je faill irais, I should fail. 

tu faill irais. 

il faill irait. 

nous faill irions. 

vous faill iriez. 

ils faill iraient. 



We should say, however, that the form above refers more 
to the meaning" of accomplishing- other promises and engage- 
ments than that of giving- up the obligation of payments 
to creditors, for which we should conjugate faillir in this 
manner : 



Je ferai faillite, I will make fail. 
(Literal translation.) 
tu feras faillite. 
il fera faillite. 
nous ferons faillite. 
vous ferez faillite. 
ils feront faillite. 



Je ferais faillite, I should make 
fail. ( Literal translation. ) 
tu ferais faillite. 
il ferait faillite. 
nous ierions faillite. 
vous feriez faillite. 
ils feraient faillite. 



About the Mode Imperatif it is said there is not any, and 
this, it would seem, on account of the want of harmony in 
the consonance ; we think, however, the following could be 
used: 

faill e—fail (thou.) 
faill ons — let us fail. 
faill ex— fail (you.) 

If faillons and faillez are used in the Indicaiif present, 
which tense forms the Imperatif in regular verbs, there 
should not be any reason for not conjugating the Imperatif 
of this verb, which has four of its tenses conjugated in the 
most regular form, the Passe defini, the Imparfait of the 
Subjonctif, the Futur and the Present of the Conditionnel ; 
and about faille, it sounds, we think, right and smooth 
enough. We think also that the Subjonctif present of faillir 



340 



French Speaker. 



could be said que je faille, etc., as well as que j'assaille, etc. 
(See this last verb.) 
The whole Mode Infinitifis conjugated on Assaillir. 



TT. 



This doubled consonant is often sounded as one t, but 
both tt are sounded in the following words : 



atticisme pronounce at as at, 
atticism. ti as in tip, c as s 

hard, is as is, m 
sounded, e mute. 
littoral pronounce lit as in 

littor al,coast. literature, to as in 
top, al as in salva- 
tion. 



*litteral pronounce lit as in 

literal. literature, te with 

e as a in fate, al as 
in salvation. 



Hairf— {To hate.) 
(Active verb — takes Avoir — Past participle : hai. ) 

This verb is regular and is conjugated after the same 
manner as saisir, except in the three persons singular of the 
Indieatif present and in the second person, same number of 
the Mode Imperatif where the diaeresis on the i disappears, 
making je hais, tu hais, il hait, hais, pronounced as English 
hay. 

Aside the case above, a diaeresis ( " ) is required over the 
i in all tenses and persons ; consequently, ha forms a sepa- 
rate syllable pronounced as it is said. 



FleurirJ— (To blossom, to flourish.) 
(Neutral verb — takes avoir — Past participle : fleuri. ) 

This verb is regular and conjugated as saisir when speak- 
ing of vegetation producing flowers ; but when speaking of 

*And in derivatives. 

f Ha is sounded as in hammock, h being aspirate, and i as ere in here. 
% eu as u in tub, i as in city in course of conjugation ; i. in the Infini- 
<r/is sounded as English e, and r final is rolled. 



French Speaker. 341 

the prosperity of a kingdom, of a town, of arts and of affairs, 
its Participe present is fiorissant, and the Imparfait cle V In- 

dicatif is jeflorissais, tuflorissais, il florissait ; nous fl or is- 
sions, vous florissiez, Us florissaient. Example : Nous floris- 
sions clans nos affaires — ( We toere succeeding in our business.) 



Benir— {To bless.) 

(Active verb — takes avoir — Past participles : beni and benit. ) 

This verb is regular and conjugated after the same manner 
as saisir. The first form beni is used for the general sense 
of blessed; example: Ce peuple est beni de Dieu — {That 
people is blessed by God. 

The form benit means being consecrated by a religious 
ceremony : du pain benit — {consecrated bread.) 

But the past participle benit, when used in compound 
tenses, does not take the t : On a beni les drapeaax avant 
de commencer la bataille — {The flags were consecrated before 
they started to fighting. 

Gesir— {To lie.) 

(Neutral verb — Defective — No compound tenses — No past participle.) 

Used only in the Indicatif present, third person singular, 
and in the three persons plural ; and in the Imparfait, same 
mood, whole tense : 

II git, ci-git,*A<? lies, here lies Je gisais, I was lying down. 

nous gisons. tu gisais. 

vous gisez. il gisait. 

ils gisent. nous gisions. 



vous gisiez. 
ils gisaient. 



The Infinitif gesir is never used. 



Common form by which an epitaph begins. 



342 French Speaker. 

Ouir*— {To hear.) 
(Active verb — takes avoir — Past participle : oui. ) 

There are only the Infinitif and the Temps composts still 
in use, but the Infinitif very seldom. Example : f ai oui 
dire par quelqiC un que vous etiez malade — (I have heard by 
somebody that you were sick.) 

* Pronounce ou as oo in too and ir as ere in here. 



French Speaker. 343 



PASSIVE VERBS OF THE SECOND CONJU- 
GATION (MODEL.) 

Etre Obei*— {To be obeyed.) 

MODE IXDICATIF. 
Present. Imparfait, 

Je suis obei, etc., I am obeyed. J' etais ob6i, etc., I was obeyed. 

Passe indeflni. Plus que parfait. 

J' ai 6te" ob£i, etc., I have been J' avais ete ob6i, etc., J had been 
obeyed. obeyed. 

Passe defini. Futur. 

Je fus obei, etc., I was obeyed. Je serai obei, etc., I will be obeyed. 

Passe a-nterieur. Futur anterieur. 

J' ens ete obei, etc., I had been J' aurai ete obei, etc., I will have 
obeyed. been obeyed. 

MODE CONDITIONNEL. 

Present. Passe. 

Je serais obei, etc., I should be J'aurais ele 1 obei, etc., I should 
obeyed. have been obeyed. 

MODE I3IPERATIF. 

sois obei — be obeyed (thou.) 
soyons obeis — let us be obeyed. 
soyez obeis — be obeyed (you.) 

3IODE SUBJOXCTIF. 

Present. Imparfait. 

Que je sois obei, etc., That I may Quejefusseobel, etc., That I might 
be obeyed. be obeyed. 

Passe. Plus que parfait. 

Que j'aie ete obei, etc., That I may Que j'eusse ete obel, etc., That I 
have been obeyed. might have been obeyed. 

* e sounded as a in fate, i as in city. 



344 French Speaker. 

MODE INFINITUM 

Present. Parti cipe present. 

Etre obei, To be obeyed. Etant obei, Being obeyed. 

Participe passe. Participe present compose. 

Obei (mas.) obeyed ; (fern.) obeie. Ayant ete obei, Having been 

obeyed. 

Participe passe compose. 

Avoir ete obei, To have been obeyed. 



NOBLESSE ET NOBLESSE. 
I. 

Dernier descendant 1 cV une noble et vieille 2 famille de 
Bretagne, 3 d' un caractere retire, triste 4 et quelque peu 
sauvage, 5 le marquis Edouard de Ceman ne s' etait decide 6 
a se marier 7 que sur le tard, s pour assurer la continuation 
de sa race. 

II epousa une jeune femme 9 de son rang-, 1 ° mais dont le 
pere, 11 qui avait possede 12 de par 13 ses ancetres un vaste 
patrimoine, s' etait a peu pres 1 4 ruine dans des speculations 
malheureuses. 1 5 Le baron du Cherny, c' etait le nom du 
beau-pere 1 6 du marquis de Cernan, vivait 1 7 comme un ana- 
chorete, 18 reduit 19 a un vieux 20 castel situe dans une pro- 
fonde 21 sollitude, a environ 22 sept lieues 23 de Saint Malo, 24 
et qui avait ete abandonne depuis long-temps 25 par ses 
aieux. 2 R Une metairie, 2 % dont 1' exploitation, aux mains 2 8 
de fermiers qui s'y etaient succede 29 de pere en fils, 30 
constituait ce vestige de domaine seig-neurial, 3 1 et desor- 
mais 32 presqne 33 les uniques ressources du baron. C est 
dans ce manoir 34 menacant ruine, 35 dont les creneaux 36 et 
les plaies reouvertes, 3 7 attestaient 3 8 1' humeur querelleuse 3 9 
des seig-neurs d' autrefois, 40 que du Cherny avait ete force 41 
de transporter avec sa frele 42 et unique enfant, la melanco- 
lie ou venaient 43 de le plonger 44 tous ses desastres et la 
perte 45 de sa femme, arrivee presque simultanement, 4 6 



French Speaker. 345 

comme pour confirmer 4 " sa decheance, 48 semblant 49 cons 
pirer 5 ° jusqu' a 5 1 1' aneantissement 5 2 de son nom. 

Bertha du Cherny elevee 53 dans cette retraite, y recut 54 
de P auteur de ses jours meme, 5 5 tous les soins, 5 6 et la teinte s 7 
d'nne education qui doit 58 distinguer une jeune fille de 
naissance: 59 frappante 6 " image de sa mere, elle avait ete 
l'objetde toute P attention et de toute la tendresse 61 que 
peut inspirer 62 un souvenir aussi cheri. 68 

Le baron etait parvenu 64 a suppleer decemment 65 ce que 
ses moyens restreints 66 ne lui permettaient plus 67 al'egard 
de 68 P education de sa fille, graces 69 d'ailleurs 70 au con- 
cours devoue 71 et intelligent de Mademoiselle Belard, 
P ancienne gouvernante 7 2 de Madame du Cherny, qui 
n' avait pas quitte celle-ci 7 3 de toute son existence. 7 4 Bertha 
avait ainsi atteint 75 ses dix-huit ans, 76 et en outre 77 que 
la condition de sa sante depassait toute attente, 7 8 sabeaute, 
ornee d' un naturel exquis 7 9 et d' agreables manieres, avaient 
fait d' elle 80 une femme deja accomplie. 

(^1 suivre : To be continued.) 



Vocabulary. 



1 dernier descendant, last ch 

scendant 

2 vieille, old 

3 Bretagne, Britany 

4 triste, sad 

5 quelque peu sauvage, souk 

what savage 

6 ne s' etait decide, had not dt 

cided 



13 de par, from 

14 a pen pres, almost 

15 malhenreuses, unsuccessful 

16 t>eau-pere, father-in-law 

17 vivait, was living 

18 anachorete, ermit, anchorite 

19 reduit, reduced 

20 vienx, old 

21 profonde, deep 



7 a se marier, to marry' : 22 a environ, at about 

8 que sur le tard, but late I 23 lieues, French measure of dis- 

9 II epousa une jeune femme, I tance — about three miles 

he wedded to a young woman. 24 Saint Malo, city in Britany 

10 rang, rank {France) 

11 dontle pere, whose father 25 depuis Jong-temps, .smce a long 

12 qui avait possede, who had ' time 

possessed 26 aieux, ancestors 



346 



French Speaker. 



27 metairie, farm, dairy 

28 aux mains, at the hands 

29 qui s' y etaient succede, who 

had succeeded themselves there 

30 de pere en nls, from fat her to 

son. 

31 constituait ce vestige de do- 

maine seigneurial, was con- 
stituting that vestige of lordly 
domain 
32, 33 desormais presque, hence- 
forth almost. 

34 manoir, manor 

35 menacant ruine,ready to fall 

(or) threatening fall 

36 creneaux, battlements 

37 plaies reouvertes, reopening 

wounds, traces of fight 

38 attestaient, were attesting 

39 querelleuse, quarrelling 

40 d' autrefois, of former time 

41 avait ete force, had been com- 

pelled 

42 frele, fragile, of a poor con- 

stitution 
43, 44 on venaient de le plonger, 
ivhere had just 2>ast him 

45 perte, loss 

46 simultanement, at the same 

time 
47, 48, couftrmer sa decheance, 
to confirm his failure, forfeit- 
ure 

49 semblant, seeming 

50 couspirer, to plot 

51 jusqu' a, till 

52 anneantissement, annihila- 

tion 

53 elevee, brought up 

54 y recut, received there 



55 auteur de ses jours meme, the 

author of her days, her father 
himself 

56 soins, cares 

57 teinte, the appearance 

58 qui doit, which must 

59 jeune fllle de naissance, girl 

of high birth 

60 frappant, striking 

61 tendresse, tenderness 

62 que peut inspirer, which can 

inspire 

63 aussi cheri, so cherished 

64 etait parvenu, had succeeded 

65 suppleer decemment, to sup- 

ply decently 

66 m.oyensrestreints,little means 

67 ne lui pennettaient plus, were 

not permitting to him 

68 al'egardde, regarding to, as to 

69 graces, thanks 

70 d' ailleurs, besides 

71 devoues, devoted 

72 gouvernante, governess 

73 celle-ci, this one 

74 existence, existence, life 

75 avait ainsi atteint, so had 

reached 

76 ses dix-huit ans,/*er eighteenth 

year 
11 en outre, besides 

78 que la condition de sa sante 

depassait toute attente, that 
the condition of her health was 
beyond all expectations 

79 ornee d' un naturel exquis, 

adorned by an exquisite char- 
acter 

80 avaient fait d' elle, had made 

of her 



French Speaker. 347 

TROISIEME CONJUGAISON. 

Observations. 

There is not a regular verb in the third conjugation. 

The more regular are the ones having their radical evoir, 
as the following, numbering five: percevoir (to perceive), 
concevoir (to conceive), decevoir* (to deceive), devoir (to owe), 
and recevoir (to receive.) 

Percevoir, concevoir and devoir, respectively form aperce- 
voir, preconcevoir and redevoir, which are conjugated the 
same as their originals. 

The eight verbs above are conjugated after the same 
manner. 

When, in the irregularities of their conjugation, c is placed 
before o or u, it takes a cedilla ( c ) in order to make its 
sound soft as that of s in sea : Je recois (I receive), Je con- 
cus (I conceived.) 

All the verbs of the list above are active verbs, and take, 
to form their compound tenses, the auxiliary avoir. 

Their past participle is formed by changing evoir final of 
their Infinitif present to u : percevoir — perc u (perceived), 
devoir — du (owed.) 

The past participle singular of the verbs devoir and rede- 
voir take a circumflex accent over the u ; du, redu. 

There are not many verbs in the third conjugation, and 
aside of the above and some others, whose conjugation will 
follow, they are not often in use. 

■* Decevoir, though being in this list, is found used only in its past 
participle : (J' ai 6te d6cu dans mon espoir {I have been deceived in 
my hope), II fut decu dans son attente {He was deceived in his expec- 
tation.') It is found sometimes in its Infinitif present : Le plus grand 
role de l'apparence, semble etre celul de d6cevoir le monde {The 
greatest role of the appearance seems to he that of deceiving the 
world.) 



348 



French Speaker. 
Perce voir.* 

MODE INDICATIF. 



Present. 
Je perc ois, I perceive. 
tu per? ois. 
il perc oit. 
nous perc evons. 
vous perc evez. 
lis perc oivent. 

Passe indefini. 

J' ai percu, etc., I have perceived. 

Passe defini. 

Je perc us, 1 perceived. 
tu perc us. 
il perc ut. 
nous per? times. 
vous perc utes. 
ils perc urent. 

Passe anterieur. 
J' eus percu, etc., I had perceived. 



Imparfait. 
Je perc evais, I was perceiving. 
tu perc evais. 
il perc evait. 
nous perc evions. 
vous perc eviez. 
ils perc evaient. 

Plus que parfait. 

J'avais percu, etc., I had perceived. 

Futur. 
Je perc evrai, I will perceive. 
tu perc evras. 
il perc evra. 
nous perc evront. 
vous perc evrez. 
ils perc evront. 

Futur anterieur. 

J' aurai percu, etc., I will have 
perceived. 



MODE CONDITIONNEL,. 



Passe. 



J' aurais percu, etc., I should have 
perceived. 



Present. 

Je perc evrais, I should perceive, 

tu perc evrais. 

il perc evrai t. 

nous perc evrions. 

vous perc evriez. 

ils perc evraient. 

MODE IMPERATEF. 

Perc ois — Perceive (thou.) 
perc evons — let us perceive. 
perc evez — perceive (you.) 

*er is sounded strictly with the sound of ere broad in there and not 
as ur in fur as English do ; ce : e is sounded as u in tub, and oir has 
the sound of ar in car preceded by w. 



French Speaker. 349 

MODE SUBJONCTIF. 

Present. Imparfait. 

Que je perc oive, That I may per- Que je perc usse, That 1 might 

ceive. perceive. 

que tu perc oiyes. que tu perc usses. 

qu' il perc oive. qu' il perc ut. 

que nous perc evions. que nous perc nssions. 

que vous perc eviez. que vous perc; ussiez. 

qu' ils per c oivent. qu' ils perc ussent. 

Passe. Plus que parfait. 

Que j' aie percu, etc., That I may Que j' eusse percu, etc., That 1 
have perceived. might have perceived. 

MODE INFINITIF. 

Present. Participe present. 

Perc evoir, To perceive. Perc evant, Perceiving. 

Participe passe. Participe present compose. 

Perc u (mas.) Perceived, perc ue Ayant percu, Having perceived. 
(fern.) 

Participe passe compose. 

Avoir percu, To have perceived. 



Devoir— (To owe.) 

(Active verb — Auxiliary : avoir — Part participle : du.) 
Remark. 

Devoir differs a little with the verbs ending- with evoir of 
the preceding- list. It keeps nothing of its radical dev but d, 

1st, in the three persons singular, and in the third person 
plural of its Present de V Indicatif, in which last case, e of 
dev, the radical part, is changed to oi ; 

2d, in the Passe defini, whole tense ; 

3d, in the Subjontif present, in the three persons singular 
and in the third plural, where e of dev changes again to 
oi, and 

4-th, in the Imparfait du Subjonctif, whole tense. 



350 French Speaker. 

But devoir ends the same as the verbs ending- with evoir, 
in its entire conjugation. 

Redevoir, compound of devoir, conjugated in the same 
manner as this, is subject to the modifications above, but, 
of course, keeps the prefix re. 

MODE 1NDICATIF. 

Present. Passe deflni. 

Je c/ois, I owe. Jedns, I owed. 

tu c/ois. tu rZus. 

il c/oit. il dut. 

nous dev ons. nous dumes. 

vous dev ez. vous dutes. 

ils doiv ent. ils durent. 

MODE SUBJONCTIF. 

Present. Imparfait. 

Que je doive, That Imay owe. Que je cZusse, That I might oioe. 

que tu doives. que tu dusses. 

qu' il <3oive. qu' il dtLt. 

que nous dev ions. que nous dussions. 

que vous dev iez. que vous dussiez. 

qu' ils doiv ent. qu' ils cZussent. 

Devoir and redevoir, which have a full conjugation, are 
conjug-ated in their other tenses, iucluding- the compounds, 
after the model percevoir. 

Observation. 

The verbs of the Troisieme Conjugaison follow exactly the 
same rule as given before, for the forms Negative, Interro- 
gative and Negative-Interrogative. 



French Speake i '. 
Mouvoir*— (To move.) 

(Active verb — Auxiliary avoir — Past participle : mu.f) 



351 



MODE INDICATIF. 



Present. 



Je meus,J I move. 

tu meus. 

il uieut. 

nous mouv ons. 

vous mouv ex. 

ils meuv ent. 

Passe indefini. 
J' ai mil, etc., I have moved. 

Passe defini. 

Je mvLS, I moved. 

tu mus. 

il mut. 

nous ?n times. 

vous mutes.. 
ils murent. 



Imparfait. 

Je mouv ais, I was moving. 
tu mouv ais. 
il mouv ait. 
nous mouv ions. 
vous mouv iez. 
ils mouv aient. 

Plus que parfait. 
J' avals niii, etc., Iliad moved. 

Futur. 
Je mouv rai, I should move. 
tu mouv ras. 
il mouv ra. 
nous mouv rons. 
vous mouv rez. 
ils mouv rout. 



MODE OOND1TIONNEL. 



Present. 

Je mouv rais, I should move. 

tu mouv rais. 

il mouv rait. 

nous mouv rions. 

vous mouv riez. 

ils mouv raient. 



Passe. 



J' aurais mu, etc. 



I should have 
moved. 



*Mouvoir in French means to move from one place to another — 
changer de place, but cannot be used in the sense of leaving a house, 
in which case deraenager de, (first conjugation, regular) (to move 
from) is the proper verb. In case of moving to a house, to such a 
place, habiter, same conjugation, is used. 

f There is only the past participle masculine which has a circumflex 
accent over the u. 

Jin the verbs mouvoir and pouvoir, ou is changed to eu when the 
ends of the conjugation are mute, as s, t, ent, and ve (ve in mouvoir). 
Pronounce eus and eut as between French u and u of tub. 



352 French Speaker'. 

MODE IMPERAT1F. 

meus — move (thou.) 
mouv ons — let us move. 
mouv ez — move (you. ) 

MODE SUBJONCT1F. 

Present. Imparfait. 

Que je m.eu\ e,* That 1 may move. Que je musse, That I might more. 

que tu meuv es. que tu musses. 

qu' il mewv e. qu' il miit. 

que nous mouv ions. que nous mussions. 

que vous mouv iez. que vous mussiez. 

qu' ils mcMV ent. qu' ils mussent. 

Passe. Plus que parfait. 

Quej'ai mil, etc., That I may have Que j' eusse mil, etc., That I might 
moved. have woved. 

MODE INFINITIF. 

Present. Partieipe present. 

Mouv oir, To move. Mouv ant, Moving. 

Partieipe passe. Partieipe present compose. 

Mvl (mas. ) moved, mue (fern.) Ayant mil, Having moved. 

Partieipe passe compose. 
Avoir mil, To have moved. 

(Pouvoir— To be able). 

(Active verb — Auxiliary avoir — Past participle : pu.) 

MODE INDICATIF. 

Present. Imparfait. 

Je peux, or je puis, I can, I am 
tu peux. able. 

il peut. 

The remainder of the tense is 
conjugated as mouvoir, keeping As mouvoir. 

the radical pouv. 

All the compound tenses are conjugated as usual. 



^Pronounce eu as u in tub. 



F re licit Speaker. 353 

deflui. Futur. 

Conjugated as mouvoir. The v of the radical ponv is re- 

placed by an additional r : 
Je pour rai, etc., I will be able. 

No Mode Imperatif. 

MODE SUBJONCTIF. 

Present. Imparfait. 

Que je puiss* e, That I may be 

able. 
que tu puiss es. 

qu' il puiss e. Conjugated as mouvoir. 

que nous puiss ions. 
que vous puiss iez. 
qu' ils -puiss ent. 

MODE IXFINITIF. 
The whole mood as mouvoir. 

PoUTVOirt— ( To provide). 
(Active verb — Auxiliary avoir — Past participle : pourvu.) 
MODE INDICATEF. 
Present. Imparfait. 

Je pourv ois, I provide. Je pourv oyais, I was providing. 

tu pourv ois. tu pourv oyais. 

il pourv oit. il pourv oyait. 

nous pourv oyons.f nous pourv oyions. 

vous pourv oyez. vous pourv oyiez. 

ils pourv oient. ils pourv oyaient. 

Passe indefiiii. Plus que parfait. 

J' ai pourvu, etc., I have provided. J' avais pourvu, etc., I hod j^'o- 



ided. 



* uiss replaces ouv through the whole tense. 

|The radical of Pourvoir is regular in all its conjugation. The 
irregularity consists of oy in certain tenses, where y is used for two i's — 

oy and oi have been added to the ending part as a prefix for the 
means of the conjugation, and 

i, which in this verb, as in many others, is added to oy, (y for one i 
m this case) is slightly accented, while forming a diphtiiong with ons 
and ez. 

W 



354 



French Speaker. 



Passe defini. 

Je pourv us, I provided. 

tu pourv us. 

il pourv ut. 

nous pourv rimes. 

vous pourv utes. 

ils pourv urent. 

Passe auterieur. 

J' euspourvu, etc., I had provided. 



Futur. 

Je pourv oirai, I will provide. 

tu pourv oiras. 

il pourv oira. 

nous pourv oirons. 

vous pourv oirez. 

ils pourv oiront. 

Futur anterieur. 

J'aurai pourvu, etc., I will have 
provided. 



MODE CONDITIONNEL. 



Present. 
Je pourv oirais, I should provide. 

tu pourv oirais. 
il pourv oirait. 
nous pourv oirions. 
vous pourv oiriez. 
ils pourv oiraient. 



Passe. 

J'aurais pourvu, etc, T should 
have provided. 



MODE IMPERAT1F. 

Pourv ois — Provide {thou.) 
pourv oyons — let us provide. 
pourv oyez — provide {you. ) 

MODE SUBJONCTIF. 



Present. 

Que je pourv oie, That I may pro- 
vide. 
que tu pourv oies. 
qu' il pourv oie. 
que nous pourv oyions. 
que vous pourv oyiez. 
qu' ils pourv oient. 



Imparfait. 

Que je pourv usse, That 1 might 

provide. 
que tu pourv usses. 
qu' il pourv ut. 
que nous pourv ussious. 
que vous pourv ussiez. 
qu' ils pourv ussent. 



MODE INFINITIF 



present. 
Pourv oir, To provide. 



Participe present. 
Pourv oyant, Providing. 



French Speaker. 355 

Participe passe. Participe present compose. 

Pourvu (mas.) provided, pour v ue Ayant pourvu, Having -provided. 
(fern.) 

Participe passe compose. 
Avoir pourvu, To have provided. 

Conjugate after the same manner depourvoir (to deprive), 
and repourvoir (to provide again). • 

Surseoir* — (To suspend, to put off). 

This verb is seldom used except in its Participe passe and 
in its Infinitif '; but in this last case, surseoir is often pre- 
ceded by the verb faire (to cause) conjugated: Le juge a fait 
surseoir a 1' execution du condamne ( The judge caused the exe- 
cution of the condemned man to be suspended.) H fut sursis 
au jugement de cette affaire (The judgment of that affair 
has been postponed). 

This verb, said to be active, can be used in its entire 
meaning as a neutral verb. 

Seoir— (To fit.) 

(Neutral verb — Past participle : sis (mas.), sise (fern.) situated. — 
Used only in deeds : une maison sise a or situee a (a house situated at. ) 

This verb, which is used only in the third person- singu- 
lar and plui:al of some tenses and has no compound tenses. 

MODE INDICATIF. 

Present. Imparfait. 

II sied, It Jits, it agrees, suit, it fll se yait, I was fitting, agreeing, 

is convenient. suiting. 

ils sie ent, they fit. ils se yaient, they were fitting. 

MODE CONDITIONNEL. 

Futur. Present. 

II sie ra, It ivill fit, agree, suit. II sie rait, It should fit, agree, suit. 

ils sie ront, they will fit. ils sie - raient, they should fit. 

*The e in seoir is mute. 

f Mostly used in the sense of to be convenient and of to fit. 



356 



French Speaker. 



MODE SUBJONCTIP. 

Present. 

Qu' il si6e( That it may jit,agrcc,suit), qu' ils sie" &nt(that they may fit. 



Valoir*— {To be worth.) 
(Active verb — Auxiliary avoir — Past participle : valu. ) 



MODE INDICATIF. 



Present. 

Je vaux, J am worth. 

tu vaux. 

il vaut. 

nous val ons. 

vous val ex. 

ils val ent. 



indefini. 

J' ai valu, etc., I have been worth. 

Passe defini. 

Je val us, T had been tvo^th. 

tu val us. 

il val ut. 

nous val umes. 

vous val utes. 

ils val urent. 



Imparfait. 
Je val ais, I was being ivorth. 
tu val ais. 
il val ait. 
nous val ions. 
vous val iez. 
ils val aient. 

Plus que par fait. 

J' avais valu, etc., I had been 
ivorth. 

Futur. 
Je vaud rai, I 'will be worth. 
tu vaud ras. 
il vaud ra. 
nous vaud rons. 
vous vaud rez. 
ils vaud rout. 



MODE CONDITIONNEL. 



Present. 
Je vaud rais, I should be worth. 
tu vaud rais. 
il vaud rait. 
nous vaud rions. 
vous vaud riez. 
ils vaud raient. 



Passe. 

J' aurais valu, etc., I should have 
been worth. 



* Valoir is irregular in, lo : Indicatif present 1st, 2d and 3d persons 
singular, (radical); 2o : in the Futur and in the Conditionnel present 
(radical); 3o : in the Imperatif, 2d person singular (radical), and 4o : 
in the Subjonctif present, 1st, 2d and 3d person singular and 3d plural 
(radical.) 



French Speaker. 357 

MODE DIPERATIP. 

Vaux, or vaille* — Be worth (thou.) 
val ons — let us be worth. 
val ez — be worth (you.) 

MODE SUBJONCTIF. 

Present. Imparfait. 

Que je vaill e,* That I may be Que je val usse, That I might be 

worth. worth. 

que tu vaill es. que tu val usses. 

qu' il vaill e. qu' il val ut. 

que nous val ions. que nous val ussions. 

que vous val iez. que vous val ussiez. 

qu' ils vaill ent. qu' il val assent. 

MODE INFINIT1F. 

Present. Participe present. 

Val oir, To be worth. Val ant, Being worth. 

Participe passe. Participe present compose. 

Val u (mas.) been worth, Value Ay ant valu, Having been worth. 
(fern.) 

Participe passe compose. 

Avoir valu, To have been worth. 

Conjugate in the same manner equivaloir (to be equiva- 
lent), revaloir (to be worth again) and prevaloir (to prevail), 
taking notice that this last verb, prevaloir, does not double 
its consonant I in the Subjonctif present, and that the i dis- 
appears also, thus giving : Queje preval e, que tic preval es, 
qu' il preval e, que nous preval ions, que vous preval iez, 
qu' ils preval ent. 

Revaloir is always used with either of the pronouns le or 
cela and commonly expresses a kind of threat : 

II m 5 a trahi, mais je lui revaudrai cela (He betrayed me, 
but I ivill revenge myself.) 

Valoir and revaloir are active verbs, and equivaloir and 
prevaloir are neutral. 

*Pronouuce aille as the pronoun I, but shorter — Vaille is very little 
used, but sounds very conveniently for the Imperatif, and is smooth. 



358 



French Speaker. 



Voir*— (To see.) 

(Active verb— Auxiliary avoir— Past participle : vu.) 

MODE INDICATIF. 



Present. 

Je vois, I see. 
tu vois. 
il voit. 

nous voy ons. f 
vous voy ex. 
ils voi ent. 

Passe inclefini. 

J' ai vu, etc., I have seen. 

Passe defini. 

Je vis, T saw. 
tu vis. 
il vit. 

nous vimes. 
vous ites. 
ils virent. 

Passe anterieur. 

J' eus vu, etc., I had seen. 



Imparfait. 
Je voy ais, I was seeing. 
tu voy ais. 
il voy ait. 
nous voy ions.f 
vous voy iez. 
ils voy aient. 

Plus que parfait. 

J' avais vu, etc., I had seen. 

Futur. 
Je ver rai, I will see. 
tu ver ras. 
il ver ra. 
nous ver rons. 
vous ver rez. 
ils ver ront, 

Futur anterieur. 

J' aurai vu, etc., I will have seen. 



MODE CONDITIONNEL. 



Present. 
Je ver rais, I should see. 
tu ver rais. 
il ver rait. 
nous ver rions. 
vous ver riez. 
ils ver raient. 

MODE IMPERATIF 

Vois — see (thott.~) 
voy ons — let us see. 
voy ez — see {you. ) 



J' aurais vu, etc., I should have 
seen. 



^Pronounce oir as war, with ar broad as in car. 
fy is used for two i's. 

X y is used here for one i and the i simple following it is slightlj' ac- 
cented. 



French Speaker. 359 

MODE SUBJONCTIF. 
Present. Imparfait. 

Quejevoie, That T may see. Que je visse, That I might see. 

que tu voi es. que tu visses. 

qu' il voi t. qu'il vit. 

que nous voy ions. que nous vissions. 

que vous voy iez. que vous vissiez. 

s qu' ils voi ent. qu' ils vissent. 



Plus que par fait. 

Que j'aie vu, etc., That I may Que j' eusse vu,etc., That I might 
have seen. have seen. 

MODE INFINITIF. 

Present. Participe present. 

Voir, To see. Voy ant. 

Participe jiasse. Participe present compose. 

Vu (mas.) seen, vue (fern.) Ayant vu, Having seen. 

Participe passe compose. 

Avoir vu, To have seen. 

Conjugate in the same manner the verbs entrevoir, revoir 
and prevoir, respectively to see, or to see imperfectly : to see 
again, and to foresee. 

Prevoir, instead of making- ye preverrai sati&je pr ever r ais 
like voir in the Futur and in the Conditionnel present, 
changes er to oi in the whole conjugation of both tenses, 
thus giving- je prevoir ai, je prevoir ais, etc. 

The verbs above are active verbs. 

Vouloir.*— {To wish). 

(Active verb— Auxiliary avoir— Past participle : voulu.) 
MODE INDICATIF. 
Present. Imparfait. 

Je veux,f I wish. Je voul ais. 

tu veux. tu voul ais. 

* Pronounce oir as war with ar broad as in car. 

f Pronounce eux and eut as between French u and u of tub. 



360 



French Speaker 



il vent. 

nous voul ons. 
vou.s voul ez. 
ils veul ent. 

Passe indefini. 

J'ui voulu, etc., I have wished. 

Passe deftni. 
Je voul us, I wished. 
tu voul us. 
il voul ut. 
nous voul umes. 
vous voul utes. 
ils voul urent. 



il voul ait. 
nous voul ions. 
vous voul iez. 
ils voul aient. 

Plus que parfait. 

J' avais voulu, etc., T had wished. 

Futur. 
Je voud rai, I will wish. 
tu voud ras. 
il voud ra. 
nous voud rons. 
vous voud rez. 
ils voud rout. 



Passe anterieur. 
J' eus voulu, I had wished. 



Futur anterieur. 

J'aurai voulu, etc., T will have 
wished. 
MODE CONDITION NEL. 



Passe. 

J'aurais voulu, etc., I should have 
wished. 



Present. 
Je voud rais, T should wish. 
tu voud rais. 
il voud rait. 
nous voud rions. 
vous voud riez. 
ils voud raient. 

MODE IMPERATIF. 

Veux or veuill ez — Wish (thou.) 
voul ons or veuill ons — let us wish. 
voul ez or veuill ez — wish (you.) 

MODE SUBJONCTIF. 



Present. 

Que je veuill e,* That I may wish. 

que tu veuill es. 
qu' il veuill e. 
que nous voul ions. 
que vous voul iez. 
qu' ils veuill ent. 



Imparfait. 
Que je voul usse, That I might 

wish. 
que tu voul usses. 
qu' il voul iit. 
que nous voul usssions. 
que vous voul ussiez. 
qu' ils voul ussent. 



* Pronounce eu as u in tub and ill as y in beyond : e and es final 
are mute. 



French Speaker. 361 

Passe. Plus que parlait. 

Que j'aie voulu, etc., That I may Que j'eusse voulu, etc., That I 
have wished. might have wished. 

MODE IXFIXITIF. 
Present. Partieipe present. 

Voul oir, To wish. Voul ant, Wishing. 

Partieipe passe. Partieipe present compose. 

Voulu (mas.) wis/te<£,voulue(fem.) Ayant voulu, Saving wished. 
Partieipe passe compose. 
Avoir voulu, To have wished. 

Conjugate revouloir (to wish again) in the same manner 
as vouloir. Revouloir is also an active verb. 

Savoir*— {To know.) 

(Active verb — Auxiliary avoir — Past participle : su.) 

MODE INDICATIF. 

Present. Imparfait. 

Je sais, I know. Je sav ais, I was knowing. 

tu sais. tu sav ais. 

il sait. il sav ait, 

nous sav ons. nous sav ions. 

vous sav ez. vous sav iez. 

ils sav ent. ils sav aient. 

Passe iiidefini. Plus que parfait. 

J'aisu, etc., I have known. J' avais su, etc., I had known. 

Passe defini. Futur 

Je sus, I knew. Je sau rai, Twill know. 

tu sus. tu sau ras. 

il sut. il sau ras. 

nous stimes. nous sau rons. 

vous sutes. vous sau rez. 

ils surent. ils sau ront. 

Passe anterieur. Futur anterieur. 

J' eus su, etc., I had known. J' aurai su, etc., I will have known. 



*Sav the radical is irregular.— All the endings are regular. 



362 



French Speak a ■ . 



MODE CONDITIONNEL. 

Present. Passe. 

Je sau rais, T should know. J'aurais su, etc., T should hare 



tu sau rais. 
il sau rait. 
nous sau rions. 
vous sau riez. 
ils sau raient. 



known. 



MODE IMPERATIF. 

Sach e — Know {thou.) 
sach ons — let us know. 
sach ez — know (yon.) 

MODE SUBJONCTIF. 



Present. 

Que je sach e, That I may know. 

que tu sach es. 

qu' il sach e. 

que nous sach ions. 

que vous sach iez. 

qu' ils sach ent. 

Passe. 



Im par fait. 

Quejesusse, That T might know. 

que tu snsses. 

qu' il svit. 

que nous sussions. 

que vous sussiez. 

qu' il sussent. 

Plus que parfait. 



Que j' aie su, etc., That I may have Que j' eusse su, etc., That I might 
known. have known. 

MODE INFINIT1F. 

Present. Participe present. 

Sav oir, To know. Sach ant, Knowing. 

Participe passe. Participe present compose. 

Su (mas.) known, sue (fern.) Aj^ant su, Having known. 

Participe passe compose. 

Avoir su, To have, known. 

Choir— (To fall*) Rechoir— (To fall again.*) 

Neutral verbs. They are used only in their Infinitif 
present. The past participles elm and rechu, used formerly, 
have formed the nouns chute (fall), and rechute (relapse.) 

*Tomber and retomber, which have the same meaning, are mostly 
used. 



French Speaker. 363 

Dechoir— (To decline, to decay.) 
Neutral verb — Past participle: dechu. 

This verb is seldom used, except in the Present de V Tn- 
finitif and in its compound tenses, formed with avoir when 
it marks action, and with etre when it marks state : 

II est mieux de faire des pr ogres que de dechoir (If is better 
to succeed than to decay.) 

II a dechu tous les jours depuis que vous V avez vu (He lias 
declined every day since you have seen him.) 

Napoleon fut vaincu, mats il ne fut pas dechu de toide gloire. 
(Napoleon ivas vanquished but he was still a glorious man.) 

Its participe present, decheant forms the nouns decheance 
(forfeiture.) 

Echoir— (To fall, to expire, to be due.) 
(Neutral verb — Auxiliai-y etre — Past participle : echu.) 

This verb is used only in — 

1st, the Infinitif present, in the sense of to happen ; but 
the verb arriver (to arrive), used impersonally, is mostly 
used instead of echoir : il peut arriver (it may happen, it may 
arrive.) 

2d, the Present de V Indicatif : ce billet echoit aujourdhui 
(That bill falls or is dice to-day.) Votre terme de loyer est 
echu demain (Your lease ends or expires to-morroiu ; and 
your rent will then be due.) 

3d, the Passe deflni : II echut qu' il etait a la maison (It 
happened that he was at home.) 

4th, the Futur and in the Gonditionnel present il echerra, 
il echerrais (in the meaning of to happen,) and 

5th, in the Subjonctif, present et imparfait : Qu ' il echoie, 
qu' il echut (In the meaning of to be, or to fall due and of to 
happen.) 

Echeant, Participe present of echoir, forms the noun 
echeance (coming due, expiration.) 



364 



French, Speaker 

Observation. 



Conjugate the verbs of the Third Conjugation, in their 
passive form, in the same manner as in the First and in the 
Second Conjugations : Je suis apercu (I am perceived), Je 
suis vu (I am seen), Je suis decu (I am deceived), etc., etc. 



This consonant is sounded as in English, and there is 
nothing particular to mention about it. 



w. 



This is sounded as in the English word water : 



"Waterloo pronounce Wa as in 

battle-field was, er as ere in 

in Belgium. there, oo as o in no. 

Wellington pronounce Well as 

English well, in as an in 

general. sank, n mute, g 

sounded as in bag, 

on as in monk n 

mute. 



Wagram 
battle-field 
in Austria. 
Sandwich 

islands in 
Polynesia. 



pronounce Wa as in 
was, am as in ram, 
broad. 

pronounce an as in 
want n mute, d 
sounded, wich as 
wick. 



But in the following words, w is sounded with the e 
ceding it, as between the French u and u of us : 



pre- 



Newton 

English 
astronomer. 

Newcastle 

city in 
England. 



pronounce New as 
between French u 
and u of us, on as 
in monk n mute. 

pronounce New as 
above, cas as in 
English, tl sound- 
ed as in a diph- 
thong, e mute. 



New- York pronounce ew as be- 
American tween French u 

city. and u of us, the 

rest as in English. 
New Hampshire pronounce New 
one of the as before, am as an 

United States, in want m mute, j) 

sounded, s h i r e 

with ire as ere in 

here. 



In German names as the following, w sounds as v simple : 



Westphalie pronounce wes as in 

country in vesper, t mute, a 

Germany. as ah, ie as ee in see. 



Weimar 

country in 
Germany. 



pronounce ex as a% in 
nail, ar as in car. 



French Sjjcaker. 365 

(Noblesse et Noblesse — Suite.) 
II. 

Les rapports 1 qui avaient existe jaclis 2 eiitre les families 
de Cernan et du Cherny s'etaient presqu'interrompus 3 a la 
retraite du baron, chez lequel 4 l'infortmie et le mallieur 
avaient produit 5 une sorte 6 de misanthropie, que 1' affection 
lui prodiguee 7 par Berthe dans la gaiete animee 8 de son 
age, n' etait point j)arvenue 9 a secouer, 1 ° au contrairs: cette 
jeunesse vivace 1 1 seniblait rendre 1 2 du Cherny plus triste, 1 3 
car 14 il avait maintenant 1 5 devant lui l'avenir 1 6 de sa fille, 
qu' il aurait pu rever si brillant autrefois ! 1 7 Mais la paleur 1 8 
de son blason 1 9 ne lui laissait plus voir 2i) en ce qui 1' obse- 
dait, 21 qu' un intrus 22 cynique et moqueur, 23 se jouant de 
lui 24 et de ses projets, irrealisables 2 5 desormais ! C en etait 
fait 26 de 1' infortune baron, captive dans l'etau 27 funeste 28 
de ses noires idees ; 2 9 son moral affaibli, 3 ° il ne s'etait point 
apergu du clegre 31 qu' avait atteint 32 le mal physique 33 qui 
le minait depuis long-temps : sa maladie de coeur, 3 4 affection 
hereditaire chez les Cherny, s' aggrava tout a coup, 3 5 et une 
fievre survenant, 3 6 fit empirer son etat, 3 7 qui f ut bientot de- 
sespere. 3 8 Le marquis de Cernan, averti de 3 9 la condition de 
son vieil ami, vint le voir 4 ° et celui-ci 4 1 lui confia 4 2 ses af- 
faires, desquelles 4 3 le vieux celibataire 4 4 accepta volontiers 4 5 
la charge. 

La mort 46 de du Cherny etait survenue 47 a quelques 
jours de la, 48 precipitant 49 sa fille dans un abime de 
douleur. 5 ° De Cernan, qui n' avait quitte que momentane- 
ment 51 le pauvi'e 52 baron, lui rendit les derniers devoirs 53 
avec toutes marques d' attachement 5 4 possibles, et s'acquitta 
noblement de cette partie, 5 5 qu' il avait comprise 5 6 lui-meme 
dans la mission qu'il avait recue. 57 Mais 1' interessante 
orpheline, 5 8 dont les chagrins 5 9 semblaient avoir augmente B ° 
les graces, avait fait naitre 1 dans son coeur 62 un sentiment 
jusque la 63 peu connu 64 de lui. Mademoiselle Belard seule 
s' en etait apercue, et fit part a Berthe de ses imx>ressions. 



366 French Speaker. 

La vieille gouvernante avait juge vrai, car en effet, 65 en- 
viron six semaines fi6 apres le terrible malheur 67 qui avait 
frappe 6 8 la pauvre enfant, de Cernan lui proposa de deve- 
nir 69 son legal protecteur et pere a la fois, 70 en devenant 71 
son mari. 72 Berthe qui, en outre 73 des bons offices 74 dont 
elle avait ete l'objet de la part de son pere, devait 75 encore 
a 1' attention et au tact intelligent et doux 7fi du marquis la 
mitigation de sa douleur, 7 7 avait pris ce dernier en affectiou 
reelle, 78 et eprouvait 79 pour lui une sorte cle piete filiale,- 80 
mais en fille sage 8 1 et prudente comme nous 1' avons dit, elle 
n'accueillit ni ne refusa 82 cette proposition, qui ne changea 
toutefois 83 rien a ses sentiments pour son bienf aiteur, 8 4 
auquel elle objecta son trop jeune age 85 pour decider des 
1' instant 86 au sujet d'une 87 question si 88 importante, et a 
la fois si intime, 89 pensa-t-elle aussi. 90 Elle exposa aussitot 
le tout 91 a sa digne confidente, dont le marquis avait, par 
sa conduite et son devouement, 9 2 acquis toutes les sympa- 
thies, et Berthe, appuyee maintenant 93 des avis et des con- 
seils 94 de son affectionne Mentor, repondit par une adhesion 
aussi pure que naive 9 5 et sincere a la declaration de son 
age 96 admirateur, et devint peu de temps apres 97 Madame 
de Cernan. 

Metamorphose 98 par sa jeune et jolie epouse," Edouard 
de Cernan voulut, 1 ° ° afin de lui procurer 1 ° a ce qu'il croyait 
digne d' elle, 1 ° 2 abandonner le chateau 1 ° 3 ou il avait vecu lui- 
meme 1 04 jusqu' alors 1 ° 5 sans aucun faste, 1 ° 6 et ils allerent 
habiter 1 ° 7 un domaine superbe qu'il possedait 1 ° 8 sur une cote 
delicieuse au bord de la mer, 1 ° 9 non loin 1 J ° du village de M*, 
dont les habitants etaient des pecheurs. 1 1 1 Ils y furent re- 
cus avec de grands transports de respect et d' enthousiasme, 
que pay a de retour 1 1 2 la jeune et gracieuse marquise, de 
laquelle 113 1' heureux et fier 114 mari, n' avait garde d'en- 
traver 1' entrain 115 de liberalite dont elle paraissait eniv- 
ree j 1 1 6 et lui-meme, semblant avoir perdu 1 1 7 pour jamais 1 1 8 
l'air hautain 119 et dedaigneux 1 20 de ses ancetres, allait 



French Speaker 



367 



jusqu'a prodigner, 1 2 1 tant il etait ravi du culte 122 qu'in- 
spirait son epouse ! 

Mais helas! cette epoque d' ineffable bonheur 123 dans la 
vie du marquis Edouard de Cernan etait comme une de ces 
eclaircies 124 ou. le soleil, se degageant de 125 l'epais brouil- 
lard, 1 2 6 projette des rayons 1 2 7 trop vifs, 1 2 8 aux quels succede 
bientot l'orage, 129 et qui n' apparaissent plus jusqu'aux 
confins 130 de 1' horizon et du jour, que comme une lumi- 
ere 1 31 aussi blafarde que 1 32 douteuse i 1 33 la marquise suc- 
combait 1 34 en donnant 1 3 5 a Cernan un successeur ! 

(A suivrc — To be continued.) 



Vocabulary. 



1 rapports, connection, rela- 
tions 

2 jadis, formerly 

3 presqu' iiiterrompus, almost 
interrupted 

4 chez lequel, to whom 

5 lemalheuravaitentproduit, 
the misfortune had produced 

6 une sorte, a kind 

7 que 1' affection lui prodiguee 
that the great affection re- 
ceived by him 

8 gaiete animee, animated gai- 
ety 

9 n' etait point parvenue, had 
not succeeded 

10 a secouer, to shake off 

11 jeunesse vivace, vivacious 
youth 

12 semblait rendre, seemed to 
make him 

13 triste, sad 

14 car, for 

15 maiiitenant, now, at this time 

16 r avenir, future situation 



17 qu' il aurait pu reversi brtl- 
. lant autrefois, to which he -was 

able to pretend formerly 

18 Mais la paleur, but the pale- 
ness 

19 blason, blazon, nobility' 1 s con- 
dition 

20 ne lui laissait pi as vwir, pre- 
vented him from seeing 

21 en cela, in it 

22 qu' un intrus, but an intruder 

23 cynique et moqueur, cynic 
and mocker 

24 se jouant de lui, ridiculing 
him 

25 irrealisables, which could not 
be realized 

26 c' en etait fait de l'in fortune 
baron, the unfortunate baron 
was all over 

27, 28 l'etau funeste, the fatal 
vice 

29 noires idees, gloomy ideas 

30 affaibli, weakened 

31 degre, degree 



368 



French Speaker. 



32 qu' avait atteint, which had 
reached 

33 mal physique, physical ill- 
ness 

34 sa maladie de eoeur,7its heart 
disease 

35 s' aggrava tout a coup, grew 
worse suddenly 

36 survenant, mixing itself with 

37 fit empirer son etat, made 
his condition worse 

38 desespere, hopeless 

39 averti de, warned or inform- 
ed of 

40 vint le voir, came to see him 

41 celui-ci, the latter 

42 lui confia, intrusted him with 

43 dont, from which 

44 le vieux celibataire, the old 
bachelor 

45 volontiers, willingly, with 
pleasure 

46 la inort, the death 

47 etait survenue, had occurred 

48 a quelques jour de la, a few 
days later 

49 precipitant, throwing, pre- 
cipitating 

50 dans un abime de douleur, 
in a deep sorroiv 

51 que momentanement, but 
for a very short time 

52 malheureux, unfortunate 

53 lui rendit les derniers de- 
voirs, attended his burial 

54 d' attachement, of affection 

55 s' acquitta noblement de 
cette partie, fulfilled nobly 
that part 

56 qu' il avait comprise, which 
lie had comprised 

57 qu' il avait re<^ue, which he 
had received 



58 1' interessante orpheline, the 

interesting orphan girl 

59 chagrins, griefs 

60 avoir augmente, to have in- 
creased 

61 avait fait naitre, had caused 
growing 

62 dans son coeur, in his heart 

63 jusque la, till that moment 

64 peu connu, not much known 

65 en effet, in fact 

66 environ six semaines, about 
six weeks 

67 malheur, misfortune 

68 qui avait frappe, which had 
struck 

69 lui proposa de devenir, pro- 
posed to her to become 

70 a la fois, at the same time 

71, 72 en devenant son rnari, by 
becoming her husband 

73 en outre, besides 

74 bons offices, good services 

75 devair, nwcd 

76 doux, kind 

11 douleur, sorrow 

78 reelle, real, true 

79 eprouvait, wets feeling 

80 pieie flliale, filial piety 

81 sage, wise 

82 ellen'accueillit ni nerefusa, 
she did not accept nor refuse 

83 toutefois, however 

84 bienfaiteur, benefactor 

85 son trop jeune age, her too 
young age 

86 des F instant, at once 

87 ausujet d' une, in regard, to a 

88 si, so 

89 a la fois si intime, so inti- 
mate (or) personal at the same 
time 



French Speaker. 



369 



90 pensa-t-elleaussi, she thought 
also 

91 aussitot le tout, as soon the 
whole thing 

92 par sa conduite et son de- 
vouement, by his conduct and 
good care 

93 appuyee maintenant, now 
relying upon 

94 des avis et des conseils, 
warnings and advices 

95 naive, simple, candid, natu- 
ral 

96 age, old, advanced in age 

97 peu de temps apres, a short 
time after 

98 metamorphose, transformed 

99 jolie epouse, pretty wife 

100 voulu, wished 

101 afln de lui procurer, in or- 
der to sectire to her 

102 cequ' il croyait digne d' elle, 
tv hat he believed she deserved 

103 abandonna le chateau, left 
the castle 

104 ou il avaic vecu lui-meme, 
where he had lived himself 

105 jusqu' alors, till that time 

106 sans aucun faste, without 
show 

107 ils allerent habiter,Me?/ went 
to live 

108 qu'il possedait, from which 
he ivas the landlord 

109 au bord de la mer, on the 
seashore 

110 non loin, not far 

111 pecheurs, fishermen 

112 que paya de retour, which 
returned 



113 laquelle, the one 

114 heureux et fler, happy and 
proud 

115 n' avait garde d' ent raver 
F entrain, was not heed/ess 
enough to impede the hearti- 
ness 

116 enivree, infatuated 

117 semblait avoir perdu, seemed 
to have lost 

118 pour jamais, for ever 

1 19 l 1 air hautain, (he ha ughty air 

120 dedaigneux, disdainful, 
scornful 

121 il allait jusqu' a prodiguer, 
he was becoming almost a 
squander er 

122 ravi da culte, delighted with 
the high attention 

123 bonheur, hapinness 

124 eclaircies, lighted sj)ots 

125 se degageant de, drawing 
itself from 

126 epais brouillard, thick fog 

127 projette des rayons projects 
or puts out his rays 

128 trop vifs, too sharp 

129 auxquels succede bientot 
T orage, to which the storm 
succeeds very soon 

130 jusqu' aux confins, till the 
limits 

131 comme une lumiere, as a 
light 

132 aussi blafarde que, as dull as 

133 douteuse, uncertain, doubt- 
ful 

134 succombait, died 

135 en donnant, while giving 



370 



French Speaker 



QUATRIEME CONJUGAISON. 

(Vendre*— (To sell)— Model. 

(Regular-Active verb— Auxiliary avoir— Past participle : vendu. 



MODE INDICATIF. 



Present. 



Je vend s, I sell. 

tu vend s. 

il vend. 

nous vend ons. 

vous vend ez. 

ils vend ent, 

Passe indefini. 

J' ai vendu, etc., I have sold. 

Passe defiiii. 
Je vend is, I sold. 
tu vend is. 
il vend it. 
nous vend imes. 
vous vend ites. 
ils vend irent. 

Passe anterieur. 

J' eus vendu, etc., I had sold. 



Imparfait. 

Je vend ais, I was selling. 

tu vend ais. 

il vend ait. 

nous vend ions. 

vous vend iez. 

ils vend aient. 

Plus que parfait. 

J'avais vendu, etc., I had sold. 

Futur. 
Je vend rai, I ivill sell. 
tu vend ras. 
il vend ra. 
nous vend rons. 
vous vend rez. 
ils vend rout. 

Futur anterieur. 

J' aurai vendu, etc., I will have 
sold. 



MODE CONDITIONNEL. 



Present. 

Je vend rais, I should sell. 

tu vend rais. 

il vend rait. 

nous vend rions. 

vous vend riez. 

ils vend raient. 



Passe. 

J' aurais vendu, etc., I should have 
sold. 



*Pronounce en as an in Avant, and keep n mute ; dr as in a diph- 
thong, and e final mute. 



French Speaker. 371 

MODE IMPERATIF. 

vend s— sell (thou.) 
vend ons — let us sell. 
vend ez — sell {you.) 

MODE SUBJOXCTIF. 

Present. Imparfait. 

Que je vend e, That I may sell. Que je vend isse, That I might 

sell. 
que tu vend es. que tu vend isses. 

qu' il vend e. qu' ils vend it. 

que nous vend ions. que nous vend issions. 

que vous vend iez. que vous vend issiez. 

qu' ils vend ent. qu' ils vend issent. 



Plus que parfait. 

Que j' aie vendu, etc., That I may Que j' eusse vendu, ete., That I 
have sold. might have sold. 

MODE IXFIXITIF. 

Present. Participe present. 

Vend re, To sell. Vend ant, Selling. 

Participe passe. Participe present compose. 

Vend u(mas.)-so/c/, vendue(fem.) Ayant vendu, Having sold. 
Participe passe compose. 
Avoir vendu, To have sold. 

Observation. 

In the Negative, Interrogative and Negative-Interrogative 
forms, the verbs of the cod j ligation above are conjugated 
the same as in the preceding conjugations. But the verb 
vendre and all others (no matter what conjugation they be- 
long to), having only one syllable in the first person of the 
Indicatif Present, take the following interrogative form: 
est-ce* que je vends? (do I sell?) est-ce que je pr ends ? (do 
I take ?) est-ceque je mens ? (do I lie ?) est-ce que je fats ? (do 
I make ?) 

*est-ce is pronouneed as ess in less, and que — ke, with e as u in tub. 



372 



French Speaker. 



But a long- use has authorized us to say : fais-je ? (do I 
make ?) dis-je ? (do I say ?) dois-je ? (must I ?) vois-je ? 
(do I see ?) ai-je ? (do have I ?) suis-je ? (am I ?) vais-je ? 
(do I go ?) 

Conjugate in the same manner as vendre the following- 
regular verbs : 



attendre, to wait, to expect, to 
wait for. 

entendre, to hear, to understand. 

suspendre,fo susjiend.to f>ostpone 

tendre, to hold out, to bend, to 
stretch out. 

pendre, to hang. 

confondre, to confound. 

fcorrespondre, to correspond. 

defendre, to defend, to prohibit,to 
forbid. 

mordre, to bite. 

Jdependre, to take down, to de- 
pend on (or) upon. 

Jdescendre, || to go (or) come down, 
to descend, to take down. 

And their derivatives also. 



fendre, to cleave. 

Jfbndre, to melt, to go on xoith 

rapidity (or) suddenly. 
perdre, to lose, to destroy. 
pondre, to lay eggs. 
Jpietendre, to pretend, to aspire 

to. 
rendre, to render, to return, to 

give back. 
repandre, to spill, to shed, to 

spread. 
Jrepondre, to answer, to reply, to 

be security for. 
tondre, to shear. 
tordre, to twist. 



Irregular Verbs of the Quatrieme Conjugaison. 
Battre— (To beat.) 

(Active verb — Auxiliary avoir — Past participles : battu. ) 
Observation. 

The compound tenses, formed and conjug-ated as prece- 
dently, will not be given on account of the leng-th of this 
conjug-ation, but any irregularity or want will be noticed. 

f The verbs marked with a dagger are neutral ; those marked with 
a double dagger are active and neutral according to their sense. 

|| Descendre takes avoir when an active verb, and takes etre when 
neutral. 



French Speaker. 



373 



MODE INDICAT1F. 



Present. 

Je bat s, I beat. 

tu bat s. 

il bat. 

nous batt ons. 

vous batt ez. 

ils batt ent. 

Passe defini. 

Je batt is, I beat. 
tu batt is. 
il batt it. 
nous batt imes. 
vous batt ites. 
ils batt ire nt. 



Imparfait. 
Je batt ais, I icas beating. 
tu batt ais. 
il batt ais. 
nous batt ions. 
vous batt iez. 
iis batt aient. 

Futur. 
Je batt rai, I will beat. 
tu batt ras. 
il batt ra. 
nous batt rons. 
vous batt rez. 
ils batt ront. 



MODE CONDITIONNEL. 

Present. 
Je batt rais, I should beat. 
tu batt rais. 
il batt rait. 
nous batt rions. 
vous batt riez. 
ils batt raient. 



MODE IMPERATIF. 



Bats — Beat (thou.) 
batt ons — let us beat. 
batt ez — beat (you.) 



MODE SUBJONCTIF. 



Present. 

Que je batt e, That I may beat. 

que tu batt es. 

qu' il batt e. 

que nous batt ions. 

que vous batt iez. 

qu' ils batt ent. 



Imparfait. 

Que je battisse, That Tmight beat. 

que tu batt isses. 

qu' il batt it. 

que nous batt issions. 

que vous batt issiez. 

qu' ils batt issent. 



MODE FtfFINITIF. 

Present. 

Batt re, To beat. 

Participe passe. Participe present. 

Batt u (mas.) battue (fem.)Beat. Batt ant, Beating. 



374 



French Speaker. 



Conjugate in the same, manner : 

Rebatt re, *.o beat again. 

S' ebatt re (pronominal verb),f to 

be merry. 
Se batt re (pronominal verb), f to 



Abatt re, to pull down. 
*Combatt re, to fight, to fight with. 
Debatt re, to debate. 
Rabattre,£o put down,to put down 
again, to diminish. 



struggle. 



Boiret— (To drink) 

(Active verb— Auxiliary avoir. — Past participle : bu.) 
MODE INDICATIF. 



Present. 

Je boi s, || I drink. 

tu boi s. 

il boi t. 

nous buv ons. 

vous buv ez. 

ils boiv ent. 

Passe deflni. 

Je bu s, I drank. 
tu bu s. 
il bu t. 
nous bumes. 
vous butes. 
ils burent. 



Imparfait. 
Je buv ais, I was drinking. 
tu buv ais. 
il buv ait. 
nous buv ions. 
vous buv iez. 
ils buv aient. 

Fnfcur. 
Je boi rai, I ivill drink. 
tu boi ras. 
il boi ra. 
nous boi rons. 
vous boi rez. 
ils boi ront. 



MODE CONDITIONNEL. 

Present. 
Je boi rais, I should drink. 
tu boi rais. 
il boi rait. 
nous boi rions. 
vous boi riez. 
ils boi raient. 



MODE IMPERATIF. 



Boi s, Drink (thou.) 
buv ons, let us drink. 
buv ez, drink (you. ) 



^Active and neutral according to the sense. 
fThey take etre as being pronominal verbs. 
\ Pronounce oire as -war with ar as in car. 
|| Pronounce ois as wa in was. 



French Speaker. 375 

MODE SUBJOXCTIF. 

Present. Imparfait. 

Que je boiv e. That I may drink. Que je busse. That I might drink. 

que tu boiv es. que tu busses, 

qu' il boiv e. qu" il but. 

que nous buv ions. que nous bnssions. 

que buv iez. que vous bussiez. 

qu' ils boiv ent. qu' ils bnssent. 

MODE IXFIXITIF. 

Present. 

Boi re. To drink. 
Participe present. Participe passe. 

Buv ant. Drinking. Bu (mas.), bue (fem. ), drunk. 

Conjugate in the same manner the compound reboire {to 
drink again). 

Clove— [To close.) 

(Defective verb — Active — Auxiliary avoir — Bast participle : clos. ) 
MODE ENDICATIF. 
Present. Futur. 

Je clos, I close. Je clo rai, I will close. 

to. clos. • tu clo ras. 

il clot. il clo ra. 

nous clo rons. 
vous clo rez. 
ils clo rout. 

This verb is used in all the compound tenses. 

MODE COXDITIONXEL. 
Present. 
Je clo rais (J should close), tu clo rais. il clo rait, nous clo rions, 
vous clo riez. ils clo raient. 

Has no Participe present. Participe passe, feminine : close. 

Conjugate in the same manner : 

Enclo re. To enclose. 



376 



French Speaker 



Conclure*— (To conclude.) 

(Active verb — Auxiliary avoir — Past participle : conclu.) 

MODE INDICATIF. 



Present. 

Je conclu s,f I conclude. 
tu conclu s. 
il conclu t. 
nous conclu ons. 
vous conclu ez. 
ils conclu ent. 

Passe defini. 

Je conclu s, I concluded. 

tu conclu s. 

il conclu t. 

nOus concl nines. 

vous concl utes. 

ils concl urent. 

MODE CONDITIONNEL. 

Present. 
Je conclu rais, I should conclude. 
tu conclu rais. 
il conclu rait. 
nous conclu rions. 
vous conclu riez. 
ils conclu raient. 



Imparfait. 
Je conclu ais, I was concluding. 
tu conclu ais. 
il conclu ait. 
nous conclu ions.J 
vous conclu lez. 
ils conclu aient. 

Futur. 
Je conclu rai, I will conclude. 
tu conclu ras. 
il conclu ra. 
nous conclu rons. 
vous conclu rez. 
ils conclu ront. 

MODE IMPERATIF. 

Conclu s, Conclude {thou.') 
conclu ons, let us conclude. 
conclu ez, conclude {you.) 



MODE SUBJONCTIF. 



Present. 

Que je conclu e, That I may con- 
clude. 
que tu conclu es. 
qu' il conclu e. 
que nous conclu ions. 
que vous conclu lez. 
qu' ils conclu ent. 



Imparfait. 
Que je concl usses, That I might 

conclude. 
que tu concl usses. 
qu' il concl tit. 
que nous concl ussions. 
que vous concl ussiez. 
qu' ils concl ussent. 



* Pronounce on as in monk, keeping n mute, u as in French, r rolled, 
e mute. 

f Pronounce u as in French, s silent. 

\ Sound the ii a little more accented than the y in York 



French Speaker. 



377 



MODE INFINITIF. 

Present. 
Condu re, To conclude. 
Participe present. Participe passe. 

Conclu ant. Conclu (mas.), conclue (fern.), 

concluded. 

Conjugate in the same manner : 

Exclu re, To exclude. 



Confire — *(To preserve with sugar.) 

(Active verb — Auxiliary avoir — Past participle : conflt.) 

MODE INDICATIF. 

Present. Imparfait. 

Jeconfis, I preverve. Je conf isais, I teas preserving. 



tu conf is. 
il conf it. 
nous conf isons. 
vous conf isez. 
ils conf isent. 

Passe clefini. 

Jeconfis, I preserved. 

tu conf is. 

il conf it. 

nous conf imes. 

vous conf ites. 

ils conf irent. 



tu conf isais. 
il cont isait. 
nous conf isions. 
vous conf isiez. 
ils conf isaient. 

Futur. 

Jeconfirai, I will preserve. 

tu conf iras. 

il conf ira. 

nous conf irons. 

vous conf irez. 

ils conf iront. 



MODE CONDITIONNEL. 

Present. 

Je conf irais, T should -preserve* 

tu conf irais. 

il conf irait. 

nous conf irions. 

vous conf iriez. 

ils conf iraient. 



MODE IMPERATIF. 

Conf is, Preserve (thoit.) 
conf isons, let us preserve. 
conf isez, preserve {you. ) 



*Pronounce ire as ere in here. Confire is said only for fruits pre- 
served in sugar. To preserve in vinegar, there is the verb mariner ; 
thus, mariner des concombres (to pickle cucumbers), but confire 
des poires (to preserve pears — in sugar.) 



378 French Speaker. 

MODE SUBJONCTIF. 

Present. Imparfait. 

Que je conf ise, That I may pre- Que je conf isse, That I might 
serve. preserve. 



que tu conf ises. 
qu' il confi se. 
que nous conf isions. 
que vous conf isiez. 
qu' ils conf isent. 



que tu conf isses. 
qu' il conf it. 
que nous conf issions. 
que vous conf issiez. 
qu' ils conf issent. 



Present. 

Confi re, To preserve. 



MODE INFINITIF. 

Participe present. 

Conf isant, Preserving. 
Participe passe. 

Confi t (mas.) confi te (fem.) preserved. 

Conjugate in the same manner : 

Suffire {to suffice), and circoncire {to circumcise.) 



Coudre— {To sew.) 

(Active verb — Auxiliary avoir — Part participle : consu.) 
MODE INDICATIF. 



Present. 

Je coud s,* I sew. 

tu coud s. 

il coud. 

nous cous ons.f 

vous cous ez. 

ils cous ent. 

Passe defini. 

Je cous is, I served. 
tu cous is. 
il cous it. 
nous cous imes. 
vous cous ites. 
ils cous irent. 



Imparfait. 
Je cous ais, I was serving. 
tu cous ais. 
il cous ait. 
nous cous ions. 
vous cous iez. 
ils cous aient. 

Futur. 
Je coud rai, Twill sew. 
tu coud ras. 
il coud ra. 
nous coud rons. 
vous coud rez. 
ils coud ront. 



*Couds and coud — pronounce on as oo in too, leaving ds and d 
mute. 

f Pronounce s of the radical as z. 



French Speaker 



379 



MODE COND1TIONNEL. 

Present. 

Je coud rais, I should sew. 

tu coud rais. 

il coud rait. 

nous coud rions. 

vous coud riez. 

ils coud raient. 



MODE IMPERAT1F. 

Coud s — sew (thou.) 
cous ons — let tis sew. 
cous ez — sew (you.) 



Present. 

Que je cous e, That I may sew. 

que tu cous es. 

qu' il cous e. 

que nous cous ions. 

que vous cous iez. 

qu' ils cous ent. 



MODE SUBJONCTIF. 

Imparfait. 

Que je cous isse, That I might sew. 

que tu cous isses. 

qu' il cous it. 

que nous cous issions. 

que vous cous issiez. 

qu' lis cous issent. 



Present. 

Coud re, To seio. 



MODE INFINITIF. 

Participe present. 
Cous ant, Sewing. 
Participe passe. 

Cous u (mas.) cous ue (fora.) sewed. 

Conjugate in the same manner : 

Decoudre (to rip), and Recoudre (to sew again.) 

Croire- (To believe.) 
(Active verb — Auxiliary avoir — Past participle : cru.) 
MODE INDICATIF. 
Present. Imparfait. 

Je croi s,* I believe. Je croy ais, I was believing. 

tu croi s. tu croy ais. 

il croi t. il croy ait. 

nous croy ons.f nous croy ions.J 

vous croy ez. vous croy iez. 

ils croi ent. ils croy aient. 

*Pronounce oi as wa in was. 

fy used for two i's, one on cro making croi, and the other on ons 
making ions. 

Jions— pronounce i as English e combined with ons, sounded as on 
in monk, ns is mute. 



380 



French Speaker. 



Passe defini. 

Je cr us, I believed. 

tu cr us. 

ll cr ut. 

nous cr times. 

vous cr utes. 

ils cr urent. 



Futur. 
Je croi rai, I will believe. 
tu croi ras. 
il croi ra. 
nous croi rons. 
vous croi rez. 
ils croi ront. 



MODE CONDITION NEL. 
Present. 
Je croi rais, I should believe. 
tu croi rais. 
il croi rait. 
nous croi rions. 
vous croi riez. 
ils croi raient. 

MODE SUBJONCT1F. 



MODE IMPERATIF. 



Croi s— Believe (thou.) 
croy ons — let us believe. 
croy ez — believe (you.) 



Present. 

Que je croi e, That I may have. 

que tu croi es. 
qu' il croi e. 
que nous croy ions. 
que vous croy iez. 
qu' ils croi ent. 



Imparfait. 

Quejecrusse, That I might be- 
lieve. 
que tu cr usses. 
qu' il cr ut. 
que nous cr ussions. 
que vous cr ussiez. 
qu' ils cr ussent. 



MODE INFINITIF. 

Present. Participe present. 

Croi re, To believe. Croy ant, Believing. 

Participe passe. 

Cr u (mas.) cr ue (fern.) believed. 



Croitre*— ( To grow) 

(Neutral verb — Auxiliary avoir — Past participle : crii. ) 

*In croitre, i takes a circumflex accent when, in course of conjuga- 
tion, it is followed by t, and the same sign is also placed on the u of 
the past participle, masculine and feminine ; and the same when u 
occurs in course of conjugation, in order to distinguish this conjuga- 
tion with that of croire (to believe.) 

Pronounce tr hard and as if it was a diphthong. 



French Speaker. 



MODE INDICATIF. 



381 



Present. 

Je croi s, I grow. 

tu croi s. 

il croi t. 

nous croiss oris. 

vous croiss ez. 

ils croiss ent. 

Passe deflni. 

Je cr us, I grew. 
tu cr us. 
il cr ut. 
nous cr umes. 
vous cr utes. 
ils or urent. 



MODE CONDITIONNEL. 

Present. 
Je croit rais- 
tu croit rais. 
il croit rait, 
nous croit rions. 
vous croit riez. 
ils croit raient. 

MODE SUBJONCTLF 



Imparfait. 
Je croiss ais, I was growing. 
tu croiss ais. 
il croiss ait. 
nous croiss ions. 
vous croiss iez, 
ils croiss aient. 

Futur. 
Je croit rai, I will grow. 
tu croit ras. 
il croit ra. 
nous croit rons. 
vous croit rez. 
ils croit ront. 

MODE IMPERAT1F. 



Croi s — grow {thou.) 
croiss ons — let us grow. 
croiss ez — grow {you.) 



Present. 

Que je croiss e, That 1 may grow. 

que tu croiss es. 

que il croiss e. 

que nous croiss ions. 

que vous croiss iez. 

qu' ils croiss ent. 



Imparfait. 
Que je cr usse, That T might grow, 
que tu cr usses. 
qu' il cr ut. 
que nous cr fissions. 
que vous cr tissiez. 
qu' ils cr iissent. 



Present 

Croit re, to grow. 



MODE INFIMTIF. 

Participe present, 
Croiss ant, growing. 
Participe passe. 

Crii (mas.) cr ue, grown. 

Conjugate in the same manner : 

Accroit re {to increase) and decroit re {to decrease.) 



382 



French Speaker. 



Craindre*— {To fear). 

(Active verb— Auxiliary avoir— Past participle : craient.) 



MODE INDICATIF. 



Present. 

Je crain s, I fear. 
tu crain s. 
il crain t. 
nous craign ons.f 
vous craign ez. 
ils craign ent. 

Passe defini. 

Je craign is, I feared. 
tu craign is. 
il craign it. 
nous craign imes. 
vous craign ites. 
ils craign irent. 



Imparfait. 



Je craign ais, I was fearing. 

tu craign ais 

il craign ait. 

nous craign ions. 

vous craign iez. 

ils craign aient. 

Futur. 
Je craind rai, I will fear. 
tu craind ras. 
il craind ra. 
nous craind rons. 
vous craind rez. 
ils craind ront. 



MODE CONDiriONNEIi. 

Present. 

J e craind r ais, I should fear. 

tu craind rais. 

il craind rait. 

nous craind rions. 

vous craind riez. 

ils craind raient. 



MODE IMPEKATIF. 

Crain s—fear (thou.) 
craign ons — let us fear. 
craign ez—fear (you.) 



MODE SUBJONCTIF. 



Present. 

Que je craign e, That I may fear. 

que tu craign es. 
qu' il craign e. 
que nous craign ions. 
que vous craign iez. 
qu' ils craign ent. 



Imparfait. 

que je craign isse, That 1 might 

fear. 
que tu craign isses. 
qu' il craign it. 
que nous craign issions. 
que vous craign issiez. 
qu' ils craign issent. 



* Pronounce cr as in a diphthong, and am as an in Franck, keep- 
ing 11 mute, and dr also as in a diphthong; e is mute. 
f ai as ay in may, grv as in mignonette. 



French Speaker 



383 



Present 

Craind re, To fear. 



3IODK INFINITIF. 

Participe present. 
Craign ant, Fearing. 
Participe passe. 
Crain t (mas.), crainte* (fern.) feared. 

Conjugate in the same manner: 



Contraindre, to constrain, to com- 
pel. 

Plaindre, to pity, to compassion- 
ate. 

Se plaindre, pronominal verb, 
with etre ; to complain. 

Joindre, to join. 

Peindre, to paint. 

Poindre, to dawn. 



Astreindre, to subject, to compel. 
Atteindre, to reach, to overtake. 
Ceindre, to gird. 
Enfreindre, to infringe. 
Eteindre, to put out, to extin- 
guish. 
Feindre, to feign, to pretend. 
Restreindre, to restrain. 
Teindre, to dye. 

Conjugate in the same manner all verbs whose present de 
V Infinitif ends in aindre, eindre and in oindre. 

Diref— {To say, to tell.) 

(Active verb — Auxiliary avoir — Past participle : (lit.) 

MODE INDICATIP. 

Imparfait. 
Je dis ais, I was saying. 
tu dis ais. 



Present. 

Je di s,J I say. 
tu di s. 
il di t. 

nous dis ons.§ 
vous dit es. 
ils dis ent. 

Passe deflni. 
Je di s, I said. 
tu di s. 
il di t. 

nous dimes. 
vous dites. 
ils dirent. 



il dis ait. 
nous dis ions. 
vous dis iez. 
ils dis aient. 

Futur. 
Je dl rai, I to ill say. 
tu di ras. 
il di ra. 
nous di rons. 
vous di rez. 
ils di ront. 



* Pronounce the t in the past participle feminine. 

f Pronounce dire as dear. 

J Pronounce dis as di in diploma. 

§ Pronounce s as z. 



384 



French Sj^aJcer. 



MODE CONDITIONNED. 

Present. 
Je di rais, I should say. 
tu di rais. 
il di rait. 
nous di rions. 
vous di riez. 
ils di raient. 



MODE IMPERATIF. 



di s—say (thou.) 
dis ons — let us say. 
dit es — say (you. ) 



MODE SUBJONCTIF. 



Present. 

Que je dis e, That I may say. 

que tu dis es. 

qu' il dis e. 

que nous dis ions. 

que vous dis iez. 

qu' ils dis ent. 



Imparfait. 
Que je disse,* That I might say. 
que tu di sses. 
qu' il di t. 
qui nous di ssions. 
que vous di ssiez. 
qu' ils di ssent. 



Present 

Di re, To say. 



MODE INFINITIF. 

Participe present. 

Dis ant, Saying. 
Participe passe. 

Di t (mas.), di tef (fern.) said. 



Conjugate in the same manner: 

Redire, to say again. Medire 

Contredire, to contradict. Predire 

D#dire, to disown. 
Interdire, to interdict. 



to slander, 
to foretell. 
Se dedire, to recant — pronominal 
verb, with etre. 



Observation. — Redire makes vous redites and redites respectively 
in the Indicatif present and in the Imperatif second person singular 
being exactly the same as dire ; but the six verbs above given in the 
same moods and tenses, vous contredisez, vous d^disez, vous inter- 
disez, vous medisez, vous predisez, vous vous dddisez ; contredisez, 
dedisez, interdisez, etc. Maudire (to curse) also a compound of dire, 
and though it belongs to the fourth conjugation, is conjugated exactly 
in the same manner as saisir, given for model of the second conjuga- 
tion in the regular verbs. 

Medire is a neutral verb. 

* Pronounce ss as in missing. 

■f Pronounce the t in the feminine gender. 



French Speaker. 385 

Eclore* — (To hatch, to blow, to open, to break.) 
(Neutral verb — Auxiliary avoir — Past participle : oclos. ) 

Ces oeufs doivent eclore demain {These eggs will open to- 
morrow or break), Cette nouvelle a eclos hier (That news tvas 
known yesterday), Cette fleur s 5 est eclose-\ ce matin (That 
flower has opened this morning.) 

Only conjugated in : 

MODE INDICATIF. 

Present. Futur. 

II eclo t, He breaks out. II eclo ra, He will break out. 

ils eelos ent, They, etc. ils eelo ront, They, etc. 

MODE SUBJONCT1F. 

Present. 

Qu' il eclos e, That he may break Qu' ils 6clos ent, That they might 
out. break out. 

All the compound tenses are used. 

Ecrire— (To write.) 

(Active verb — Auxiliary avoir — Past participle : ecrit.)J 

3IODE INFINIT1F. 

Present. Imparfait. 

J' ecri s,§ I write. J' 6criv ais, I was writing. 

tu ecri s. tu ecriv ais. 

ii ecri t, il ecriv ait. 

nous §criv ons. nous ecriv ions. 

vous ecriv ez. vous ecriv iez. 

ils 6criv ent. ils ecriv aient. 

*ore as ore. 

{Pronounce the s as z in the past participe feminine ; when s ends 
it is mute. 
\t pronounced in the feminine past participle ; e is mute. 
§cris as in crick. 
Y 



386 



French Speaker. 



Passe defini. 

J' ecriv is, I wrote. 
tu ecriv is. 
il ecriv it. 
nous ecriv imes. 
vous 6criv ites. 
ils ecriv irent. 



Futur. 

J'6crirai, I will write. 
tu ecri ras. 
il ecri ra. 
nous 6cri rons. 
vous ecri rez. 
ils ecri ront. 



MODE CONDITIONNEL. 

Present. 

J' ecri rais, I should ivrite. 

tu ecri rais. 

il ecri rait. 

nous ecri rions. 

vous ecri riez. 

ils ecri raient. 



MODE IMPBRATIP. 

ecri s — write (tfioto.) 
6criv ons — let us write. 
ecriv ez — ivrite {you.) 



MODE SUBJONCTIF. 



Present. 

Que y ecriv e, That I may write, 

que tu ecriv es. 
qu' il 6criv e. 
que nous 6criv ions. 
que vous 6criv iez 
qu' ils ecriv ent. 



Imparfait. 
Que j' 6criv isse, That 1 
ivrite. 
que tu ecriv isses. 
qu' il ecriv it. 
que nous 6criv issions. 
que vous ecriv issiez. 
qu' ils ecriv issent. 



MODE 1NFINIT1F. 

Present. Participe present. 

Ecri re, To ivrite. Ecriv ant, Writing. 

Participe passe 

Ecri t (mas.) eori te (fem.) written. 



Conjugate in the same manner 



Circonscrire, to circumscribe. 
Decrire, to describe. 
Inscrire, to inscribe. 
Prescrire, to prescribe. 



Proscrire, to 2>roscribe. 
R6crire, to write again. 
Souscrire, to subscribe. 
Transcrire, to transcribe. 



The verbs above are all active verbs. 



French Speaker. 



387 



Faire* — {To make, to do, to cause.) 

(Active verb — Auxiliary avoir — Past participle : fait.)f 

MODE INDICATIF. 



Present. 

Je fai s, I make. 

tu fai s. 

il fai t. 

nous lais ons. 

vous fait es. 

ils font. 

Passe defini. 

Je fis, I made. 

tu fis. 

il fit. 

nous fimes. 

vous fites. 

ils firent. 



MODE CONDITIONNEL.. 

Present. 
Je fe rais, I should make. 
tu fe rais. 
il fe rait. 
nous fe rions. 
vous fe riez. 
ils fe raient. 

MODE STJBJONCTIF. 



Iinparfait. 

Je fais ais, I was making. 

tu fais ais. 

il fais ait. 

nous fais ions. 

vous lais iez. 

ils fais aient. 

Futur. 
Je fe rai, I will make. 
tu fe ras. 
il fe ra. 
nous fe rons. 
vous fe rez. 
ils fe ront 

MODE IMPERAT1F. 



Fai s — )>iake (thee.) 
fais ons — let us make. 
fait es — make (you.) 



Present. 

Que je fass e, That I may make. 

que tu fass es. 

qu' il fass e. 

que nous fass ions. 

que vous fass iez. 

qu' ils fass ent. 



Iinparfait. 

Quejefisse, That I might make. 

que tu fisses. 

qu' il fit, 

que nous fissions. 

que vous fissiez. 

qu' ils fissent. 



MODE INFINITIF. 

Present. Participe present. 

Fai re, To do. Fais ant, Making. 

*Pronounce as fair. 

f Pronounce ait as ay in pay ; pronounce the t in the feminine. 



388 



French Speaker. 



Participe passe. 

Fait (mas.) faite (fern.) made. 

Conjugate in the same manner : 



Contrefai re, to counterfeit. 
Parfaire, to complete, to finish. 
Defaire, to undo. 

And other derivatives. 



Refaire, to do again. 
Satisfaire, to satisfy. 
Surfaire, to overcharge. 



All these above verbs are active verbs. 



Frire*— {To fry.) 

(Active verb — Auxiliary avoir— Past participle : frit.)f 



MODE INDICATIF. 



Present. 



Futur. 



Je fri s, 1 fry. 
iu fri s. 
il fri t. 

The plural is supplied by the 
conjugation of faire and the In- 
finitif frire : 
nous faisons frire. 
vous faites frire. 
ils font frire. 



Je fri rai, 1 will fry. 
tu fri ras. 
il fri ra. 
nous fri rons. 
vous fri rez. 
ils fri ront. 

MODE CONDITIONNEL. 

Present. 

Je fri rais, I should fry . 

tu fri rais. 

il fri rait. 

nous fri rions. 

vous fri riez. 

ils fri raient. 



All the other tenses are supplied as above, and all com- 
pound tenses, formed as usual, are of a smooth and fre- 
quent use. 

*ire as ere in here. 

ffrit as fri in trick — t is pronounced in the feminine. 



French Speaker. 



389 



Lire— (To read.) 

(Active verb — Auxiliary avoir — Past participle 



In.) 



Present. 

Je li s, *1 read. 

tu li s. 

il li t. 

nous lisf ons. 

vous lis ez. 

ils lis ent. 

Passe defiui. 

Je lus, I read. 

tu lus. 

il lut. 

nous lumes. 

vous lutes. 

ils lurent. 



MODE INDICATIF. 

I in par fait. 
Je lis ais, Zwas reading. 
tu lis ais. 
il lis ait. 
nous lis ions. 
vous liz iez. 
ils ils aient, 

Futur. 

Je li rai, I will read. 
tu li ras. 
il li ra. 
nous li rons. 
vous li rez. 
ils li ront. 



MODE CONDITIONNEL.. 

Present. 
Je li rais, 1 should read. 
tu li rais. 
il li rait. 
nous li rions. 
vous li riez. 
ils li raient. 



MODE IMPERATIF. 

Li s — Read (thee.) 
lis ons — let us read. 
lis ez — read (you.) 



MODE SUBJONCTIF. 



Present. 

Que je lis e, That I may read. 

que tu lis es. 

qu' il lis e. 

que nous lis ions. 

que vous lis iez. 

qu' ils lis ent. 



Imp ar fait. 

Que je lusse, That I might read. 

que tu lusses. 

qu' il lut. 

que nous lussions. 

que vous lussiez. 

qu' ils lussent. 



MODE INFEVITLF. 

Present. Participe present. 

Li re, To read. Lis ant, Reading. 

*Liis, lit — pronounce them as li in lip. 

f Pronounce i fxom there throughout the conjugation as English e 
and s not ending as z. — s ending is silent. 



390 



French Speaker. 



Participe passe. 

L u (mas) 1 ue (fem.) read. 

Conjugate in the same manner : 

Relire (to read again), Eclire (to elect), and Prelire (to read before.) 



(Mettre*— To put). 

(Active verb — Auxiliary avoir — Past participle : mis.f) 



MODE INDICATIF. 



Present. 

Je met s,J I put. 

tu met s. 

il met. 

nous mett ons. 

vous mett ez. 

ils mett ent. 

Passe defini. 

Je mi s, I put. 
tu mi s. 
il mi t. 
nous mimes. 
vous mites, 
ils mirent. 

MODE CONDITIONNEL. 

Present. 

Je mett rais. I should put. 

tu mett rais. 

il mett rait. 

nous mett rions. 

vous mett riez. 

ils mett raient. 



Imparfait. 
Je mett ais, I was putting. 
tu mett ais. 
il mett ait. 
nous mett ions. 
vous mett iez. 
ils mett aient. 

Futur 

Je mett rai, I will put. 
tu mett ras. 
il mett ra. 
nous mett rons. 
vous mett rez. 
ils mett ront. 

MODE IMPERATIF. 



Met s—put (thee.) 
mett ons — let us put. 
mett e'L—put (you.) 



* Pronounce e as in nett, tt as one t and as in a diphthong with r ; e 
is mute. 

fmisasmiin mid, s pronounced as z in the feminine past parti- 
ciple. 

Je as e in net, ts is mute. 



Fr end ) Speaker. 



391 



MODE SUBJONCTIF. 



Present. 

Que je mett e, That I may put 

que tu mett es. 

qu' il mett e. 

que nous mett ions. 

que vous mett iez. 

qu' ils-mett ent. 



Present 

Mett re, to put. 



Tmparfait. 

Quejemisse,* That I might put. 

que tu misses. 

qu' il mit. 

que nous missions. 

que vous missiez. 

qu' ils missent. 

MODE INFINITIF. 

Participe present. 
Mett ant, putting. 
Participe passe. 

M is (mas.) m ise (fern.) put. 

Conjugate in the same manner: 



Remettre, to put again 

place. 
Soumettre, to submit. 
Transmettre, to transmit. 
Se demettre, to resign. 
S' entremettre, to interpose. 



to re- 



Admettre, to admit. 
Commettre, to commit. 
Compromettre, to compromise. 
Demettre, to disjoint, to put out. 
Omettre, to omit. 
Permettre, to permit. 
Promettre, o promise. 

All the verbs above are active verbs except the two last, 
which are pronominal verbs, and consequently conjugated 
with the auxiliary etre. 

Moudref— {To grind.) 

(Active verb — Auxiliary avoir — Past participle : moulu.) 
MODE INDICATIF. 
Present. Imparfait. 

Je moudj s, I grind. Je moul ais, I teas grinding. 

tu moud s. tu moul ais. 

il moud. il moul ait. 

nous moul ons. nous moul ions. 

vous moul ez. vous monl iez. 

ils moul ent. ils moul aient. 

*as miss. 

f Pronounce ou as oo in cool, and dr as in a diphthong, e mute. 
Jds mute. 



392 



French Speaker. 



Passe defini. 

Je moul us, I ground. 

tu moul us. 

il moul ut. 

nous moul umes. 

vous moul utes. 

ils moul urent. 



Futur. 

Je moud rai, I will grind. 

tu moud ras. 

il moud ra. 

nous moud rons. 

vous moud rez. 

ils moud ront. 



MODE CONDITIONNEL. 

Present. 

Je moud rais, I should grind. 

tu moud rais. 

il moud rait. 

nous moud rions. 

vous moud riez. 

ils moud raient. 



MODE IMPERATIF. 



Moud s — grind {thou.) 
moul ons — let us grind. 
moul ez — grind {you. ) 



MODE SUBJONCTIF. 



Present. 

Que je moul e,*That I may grind. 

que tu moul es. 
qu' il moul e. 
que nous moul ions. 
que vous moul iez. 
qu' ils moul ent. 



Imparfait. 

Que je moul usse, That I might 

grind. 
que tu moul usses. 
qu' il moul ut. 
que nous moul ussions. 
que vous moul ussiez. 
qu' ils moul ussent. 



MODE INFINITIF. 

Present. Partieipe present. 

Moud re, to grind. Moul ant, grinding. 

Partieipe passe. 

Moul u (mas.) moul ue (fem.) ground. 

Conjugate in the same manner: 

Remoudre {to grind agaiyi), Emoudre {to whet, to sharpen), and 
other derivatives. They are active verbs. 



*oul as ull iu pull. 



French Speaker. 



393 



Naitre*— {To be born.) 

(Neutral verb— Auxiliary etre— Past participle : ne.) 



MODE IXDICATIF. 



Present. 

Je nai s, I am bom. 

tu nai s. 

il nai t. 

nous naiss ons. 

vous naiss ez. 

ils naiss ent. 

Passe defini. 

Je naqu is,f I was born. 

tu naqu is. 

il naqu it. 

nous naqu imes. 

vous naqu ites. 

ils naqu irent. 

MODE COXD1TIONXEL. 

Present. 

Je nait rais, I should be born. 

tu nait rais. 

il nait rait. 

nous nait rions. 

vous nait riez. 

ils nait raient. 



Imparfait. 
Je naiss ais, I was bom. 
tu naiss ais. 
il naiss ait. 
nous naiss ions. 
vous naiss iez. 
ils naiss aient, 

Futur. 
Je nait rai, I will be born. 
tu nait ras. 
il nait ras. 
nous nait rons. 
vous nait rez. 
ils nait ront. 

MODE 1MPERATIF. 

Nai s — be born (thou.) 
naiss ons — let us be born. 
naiss ez — be born (you.) 



MODE SUBJONCTIF. 

Present. Imparfait. 

Que je naiss e, That I may be Que je naqu isse, That I might be 
born. born. 

que tu naqu isses. 
qu' il naqu it. 
que nous naqu issions. 
que vous naqu issiez. 
qu' ils naqu issent. 



que tu naiss es. 
qu' il nais e. 
que nous naiss ions, 
que vous naiss iez. 
qu' ils naiss ent. 



-Pronounce ai as ay in pay, tr as in a diphthong, and e is mute ; i 
has the circumflex accent when followed by t. 
fqu— n is mute and qu is sounded as k. 



Present. 

Naitre, to be born. 



394 French Speaker. 

MODE INF1NITIF. 

Participe present. 
Naiss ant, being born. 
Participe passe. 

Ne (mas.) nee (fern.) born. 

Conjugate in the same manner : 

Renaitre, (to be bom again.) — It is also a neutral verb. 



Paitre— (To graze, to feed.) 
(Neutral verb— No compound tenses— Past participle : pu.) 



MODE INDICATIF. 



Present. 

Je pai s, I graze. 

tu pai s. 

il pai t.* 

nous paiss ous. 

vous paiss ez. 

ils pass ent. 

Passe deflni : n 



Imparfait. 



Je paiss ais, I was grazing. 

tu paiss ais. 

il paiss ait. 

nous paiss ions. 

vous paiss iez. 

ils paiss aient. 



MODE CONDITIONNEL. 

Present. 

Je pait rais, I should graze. 

tu pait rais. 

il pait rait. 

nous pait rions. 

vous pait riez. 

ils pait raient. 



Futur. 

Je pait rai, I will graze. 

tu pait ras. 

il pait ra. 

nous pait rons. 

vous pait rez. 

ils pait rout. 



MODE IMPERATIF. 

Pais — graze (thou.) 
paiss ons — let us graze. 
paiss ez — graze (you.) 



*i takes a circumflex accent when it precedes t. 



French Speaker. 395 



MODE SUBJONCTIF. MODE INFINITIF. 

Present. Present. 



Participe present. 



Que je paiss e, That I may graze. Pait re, to graze. 

que tu paiss es. 

qu' il paiss e. 

que nous paiss ions. Paiss ant, grazing. 

que vous paiss iez. Participe passe. 

qu'ils paiss eut. 

Pu (mas.) pue (fern.) grazed. 

Imparfait : none. 

Conjugate in the same manner : 

Repaitre (to feed), and se repaitre (to feed one's self.) — Se 
repaitre being- a pronominal verb, takes the auxiliary etre, 
and has, as repaitre, a Passe defini and an Imparfait du Sub- 
jonctif 

Repaitre : 
Passe defini. Imparfait du Subjonctif. 

Je rep us, I fed. Que je rep usse, That Imightfeed. 

tu rep us. que tu rep usses. 

il rep ut. qu' il rep fit. 

nous rep times. que nous rep ussions. 

vous rep fites. que vous rep ussiez. 

ils rep urent. qu' ils rep ussent. 

Se repaitre : 
Passe defini. Imparfait du Subjonctif. 

Je me rep us, etc. Que je me rep usse, etc. 

A 

Paraitre— (To appear.) 

(Neutral verb — Auxiliary avoir — Past participle : paru.) 
MODE INDICATOR. 
Present. Imparfait. 

Je parai s, I appear. Je paraiss ais, I was appearing. . 

tu parai s. tu paraiss ais. 

il parai t.* il paraiss ait. 

nous paraiss ons. nous paraiss ions. 

vous paraiss ez. vous paraiss iez. 

ils paraiss ent. ils paraiss aient. 

*Takes a circumflex accent over the i when this precedes t in the 
radical. 



396 



French Speaker 



Passe defini. 
Je par us. 
tu par us. 
ii par ut. 
nous par umes. 
vous paa utes. 
ils par urent. 

MODE CONDITIONNEL. 

Present. 
Je parait rais, T should appear. 
tu parait rais. 
il parait rait. 
nous parait rions. 
vous parait riez. 
ils parait raient. 



Futur. 

Je parait rai, I will appear. 

tu parait ras. 

il parait ra. 

nous parait rons. 

vous parait rez. 

ils parait ront. 

MODE IMPERATIF. 

Parai s — appear (thou.} 
paraiss ons — let us appear, 
paraiss ez — appear (you.) 



MODE SUBJONCTIF. 



Present. 

Que Je paraiss e, That I may ap- 
pear. 
que tu paraiss es. 
qu' il paraiss e. 
que nous paraiss ions. 
que vous paraiss iez. 
qu' ils paraiss ent. 



Imparfait. 
Que je par usse, That I might ap- 
pear. 
que tu par usses. 
qu' il par ut. 
que nous par ussions. 
que vous par ussiez. 
qu' ils par ussent. 

MODE INFINITIP. 

Present. 

Parai tre, To appear. 

Participe passe. 
Par u (mas.) par ue (fern.) Ap- 
peared. 

Conjugate in the same manner: 



Participe present 
Paraiss ant, Appearing. 



Apparaitre, to appear. 
comparaitre, to appear before a 

judge, a migistrate. 
conn ai tre, to know. 
disparaitre, to disappear. 
meconnaitre, to neglect, not to 

know, to pretend not to know. 



Reconnaitre, to recognize, to know 

again. 
Reparaitre, to appear again. 
se connaitre, to knoiv one another, 

to be able to, or apt to. 
se meconnaitre, to forget one's 

self. 



But se connaitre and se meconnaitre are conjugated with 
the auxiliary etre as being" pronominal verbs. 



French Speaker 



397 



Plaire— {To please.) 

(Neutral verb — Auxiliary avoir — Past participle : plu. ) 
MODE INDICATIF. 

Imparfait. 
Je plais ais, I was pleasing. 



Present. 

Je plai s, I please. 

tu plai s. 

il plai t.* 

nous plais ons. f 

vous plais ez. 

ils plais ent. 

Passe deiini. 
Je pi us, I pleased. 
tu pi us. 
il pi ut. 
nous pi times. 
vous pi utes. 
ils pi urent. 

MODE CONDITIONNEL. 

Present. 
Je plai rais, I should please. 
tu plai rais. 
il plai rait. 
nous plai rions. 
vous plai riez. 
ils plai raient. 



tu plais ais. 
il plais ait- 
nous plais ions. 
vous plais iez. 
ils plais aient. 

Futur. 
Je plai rai, I will please. 
tu plai ras. 
il plai ra. 
nous plai rons. 
vous plai riez. 
il plai ront. 

MODE IMPERATIF. 



Plai s — please (thou.) 
plais ons — let us please. 
plais ez— please (you.) 



3IODE SUBJONCTIF. 



Present. 

Que je plais e, That I may please. 

que tu plais es. 

qu' il plais e. 

que nous plais ions. 

que vous plais iez. 

qu' ils plais ent. 



Participe present. 
Plais ant, Pleasing. 



Imparfait. 
Que je pi usse, That I might please. 
que tu pi usse. 
qu' il pi ut. 
que nous pi ussions. 
que vous pi ussiez. 
qu' ils pi ussent. 

MODE INFINITIVE. 

Present. 

Plaire, To please. 

Participe passe. 

PI u (mas.) pi ue (fern.) Pleased. 



*i before t takes a circumflex accent (in the radical.) 
t s is pronounced like z. 



398 



French Speaker. 



Conjugate in the same manner : 

Complaire {to be agreeable), deplaire {to displease), taire {to not 
say, to keep secret or to conceal), Se taire {to be silent, to keep away 
from talking). — This last verb, se taire being pronominal, is conju- 
gated with etre. 



Prendre— (To take.) 

(Active verb — Auxiliary avoir — Past participle : pris.) 



MODE INDICATIF. 



Present. 

Je prend s,* I take. 

tu prend s. 

il prend. 

nous pren ons.f 

vous pren ex. 

ils prenn ent.J 



Imparfait. 
Je pren ais, I was taking. 
tu pren ais. 
il pren ait. 
nous pren ions. 
vous pren iez. 
ils pren aient. 



Passe defini. 

Je pr is, I took. 
tu pr is. 
il pr it. 
nous pr imes. 
vous pr ites. 
ils pr irent. 



Futur. 
Je prend rai, I will take. 
tu prend ras. 
il prend ra 
nous prend rons. 
vous prend rez. 
ils prend ront. 



MODE IMPERATIF. 



Prend s—Take {thou.) 
pren ons — let us take. 
pren ez — take {you.) 



MODE CONDITIONNEL. 

Present. 

Je prend rais, I should take. 

tu prend rais. 

il prend rait. 

nous prend rions. 

vous prend riez. 

ils prend raient. 

* Pronounce en as an in want, keeping n silent— ds is mute. 

fPre has the e sounded as u in tub, and n goes with ons, as on in 
monk, keeping ns mute. 

J The consonant n is doubled before an e mute (ent is mute) and 
enn sounds the consonant n broad. 



French Speaker. 



399 



MODE SUBJONCTIF. 



Present. 

Que je prenn e, That I may take. 

que tu prenn es. 

qu' il prenn e. 

que nous pren ions. 

que vous pren iez. 

qu' ils prenn ent. 



Imparfait. 

Que je pr isse, That I might take 

que tu pr isses. 

qu' il pr it. 

que nous pr issions. 

que vous pr issiez. 

qu' ils pr issent. 



MODE INFIN1TIF. 

Present. 

Prend re, To take. 



Participe present. 
Pren ant, Taking. 



Participe passe. 

Pr is (mas.) prise ^feni. ) Taken. 



Conjugate in the same manner 



Apprendre, to learn. 

comprendre, to comprehend, to 
understand. 

cleprendre, to loosen, to disen- 
gage. 

desapprendre, to unlearn. 

entreprendre, to undertake. 



rapprendre, to learn again. 

reprendre, to take again, to re- 
sume (or) start again. 

surprendre, to surprise, to de- 
ceive. 

s' eprendre, to be smitten. 

se meprendre, to mistake. 



The last two verbs being- pronominal, they are conjugated 
with the auxiliary etre. 



Reduire— {To reduce.) 

(Active verb — Auxiliary avoir — Past participe: reduit. 

MODE 1XDICATIF. 

Present. Imparfait. 

Je reVlui s,* I reduce. Je leduis ais, I was reducing. 

tu re'clui s. tu reduis ais. 

il redui t. il reduis ait. 

nous reduis ons.f nous reduis ions. 

vous r6duis ez. vous reduis iez. 

ils reduis ent. ils reduis aient. 

*Pronounce ui as we. 

fs on, s ez — pronounce s as z. 



400 



French Speaker. 



Passe defini. 

Je reduis is, I reduced. 

tu reduis is. 

il r6duis it. 

nous reduis imes. 

vous reduis ites. 

ils reduis irent. 

MODE CONDITIONNEL. 

Present. 
Je r#dui rais, I should reduce. 
tu r6dui rais. 
il redui rait. 
nous r6dui rions. 
vous redui riez. 
ils redui raient. 



Futur. 
Je redui rai, I will reduce 
tu redui ras. 
il redui ra. 
nous r§dui rons. 
vous redui rez. 
ils r6dui ront. 

MODE IMPERATIF. 

R6dui s — Reduce (thou.) 
reduis ons — let us reduce. 
reduis ez — reduce (you.) 



Present. 

Que je reduis e, That 

que tu reduis es. 
qu' il reduis e. 
que nous reduis ions. 
que vous reduis iez. 
qu' ils reduis ent. 



MODE SUBJONCTIF. 

Imparfait. 

I may re- Que je reduis isse, That I might 
duce. reduce. 

que tu re'duis isses. 
qu' il reduis it. 
que nous reduis issions. 
que vous r6duis issiez. 
qu' ils reduis issent. 

MODE INFINITIF. 



Present. 

R6dui re ( To reduce.) 
Participe present. Participe passe. 

R6duis ant, Reducing. Redui t (mas.) redui te (fem.) 

Reduced. 

Conjugate in the same manner : 



Conduire, to conduct, to lead. 
construire, to construct, to build. 
cuire, to bake, to cook. 
deduire, to deduct, to take from. 
d6truire, to destroy. 
eeonduire, to discard in a polite 
manner. 



enduire, to %)laster. 

*entreluire, to shine a little, to 

glow a little. 
induire, to induce. 
instruire, to instruct, to teach. 
introduire, to introduce. 
*luire, to shine, to glow. 



*Verbs marked with an asterisk are neutral verl 
with the auxiliary avoir as the others. 



and conjugated 



French Speaker. 



401 



*nuire, to hurt. 
produire, to produce. 
reconduire, to reconduct, to lead 

back. 
reconstruire, to construct (or) 

build. 
recuire, to bake again (or) cook 

again. 



reluire, to shine, to glow. 
renduire, to plaster again. 
re produire, to reproduce. 
seduire, to seduce. 
traduire, to translate. 



Resoudre — {To dissolve, to resolve, to decide.) 

(Active verb — Auxiliary avoir — Past participle resous and resolu. ) 

MODE INDICATIF. 

Present. Imparfait. 

Je resou s,f I resolve. 



tu reson s. 
il r6sou t. 
nous resolv ons.J 
vous resolv ez. 
ils resolv ent. 

Passe defini. 
Je resol us, I resolved. 
tu rgsol us. 
il rgsol ut. 
nous r6sol umes.. 
vous r€sol utes. 
ils resol urent. 



Je resolv ais, I was resolving. 

tu resolv ais. 

il r<§solv ait. 

nous resolv ions. 

vous resolv iez. 

ils resolv aient. 

Futur. 
Je resoud rai, I will resolve. 
tu resoud ras. 
il re"soud ra. 
nous resoud rons. 
vous rdsoud rez. 
ils resoud ront. 



MODE CONDITIONNEL. 

Present. 
Je resoud rais, I should resolve. 
tu r6soud rais. 
li resoud rait. 
nous resoud rions. 
vous resoud riez. 
ils resoud raient. 



MODE IMPERATIF. 

Re'sou s — resolve (thou.) 
r6solv ons — let us resolve. 
resolv ez— resolve (you.) 



*See note on preceding page. 

f S ou — Pronounce s as z throughout the conjugation, and ou as oo in 
too. — Final consonants and ent are always mute. 
j Pronounce ol as oil in doll. 
Z 



402 



French Speaker. 



MODE SUBJONCJIF. 



Present. 

Que je resolv e, That I may re- 
solve. 
que tu resolv es. 
qu' il resolv e. 
que nous resolv ions. 
que vous resolv iez. 
qu' ils resolv ent. 



Imparfait. 
Que je resol usse, That I might 

resolve. 
que tu resol usses. 
qu' il r6sol fit. 
que nous resol nssions. 
que vous resol ussiez. 
qu' ils resol ussent. 



Present. 

Resoud re, To resolve. 



MODE INFINIT1P. 

Participe present. 
Fe^olv ant, Resolving. 



Participe passe. 

Resous (mas.), to be dissolved or changed ■ 
Resoute (fem.) 

Conjugate in the same manner : 



resol a (mas.), to be de- 
resolue (fem.) cided. 



Absoudre (to absolve) and dissoudre (to dissolve. ) With the differ- 
ence that they do not have the Passe defini nor the Imparfait du Sub- 
jonctif. Their past participles are Absous and dissous (mas.), ab- 
soute and dissoute (fem.) 

Conjugate also in the same manner as Resoudre, but with the aux. 
iliary etre : Se resoudre (pronominal verb — to be dissolved, to melt; 
to be resigned to, to accept a thing anyhow.) 



Hire— {To laugh.) 

(Neutral verb — Auxiliary avoir — Past participle : ri. ) 

MODE INDICATIF. 

Present. Imparfait. 

Je ri s,* I laugh. Je ri ais, 1 was laughing. 

tu ri s. tu ri ais. 

il ri t. il ri ait. 

nous ri ons. nous ri ions. 

vous ri ez. vous ri iez. 

ils ri ent. ils ri aient. 



*Pronouce ris as ri in rip. 



Fr end i Speahe i : 



403 



Passe defini. 



Je ri s, I laughed, 
tu ri s. 
il ri t. 

nous rimes. 
vovs rites. 
ils rirent. 



Futur. 

Je ri rai, I will laugk 

tu ri ras. 

il ri ra. 

nous ri rons. 

vous ri rez. 

ils ri ront. 



MODE COiMDITIONNEIj. 

Present. 

Je ri rais, I should laugh. 

tu ri rais. 

il ri rait. 

nous ri rions. 

vous ri riez. 

ils ri raient. 



MODE IMPERATIP. 



Bis — laugh (thou.) 
ri ons — let us laugh. 
riez — laugh (you.) 



MODE SUBJONCTIF. 



Present. 

Que je ri e, That I may laugh. 

que tu ri es. 

qu' il ri e. 

que nous ri ions. 

que vous ri iez. 

qu' ils ri ent. 



Imparfait. 

Que je risse, That I might laugh, 

que tu risses. 

qu' il rit. 

que nous rissions. 

que vous rissiez. 

qu' ils rissent. 



MODE INFINITIF. 



Present. 

Ri re, To laugh. 



Participe present. 
Ri ant, laughing. 



Participe passe. 

Ri (laughed — has no feminine.) 



Conjugate in the same manner : 

Sourire (to smile) and Se rire de (to laugh at.) >~Se rire (de) being 
a pronominal verb, takes etre. 



404 



French Speaker. 



Rompre— {To break.) 

(Active verb — Auxiliary avoir — Past participle : rompn.) 

MODE INDICATIF. 



Present. 

Je romp s,* I break. 
tu romp s. 
il romp t. 
nous romp ons. 
vous romp ez. 
ils romp ent. 

Passe defini. 

Je romp, is, I break. 

tu romp is. 

il romp it. 

nous lomp imes. 

vous romp ites. 

ils romp irent. 

MODE CONDITIONNEL. 

Present. 
Je romp rais, I should break. 
tu romp rais. 
il romp rait. 
nous romp rions. 
vous romp riez. 
ils romp raient. 



Imparfait. 
Je romp ais, I was breaking. 
tu romp ais. 
il romp ait. 
nous romp ions. 
vous romp iez. 
ils romp aient. 

Futur. 
Je romp rai. 
tu romp ras. 
il romp ra. 
nous romp rons. 
vous romp rez. 
ils romp ront. 

MODE 1MPERATIP. 



Romp s — break (thou.) 
romp ons — let us break. 
romp ez — break (thou.) 



MODE SUBJONCTIF. 



Present. 

Que je rompe, That I may break 

que tu romp es. 
qu' il romp e. 
que nous romp ions. 
que vous romp iez. 
qu' ils romp ent. 



Imparfait. 

Que je romp isse, That I might 

break. 
que tu romp isses. 
qu' il romp it. 
que nous romp issions. 
que vous romp issiez. 
qu' ils romp issent, 



MODE INF1NITIF. 

Present. Participe present. 



Romp re, To break. 



Romp ant, Breaking. 



*omp s is sounded as on in monk keeping mps mute. 



French Speaker. 



405 



Participe passe. 

Romp u (mas.) romp ue (fern.) broken. 

Conjugate in the same manner : 

Corromp re (to corrupt) and interromp re (to interrupt.) 

Suivre— (To follow.) 

(Active verb — Auxiliary avoir — Past participle : suivi. ) 
MODE INDICATIF. 



Present. 

Je sui s,* I follow. 

tu sui s. 

il sui t. 

nous suiv ons. 

vous suiv ez. 

ils suiv ent. 

Passe deflni. 
Je suiv is, I followed. 
tu suiv is. 
il suiv it. 
nous suiv imes. 
vous suiv ites. 
il suiv irent. 

MODE CONDITIOXXEL. 

Present. 
Je suiv rais, I should follow. 
tu suiv rais. 
il suiv rait. 
nous suiv rions. 
vous suiv riez. 
ils suiv raient. 



Imparfait. 
Je suiv ais, I was following. 
tu suiv ais. 
il suiv ait. 
nous suiv ions. 
vous suiv iez. 
ils suiv aient. 

Futur. 
Je suiv rai, I will follow. 
tu suiv ras. 
il suiv ra. 
nous suiv rons. 
vous suiv rez. 
ils suiv ront. 

MODE IMPERATIF. 

Sui s— follow (thou.) 
suiv ons — let us follow. 
suiv ez— follow (you.) 



Present. 

Que je suiv e, That I may follow. 

que tu suiv es. 
qu' il suiv e. 
que nous suiv ions. 
que vous suiv iez. 
qu'ils suiv ent. 



MODE SUBJOXCTIF. 

Imparfait. 

Que je suiv isse, That I might fol- 
low. 
que tu suiv isses. 
qu' il suiv it. 
que nous suiv issions. 
que vous suiv issiez. 
qu' ils suiv issent. 



* Pronounce s hard as in sea, ni as we, and keep s final mute. 



406 



French Speaker. 



Present. 

Sulv re, to follow. 



MODE INFINITIF. 

Participe present. 
Suiv ant, following. 
Participe passe. 

Suiv i (mas.), suiv ie (fern.) followed. 

Conjugate in the same manner : 

Poursuivre (to pursue, to chase), S'ensuivre (to result, to follow). 

S 1 ensuivre is only used in the third person singular of every 
tense: II s' ensuit qu' il est mon sup6rieur, et qu'il fant que je lui 
obeisse (The result is that he is my superior, and that I must obey 
him.) II s' ensuivit une bagarre (^4. tumult (or) a scuffle followed.) 



Traire— {To milk.) 

(Active verb — Auxiliary avoir — Past participle : trait.) 
MODE INDICATIF. 



Present. 

Je trai s,* I milk. 

tu trai s. 

il trai t. 

nous tray ons.f 

vous tray ez. 

ils trai ent. 

Passe defini : none. 



MODE CONDITIONAL.. 

Present. 
Je trai rais, I should milk. 
tu trai rais. 
il trai rait. 
nous trai rions. 
vous trai riez. 
ils trai raient. 

Imparfait : none. 



Imparfait. 
Je tray ais, I was milking. 
tu tray ais. 
il tray ait. 
nous tray ions. J 
vous tray iez. 
ils tray aient. 

Futur. 
Je trai rai, I will milk. 
tu trai ras. 
il trai ra. 
nous trai rons. 
vous trai rez. 
ils trai ront. 

MODE IMPERATIF. 

Trai s — Milk (thou.) 
tray ons — let xis milk. 
tray ez — milk (you.) 



* Pronounce ai s as ay in may. 

ftray ons, tray ez : y for two i's : trai, ions, trai iez. 
ftray ions, tray iez : y is for one i, but the 2d i is a little more ac- 
cented than before in trayons. 



French Speaker 



407 



MODE SUBJOXCTIF. 

Present. 

Que je trai e, That I may milk. 

que tu trai es. 

qu' il trai e. 

que nous tray ions. 

que vous tray iez. 

qu' ils trai ent. 

MODE INFINITIF. 

Present. 

Trai re, To milk. 



Participe present. 
Tray ant, Milking. 



Participe passe. 

Trai t( mas.) trait e (f em..), milked. 



Conjugate in the same manner 



Abstraire, to abstract. 
Attraire, to attract, to entice. 
Distraire, to distract, to divert. 
Extraire, to extract, to pull off. 
Retraire, to redeem (an estate.) 



Sonstraire, to substract, to steal, 

to conceal. 
Rentraire, to Jinedraw, to darn. 
*Se soustraire, to withdraw one's 

self from, to avoid. 



Wanting tenses are replaced by compound tenses. 
The verbs above are all active verbs. 



Vaincre — {To vanquish, to conquer.) 

(Active verb — Auxiliary avoir — Participe passe 1 : vaincn. ) 

MODE INDICATIF. 



Present . 

Je vainc s,f I va?iquish. 

tu vainc s. 

il vainc. 

nous vainqjt ons.J 

vous vainq^ ez. 

ils vainq« ent. 



Jmparfait. 
Je vainq« ais, I was vanquishing. 
tu vainqw ais. 
il vain q u ait. 
nous vainqn ions.f 
vous vainqw iez. 
ils vainqw aient. 



*Se soustraire being a pronominal verb is conjugated with etre. 
faincs is pronounced as an in plank ; ncs is mute. 
jThe u after q is mute and q is sounded as k. 



408 



French Speaker. 



Passe defini. 

Je vainq?* is, I vanquished. 

tu vainqw is. 

il vainq?t it. 

nous vainqn iraes. 

vous vainqw ites. 

ils vainqw irent. 



Futur. 

Je vainc rai, I will vanquish. 

tu vainc ras. 

il vainc ra. 

nous vainc rons. 

vous vainc rez. 

ils vainc ront. 



MODE CONDITIONNEL.. 

Present. 

Je vainc rais, I should vanquish, 

tu vainc rais. 

il vainc rait. 

nous vainc rions. 

vous vainc riez. 

ils vainc raient. 



MODE IMPERATIF. 



Vainc s — Vanquish ( thou. ) 
vainqw ons — let us vanquish. 
vainqw. ez — vanquish Cyou.) 



MODE SUBJONCTIF. 



Present. 



Que je vainq?* e, That I may van- 
quish. 
que tu vainqw es. 
qu' il vainqw e. 
que nous vain q u ions. 
que vous vainqw iez. 
qu' ils vainq?* ent. 



Imparfait. 

Que je vainqu isse, That I might 

vanquish. 
que tu vainqtt isses. 
qu' il vainqw it. 
que nous vainqu issions. 
que vous vainqit issiez. 
qu' ils vainq?* issent. 



MODE INFINITIF. 

Present. 

Vainc re, To vanquish. 

Participe present. Participe passe. 

Vain qu ant, Vanquishing. Vainc u(mas.), vainc ue (fern.), 

vanquished. 

Conjugate in the same manner : 

Couvaincre ( To convince. ) 



French Speaker 



409 



. Vivre*— {To live.) 

(Neutral verb— Auxiliary avoir — Past participle : vecu. ) 
MODE INDICATIF. 



Present. 
Je vi s,f Hive. 
tu vi s. 
il vi t. 

nous vi v ons. J 
vous viv ez. 
ils viv ent. 

Passe defini. 

Je v6c us, I lived. 

tu v6c us. 

il ve"c ut. 

nous vec times. 

vous vec utes. 

ils vec ureut. 



Imparfait. 
Je viv ais, I was Jiving. 
tu viv ais. 
il viv ait. 
nous viv ions. 
vous viv iez. 
ils viv aient. 

Futur. 
Je viv rai, I will live. 
tu viv ras. 
il viv ra. 
nous viv rons. 
vous viv rez. 
ils viv ront. 



MODE COXDITIOXNEIa 

Present. 
Je viv rais, I should live. 
tu viv rais. 
il viv rait. 
nous viv rions. 
vous viv riez. 
ils viv raient. 



MODE IMPERATIF. 

Vi s, live (thou.) 
viv ons, let us live. 
viv ez, live (you.) 



MODE SUBJOXCTIF. 



Present. 

Que je viv e, That I may live. 

que tu viv es. 
qu' il viv e. 
que nous viv ions. 
que vous viv iez. 
qu' ils viv ent. 



Imparfait. 
Que je vec usse, That I might 



live. 



que tu vec usses. 
qu' il vec ut. 
que nous vec ussions. 
que vous vec ussiez. 
qu' ils vec ussent. 



* Pronounce i as English e, vr as in a diphthong, and keep e final 
mute. 
f vis, vit — Pronounce is and it as i in city, keeping s and t mute. 
Jvivons and throughout the conjugation, pronounce i as English e. 



410 French Speaker. 

MODE INFIN1TIF. 

Present. 

Viv re, To live. 
Participe present. Participe passe. 

Viv ant Living. Vec u (mas. ), vec ue (fern. ) , lived. 

Conjugate in the same manner : 

Revivre (to revive) and Surviv re (to survive), both neutral v r erbs. 

Passive Verbs. 

The conjugation of the Passive form is the same in the 
fourth conjugation as in the three preceding* conjugations : 
Je suis reduit, il etait satisfait, nous serons plaints, que je 
sois suivi, qn' il fid entendu, respectively: I am rendered or 
reduced, he was satisfied, they will pity us, that I may he fol- 
lowed, that he might be heard. 

IMPORTANT OBSERVATIONS 

on the Meaning and Translation of some Verbs. 
ATTENDEE — Is given quite often for the translation of to attend, 
which has the sense of to be present, to be at (etre pre- 
sent a, assister a, etre a), to appear before (apparaitre 
devant (ou) en (on) cornpartaitre. ) — Then it must 
be said : 

etre present a une ceremonie, for, to attend a ceremony. 

assister a une partie de chase, for, to attend a hunting party. 

apparaitre devant (ou) en cour (oit) comparaitre devant la cour, for, 

to attend court (ou) to appear before the court. 

The verb attendre has only the sense of to wait, to be in 

expectation : 

J' attendrai qu' il revienne pour I tv ill wait till he comes back for 

partir. setting out. 

J' attends mes amis pour diner I expect my friends to dine with 

aujourd' hui. me to-day. 

ENTENDRE— Means to hear, to wish, to pretend (or) command, to 

project (or) have intention of : 
Aquelques mots pres, j'ai entendu I have heard everything he said 

tout ce qu' il disait. bat some words. 

J'entends que vous fassiez cela I desire (or wish) I order (or 

convenablement. command) yon to do it conven- 

iently. 



French Speaker. 411 

J'entends d' aller voir mes amis, / intend to go and see my friends 

demain et de faire visite aussi to-morrow and to visit also my 

a mes parents. parents. 

ESPERER — Means to have hope (including desire of course.) It is 
used more in the sense of inquiry or information made 
from interest : 
J' espere que vous portez bien ? I hope that you feel well ? 

J' espere que vous m' accompa- I hope that you will accompany 

gnerez ? me. 

SOUHAITER— Means to wish for others : 
Je souhaite que vous arriviez a I wish for you to arrrive safe. 

bon port. 
Je vous souhaite de faire fortune. I wish for you a fortune. 
Je vous souhaite bon voyage et I wish for yore a good trip and 

bonne sante. good health. 

ALLER — Has the sense of to go, to be disposed to do, to go, to be de- 
cided to do, to go, to move : 
Tl va a Vienne la semaine pro- He goes to Vienna next week. 

chaine (or) il ira, etc. 
Je vais aller visiter 1' Espagne I intend to visit Spain during my 

pendant mon voyage d' Europe. trip in Europe. 
J' irai certainement voir le champ I will certainly go and see the 

de bataille de Sedan, ou tant de battle-field of Sedan, where so 

braves tomberent en 1870. many brave soldiers fell in 1870. 

Cet enfant est tres nerveux, il va That child is very nervous, he 

toujours. moves all the time. 

VENIR, A T ENIR AVEC — Venir means to come, when speaking from 

one's house, and venir avec means to ac- 
company : 
Quand viendrez vous me voir? When will you come to see me ? 

Viendrez-vous avec moi an thea- Will you accompany me to the 

tre, a l'eglise? theatre, to the church? 

RETOURNER — Means to return, to return to one's home, being away 

from it : 
Ce paletot est retourne, il parait That coat has been returned ; it 

plus beau. appears prettier or better. 

Je quitterai Bruxelles demain I will leave Brussels to-morrow 

pour retourner la semaine pro- in order to return to America 

chaine en Ame'rique. next week. 

REYENER — To come back (or) again to the place from ivhere one is 

speaking : 
Au revoir, je reviendrai ici 1' an Good-bye, I will come back (or) 

prochain. again next year. 



412 French Speaker. 

DEVOIR — To owe — Has also the meaning of to be obliged (or) com- 
pelled to, to fill up an obligation, when it is followed by 
another verb, which verb, with what follows, shoAvs the 
nature of what is to be accomplished : 
Je vous dois cinquante francs, je I oive you fifty francs, I promise 
vous promets de vous les payer to pay them to you to-morrow. 
demain. 
Je dois aller demain en ville pour I must go to town (or) to the city 
regler cette affaire. to-morrow in order to settle that 

affair. 
ARRIVER — To arrive — It means also to happen, in which significa- 
tion, it is conjugated impersonally : 
II arrive tres souvent qui 1' on se It happens very often that one is 
trompe en jugeant par les appa- mistaken when one judges by 
rences. appearances. 

S' AGIR — Pronominal verb used only impersonally — To be the ques- 
tion, to be the matter. 
II s' agit d' essayer et de travailler The question is to try and work, 
si 1' on veut reussir. if one will succeed. 

ENGAGER — To engage — Means also to begin favor of, to invite, to 

invite heartily : 

J' ai engage 1 ce Monsieur a vous I beg that gentleman to befavor- 

etre favorable. able to you. 

Le prince m' engagea a aller diner The prince invited me to dine 

avec lui. ' with him. 

Cette dame a un parfait talent That lady has a perfect talent to 

pour engager ses botes a bien make her guest eat with a good 

manger. appetite. 

S' AMUSER — To enjoy one , s self at a party, to rejoice. 

Nous nous amusons tres bien ici, We enjoy ourselves here much, let 

restons-y. us stay. 

Nous nousrejouimes de cette nou- We rejoice among us at that neivs. 

velle en famille. 

SE REJOUIR — To rejoice, means also to be anxious for : 

Je me rejouis de voir ma mere. I rejoice to see my mother. 

ASPIRER — To inhale, to suck ; has also as rejouir above, the sense of 

to have desire for : 
II aspire a cette place, mais il ne He wishes to have that situation, 

V aura pas. but he can not have it. 

II aspire de savoir parler francais, He desires to be able to speak 
et il y parviendra certainement. French and he will succeed cer- 
tainly. 



French Speaker 



413 



VENIR— To come — Followed by the preposition de and an infinitive, it 
shows that what the infinitive means has just been done : 
II vient de partir. He has just gone. 

Nous venons d' arriver. We have just arrived. 

lis viennent de finir. They have just finished. 

OBTENIR — To obtain — Is often used by English people in the sense 
of to have simply. It may be used in the sense of to 
have, but after having asked for — to be granted with : 



Cet eleve a obtenu la permission 
d' aller voir sa mere malade. 

Ce vieux soldat vient d' obtenir 
une bonne pension. 



That student has been granted the 
permission of going to see his 
mother, ivho is sick. 

That old soldier has just been 
granted a good, pension. 



X. 



This consonant has the sound of hs when preceded by e 
at the beginning- of words, if it is followed by a consonant ; 
it sounds the same in the body of words : 



excuse 

excuse. 



exterieur 

exterior. 



experience pronounce e as a in 

experience. fate, i combined 
with en as an in 
want, n mute, c as 
s hard, e mute, 
pronounce a as 
French u, s as z, e 
mute, 
pronounce e as a in 
fate, i combined 
with eur as ur in 
fur, broad. 
excessif pronounce c as s 

excessive. hard, if as if. 

expres pronounce es as e in 

expressly, on net broad, s mute. 
purpose. 

Maximilien pronounce a as ah, 

emperor of both Vs, the two 

Mexico. first, as in city, last i 

combined with en 

as an in sank, n 

mute. 



axe pronounce a as ah, c 

axis. mute. 

explication pronounce * as in 

explanation, city, ca as in cat, i 
combined with on 
as in monk, n 
mute, 
pronounce ent as an 

in want, nt mute, 
pronounce i combin- 
ed with on as in 
monk, n mute, t as 
s hard, 
pronounce an as in 
want, n mute, dr 
sounded, e mute, 
pronounce both o'-s 
as in not, g soft, ie 
as ee in see. 

axiome pronounce ome as in 

axiom. home. 



excellent 

excellent. 
exception 

exception. 



Alexandre 

Alexander. 

lexicologie 

lexicology. 



414 



French Speaker. 



When x begins nouns, it has somewhat of the sound of 
igz : 



Xenophon pronounce e as a in 
Greek histo- fate, o as in not, 
nan and gen- on as in monk, n 
eral. mute. 

Xerces pronounce er as ere 

king of Persia, in there, e as s 
hard, e as ai in 
said, s sounded. 



Xaintrailles pronounce ain as an 
French cap- in sank, n mute, 
tain, compan- ailles as the pro- 
ton of Jeanne noun I, short. 
d" 1 Arc. 



In ex beginning- words, x being followed by a vowel or a 
mute h, sounds as gz: 



exercice 


pronounce er as ere 


existence 


exercise. 


in there, ci as in city 


existence, 




c as s hard, e mute. 


life. 


examen 


pronounce a as ah, 




examination 


. en as an in sank, 


exhalaison 




n mute. 


exhalation. 


exiler 


pronounce i as in 




to exile. 


city, er as a in 






fate. 


exhibition 


exaltation 


pronounce al as in 


exhibition. 


exaltation. 


salvation, a as ah, 






t as s hard, i com- 


exhumer 




bined with on as 


to exhume. 




in monk, n mute. 





pronounce is as is, 
en as an in want, 
n mute, c as 5 hard, 
e mute, 
pronounce a as ah, h 
is mute, ai as ay in 
may, s as z, on as 
in monk, n mute, 
pronounce both i's 
as in city, tion as 
above in exaltation 
pronounce u as in 
French, er as a in 
fate. 



Except : 

exemple pronounce em as an in want, m mute, pi sounded, e mute. 

example. 



X is sounded as ss in the following- words : 



Auxerre 


pronounce erre as 


soixante 


pronounce oi as wa 


city of 


ere in there, broad. 


sixty. 


in io as, an as in 


France. 






10 ant, n mute, t 


Bruxelles 


pronounce u as in 




sounded, e mute. 


Brussels. 


French, elles as ell 
in bell. 







French Speaker. 



415 



X ending- French words, singular or plural, is mute 



heureux 

happy. 



precieux 

precious. 
doux 

sweet, soft. 
vieux 
old. 

choux 

cabbages. 

cailloux 

pebbles. 

roux 

red, sandy, 

russet. 

hiboux 

owls. 



pronounce both eu's 
as between French 
u and u of us, x is 
mute. 

pronounce e as a In 
fate, eux as e a above 

pronounce oux as oo 
in loose. 

pronounce i combin- 
ed with eic sound- 
ed as above. 

pronounce oux as oo 
in too. 

pronounce axil as the 
pronoun I short, 
oux as oo in too. 

pronounce oux as oo 
iu too. 

pronounce h aspi- 
rate, i as English e, 
oux as oo in too. 



pronounce as o in 

wo. 
pronounce g as ?', e 

as u in fw6, o/ta; as 

oo in too. 
pronounce c/t as sh, 

e as m in tub, aux 

as o in no. 
ch do., a as ah, caux 

as o in no. 
pronounce u as in 

French, ci as in 

city, ix as £ in city. 
pronounce u do. 
flux, flow, flood. 
reflux pronounce e as w in 

tub,u as in French, 
pronounce er as fire 

in there, ix as t in 

city. 
prix pronounce ire as i in 

premium. city. 



aux 

to the. 
genoux 

knees. 

chevaux 

horses. 

chameaux 

camels. 

crucifix 

crucifix, 

cross. 

flux 



backfioiving. 
perdrix 

partridge. 



Exception is made for the following- words in which x is 
sounded as Jcs : 

borax pronounce o as in larynx 

borax. not, ax as axe. larynx, 

prefix pronounce as a in throat, 

prefixed. fate, ix as in mix. index 

lynx pronounce yn as an index, for- 

lynx, wild cat in sank, n mute. bidden, 
of the North. I 

X is sounded at the end of the following- historical, geo- 
graphical and proper names: 



pronounce a as ah, 
yn as an in sank, 
n mute. 

pronounce in as an 
in sank, n mute, 
ex as in English. 



Ajax pronounce A as ah, 

one of the he- ax as axe. 

roes of the 

siege of Troy. 

Aix-la-Chapelle pronounce Ai as 

city in Prus- ay in may, a as a, 

sia. Ch as sh, a as in 

cat, elle as ell in 

bell. 



Ambiorix 

Gallic chief. 



pronounce Am as an 
in want, m mute, i 
combined with o as 
in not, ix as in mix. 



416 



French Speaker. 



sphinx pronounce sph as sf, 

monster of the in as an in sank, n 
fable. mute, x as ks. 

Phenix pronounce Ph as/, e 

bird of the as a in fate,ix as in 

fable. mix. 

Styx pronounce St sound- 

river of the ed, yx as ix in mix. 
hell(mythology.) 
Cadix pronounce Ca as in 

/Spanish city. cat, ix as in mix. 
Felix pronounce e as a in 

proper name, fate, ix as above. 
Fox pronounce as En- 

Jounder of the glish fox. 
Quakers. 

Pollux pronounce o as in 

Greek gram- not, one /, u as in 
marian. French, x as ks. 

X is sounded as z in : 



Middlesex 

county of 
England. 



county of 
England. 
Sussex 

county of 
Enaland. 



pronounce as in En- 
glish, observing 
the pronunciation 
dl as in a diph- 
thong. 

pronounce as in En- 
glish. 



pronounce u as in 
French, the rest as 
in English. 
Vercingetorix pronounce er as 
Gallic chief er in there broad, 
made prison- cin as sin, g soft, c 
er by Ccesar, as o, in fate, o as in 
killed in 46 not, ri as in rip, x 
before Christ, as ks. 



six 


pronounce seez, ee 


dix pronounce dcez, 


ce 


six. 


as English e. 


ten. as English e. 






(Noblesse et Noblesse — Continuee.) 






11 


I. 





Ainsi precipite de 1' echelon 1 d' une felicite 2 que rien ne 
semblait devoir jamais alterer, 3 le marquis se laissa rechoir 
dans 4 sa monomanie d' autrefois 5 et se renferma avec son 
chagrin, 6 au fond 7 de son chateau. La, il vecut 8 tout a sa 
douleur, 9 contemplant les traits 10 de sa pauvre 11 Berthe 
sur la face perplexe de son petit Albert, qu' il pourvut 
d'une 12 nourrice cam pag-narde, 1 3 forte et robuste 14 bre- 
tonne. 15 Sous les yeux 16 de son pere, et 1' object d'une 
vigilante attention de la vieille g-ouvemante, 1' enfant se 
fortifia 1 7 et grandit 1 8 de meme 1 9 jusqu' a ce que, 2 ° arrive a 
l'age de 21 sept ans, il fut question de commencer 22 son 
education, a laquelle 23 de Cernan, quoiqu' immensement 
riche, 24 et a meme 25 partant 26 de donner a son fils les 



French Speaker. 417 

meilleurs 27 maitres, voulut so consacier lui-menie, 28 ainsi 
que 2 9 le baron du Chemy, son beau-pere, V avait fait 30 pour 
sa fille, la definite 31 jeune marquise. 

Un jour 32 , assis devant sa table 33 au milieu de la grande 
salle gothique, 3 4 ou sur les murs, 3 5 les portaits graves et 
severes de ses ancetres s' alignaient 36 dans des cadres 
boises 37 de sculpture antique, le marquis f euilletait 3 8 un 
vieux manuscrit en parcheniin, quand, 3 9 du dehors, 4 ° une 
voix animee, 4 1 au son enf antin, 4 2 vint le distraire : 4 3 

Pere ! Pere ! f aisait la voix. 4 4 

Le marquis s'avanca aussitot vers la fenetre, 45 1' ouvrit 
et vit 46 devant lui sur la pelouse, 47 plantee ca et la 48 d' ar- 
bustes et de massifs, 4 9 le petit Albert, les clieveux boucles 
et flottants, 50 qui poursuivait un caniche. 51 Le chien 
jouait, 5 2 sautait, 5 3 s' esquivait, 5 4 s' effacait 5 5 sans se laisser 
jamais attraper : 5 6 1' enfant riait 5 7 tout liors d' lialeine. 5 8 

Ne cours pas tant, 5 9 Albert, dit le marquis afTectueuse- 
ment, 60 tu vas te fatigues 61 

L' enfant s'arreta, 62 et, levant 63 ses jolis yeux bleus: 04 

Oh! pere, si tu savais, 63 fit-il, 66 c' est Black 6 ' 1 qui m'a 
pris 6 8 ma balle et qui ne veut pas 6 9 ine la rendre l" i0 

Et comme 71 le chien, pour provoquer 72 un nouyel as- 
saut, 73 revenait 74 sauter 75 autour de son 76 jeune maitre, la 
poursuite recommenga. 7 7 Le marquis de Cernan reste 
debout 78 pres de la fenetre, 79 les reg-ardait pensif 80 et 
comme absorbe, 81 lorsqu' une autre 82 voix le tira de 83 sa 
contemplation : 

— Pardon, monsieur le marquis, dit un domestique en 
s' inclinant, 8 4 c' est la Julie, la f emme du pere Aubin qui 
desire parler a monsieur. Misanthrope comme nous 1' avons 
vu deja, et apathique de par 85 sa race, le marquis n' avait 
jamais recu un pauvre lui-meme; 86 tout a sa progeni- 
ture, 8 7 il repondit d' une voix breve : 8 8 

— Dites-lui qu' elle s' adresse a 8 9 mon intendant, 9 ° il verra 
ce qui peut etre fait. 9 1 
AA 



418 French Speaker. 

Mais la porte s'ouvrit 92 au meme instant, et une femme 
entra, 1' air a demi folle, 9 3 tremblante, 9 4 les mains jointes : 9 5 

— Oh ! monsieur le marquis, c' est a vous-meme, tout de 
suite, 9 6 qu' il faut que je parle ! 9 7 exclama-t-elle. 

Et, la voix entrecoupee, 9 8 sanglotant : 9 9 

— Oh ! monsieur le marquis, ayez pitie de 1 ° ° mon enfant, 
mon pauvre petit gar con 1 ° 1 va mourir 1 ° 2 si vous ne m'aidez 
pas a le sauver! 103 II a la fievre, il nous faut cent 
francs 1 04 pour faire venir le medecin de la ville, 1 ° 5 et nous 
n' avons rien ! Oh ! nous vous les rendrons, 1 ° 6 mon- 
sieur le marquis ! Voyez-vous, 1 ° 7 si nous vous deman- 
dons, 108 c' est parce que nous n' avons pas eu de chance, 1 ° 9 
son pere n' a pu partir 1 1 ° avec les autres pour la peche 1 1 1 

puis la maladie du petit est venue, 1 1 2 et nous avons 

deja depense 1 1 3 pour lui tout ce qui nous restait I 1 14 Le 
pauvre bien-aime souffre tant ! 1 1 5 Oh, mon Dieu ! si 

vous le voy iez, 1 1 6 monsieur le marquis ! Ce n' est 

que le medecin qui le sauvra, 1 1 7 s' il vous plait, 1 1 8 aidez- 
nous! 119 — La malheureuse mere 120 etouffait, 1 2 J bega- 
yait; 122 les sanglots lui entrecoupaient la voix 123 et le 
marquis de Cernan, de ce ton de meprisant orgueil 124 de 
cette noblesse feodale, 1 2 5 la toisait 1 2 6 comme s' il n' avait 
pas compris 127 les g-estes 128 et les supplications de cette 
femme du peuple, qui lui importait peu ; i 2 9 car n' etait- 
il pas le noble et seigneur, maitre du village? Eh 
done ! 1 3 ° quel commerce pouvait-il avoir, 1 3 1 lui, 1 3 2 avec 

des manants, 133 des pauvres pecheurs? II haussa 

les epaules, 134 en se reculant legerement, car 135 la femme 
Aubin le touchait presque : 1 3 6 

— Adressez-vous a mon 1 3 7 intendant, dit-il sechement. L 3 8 

Puis se tournant 139 severe vers le domestique, reste 
temoin hebete 140 de cette intempestive et touchante scene": 

— Quant a vous, 141 Francois, lui dit-il, je vous renver- 
rai, 142 si vous laissez encore 143 ainsi forcer ma porte 144 
par la premiere venue ! 1 4 5 



French Speaker. 



419 



Puis, achevant son tour, 146 il ouvrit une petite porte 
derobee 147 dans la tapisserie, 1 4 8 et gagna, 149 se retirant 
clemi a reculons, 1 5 ° la piece voisine. 1 s 4 Toute paysanne 
qu' etait 1 5 2 Julie Aubin, son coeur de femme et de mere 1 5 3 
ne tint plus a taut de mepris, 1 5 4 car de son attitude desolee 
et suppliante, elle se redressa fiere 1 5 5 et exasperee : 

— Oh! dit-elle d' un ton terrible 1 5 6 eclatant de maledic- 
tion et de haine, 1 5 7 si notre enfant meurt, 1 5 8 vous n' etes 
pas plus que nous 159 devant le bon Dieu, 160 monsieur le 
marquis, il nous vengera ! 1 6 1 Et, comme une lionne 
blessee, 162 dont la rage assouvie apres avoir terrasse 163 
1' agresseur de son lionceau 164 retourne vers son antre, 165 
Julie Aubin sortit eperdue 1 6 6 et se dirigea aneantie vers 1 6 7 
1' humble chaumiere 1 6 8 ou son enfant agonisait. 1 6 9 

(A suivre — To be continued.) 



Vocabulary 

1 Ainsi precipite de 1' echelon, 

being so thrown down the 
step 

2 d' une felicite, of a happiness 

3 que rien ne semolait de- 

voir jamais alterer, which 
. it seemed that nothing ever 
could disturb it 

4 se laissa rechoir dans, left 

himself fall again 

5 d' autrefois, of formerly 

6 se renferma avec son cha- 

grin closed himself up with 
his grief 

7 au fond, in the rear 

8 La, il vecut, there he lived 

9 tout a sa douleur, entirely 

in his sorroiu 

10 contemplant les traits, con- 

templating the resemblance 

11 pauvre, poor, unfortunate 

12 qu' il pourvut d'une, whom 

he provided with 



13 n our rice campagnarde, 

country nurse 

14 forte ot robuste, strorig and 
robust 

15 bretonne, briton (fern.) 

16 sous les yeux, under the 
watch 

17 se fortifla, strengthened him- 
self, grew stronger 

18 grandit, grew 

19 de meme, the same 

20 jusqu' a ce que, till when 

21 arrive a 1' age de, having the 
age of 

22 de commencer, of commenc- 
ing (or) beginning 

23 a laquelle, to which 

24 qtioiqu' immense men t 
riche, though immensely 
wealthy 

25 a meme, able 

26 partant, consequently 

27 les meilleurs, the best 



420 



French Speaker. 



28 voulut se consacrer lui- 

meme, decided to devote 
himself 

29 ainsi que, as 

30 F avait fait, had done it 

31 la defunte, the late 

32 Uu jour, one day 

33 assis devaut sa table, sitting 

at his table 

34 grande salle gothique, large 

gothic room 

35 sur les murs, on the walls 

36 s'alignaient, were on a 

straight line 

37 dans des cadres boises, in 

wooden frames 

38 feuilletait, was perusing 

39 quand, when 

40 du dehors, from outside 
41-42 une voix animee au son 

enf antin, an animated voice 
loith a childish sound 

43 vint le distraire, came to dis- 

turb him, to call his atten- 
tion 

44 faisait la voiz, was saying 

the voice 

45 s' avanca aussitot vers la 

fenetre, went as soon to- 
wards the window 

46 F ouvrit et vit, opened it and 

saiv 

47 pelouse, lawn 

48 plantee ca et la, planted 

there arid there 

49 d'arbustes et de massifs, wit h 

shrubs and clumps 

50 boucles et flottants, curled 

and waving 

51 un caniche, a poodle dog 

52 Le chien jouait, the dog was 

playing 

53 sautait, was jumping 



54 s' esquivait,was stealing him. 

self away 

55 s' effacait, was keeping him. 

self in the background 

56 sans jamais se laisser at- 

trapper, without ever leav- 
ing himself to be caught 

57 riait, was laughing 

58 tout hors d' haleine, entirely 

out of breath 

59 Ne cours pas tant, do not run 

so much 

60 affectueusement, affection- 

ately 

61 tu vas te fatiguer, you will 

make yourself tired 

62 s' arretta, stopped 

63 levant, raising 

64 sesjolisyeuxbleus,/us^>re^2/ 

blue eyes 

65 si tu savais, if you should 

know 

66 flt-il, he said 

67 c'est Black, it is Black 

68 qui m' a pris, which had rob- 

bed 

69 qui ne veut pas, which tvishes 

not 

70 me la rendre, give it back to 

me 

71 Et comme, and as 

72 pour provoquer, to provoke 

73 un nouvel assaut, anew trial 

(or) attack 

74 revenait, was coming again 

75 sauter, to jump 

76 autour de son, round his 

11 recommenca, started again 

78 reste debout, still standing 

79 pres de la fenetre, near the 

window 

80 les regard ait pensif, was 

looking at them thoughtfully 



French Speaker. 



421 



81 comme absorbe, as if he was 

absorbed 

82 lorsqu' une autre, w hen 

another 

83 le tira de, attracted him out 

84 en s' inclinant, bowing him- 

self (or) inclining 

85 de par, from 

86 qui n' avait jamais re^u un 

pauvre lui-meme, who had 
never received a -pauper by 
himself 

87 tout a sa progeniture, entire- 

ly for his progeniture (or) 
child 

88 breve, brief, sharp 

89 Dites-lui qu' elle s' adresse, 

tell her to sp>eak to 

90 intendant, -manager, super- 

intendent 

91 il verra cequi peut etrefait, 

he will see what can be done 

92 s' ouvrit, opened 

93 l'air a demi folle, looking 

almost crazy 

94 tremblante, shaking 

95 les mains jointes, the hands 

joined together 

96 tout de suite, at once, imme- 

diately 

97 qu' il faut que je parle, That 

I must speak 

98 la voix entrecoupee, with a 

broken voice 

99 sanglotant, sobbing 

100 ayez pitie de, have pity for 

101 mon pauvre petit garcon, 

my poor little boy 

102 va mourir, is going to die 

103 si vous ne m' aidez pas a le 

sauver, if you do not help 
me to save him 

104 il nous faut lOO francs, we 

must have one hundred francs 



105 pour faire venir le medecin 

de la ville, to make the phy- 
sician come from the town 

106 nous vous les rendrons, we 

will repay them to you 

107 Voyez-vous, do you see 

108 si nous vous demandons, if 

w e ask you 

109 c' est parce que nous n'avons 

pas eu de chance, it is be- 
cause we were not lucky 

110 son pere n' a pu partir, his 

father could not go away, 
or start 

111 pour la peche, for the fishing 

campaign 

112 puis la maladie du petit est 

venue, then the illness of the 
little one occurred (or) hap- 
pened 

113 nous avous deja depense, toe 

have already spent 

114 tout ce qui nous restait, all 

we had left (or) saved 

115 Le bien-aime souflFre tant, 

the darling suffers so much 

116 si vous le voyiez, if you 

should see him 

117 Ce n' est que le medecin qui 

le sauvra, there is nobody 
but the physician who could 
save him 

118 s' il vous plait, if you please 

119 aidez-nous, help us 

120 la malheureuse mere, the 

unfortunate mother 

121 etouffait, was suffocating 

122 begayait, was stammering 

123 les sanglots lui entrecou- 

paient la voix, the sobbing 
ivas breaking her voice 

124 de ce ton de meprisant or- 

gueil, with the tone of the 
contempting pride 



422 



French Speaker. 



125 feo&ale,feodal 

126 la toisait, ivas looking at her 

with contempt 

127 comme s' il ii' avait pas com- 

pris, as if he had not un- 
derstood 

128 les gestes, the gesticulating 

129 qui lui importait peu, for 

which he did not care 

130 Eh done ! Then .' 

131 pouvait il ayoir, could he 

have 

132 lui, he 

133 avec des mauants, with peas- 

ants 

134 II haussa les epaules, he 

shrug his shoulders 

135 en se reculant legerement 

car, slightly retiring, for 

136 le touchait presque, was al- 

most touching him 

137 Adressez-vous a mon, go to 

my 

138 sechement, sharply 

139 Puis se tournant, then turn- 

ing himself 

140 reste temoin hebete, having 

stayed there as a stupid, 
witness 

141 quant a vous, as to you 

142 je vous renverrai, I will dis- 

charge you 

143 si vous laissez encore, if you 

allow again 

144 forcer ma porte, enter my 

home 

145 par la premiere venue, to all 

comers 

146 achevant son tour, making 

the rest of his turn (or) 
turning himself completely 

147 petite porte derobee,a small 

hidden door 



148 tapisserie, tapestry, wallpa- 

per 

149 gagna, reached 

150 demi a reculons, half turned 

back 

151 piece voisine, next room 

152 Toute paysanne qu 1 etait, 

Though she was a country 
iv oman 

153 son coeur de femme et de 

mere, her heart as woman 
and mother 

154 ne tint plus a tant de 

mepris, could not hold her- 
self at so much of contempl- 
ing 

155 fiere, proud 

156 d' un ton terrible, with a ter- 

rible voice 

157 eclat ant de malediction et 

de~h.a,ir\e,piercing with curs- 
ing and hate 

158 si notre enfant meurt, if our 

child dies 

159 vous n' etes pas plus que 

nous, you are not more than 
us 

160 devant le bon Dieu, before 

the good God 

161 il nous vengera, he will re- 

venge us 

162 Et, comme une lionne 

blessee, and as a wounded 
lioness 

163 dont la rage assouvie apres 

avoir terrasse, from which 
the satisfied rage after hav- 
ing put down 

164 1' agresseur de son lionceam 

the agressor of her little one 

165 retourne vers son a,ntre,goes 

back toivards Iter hole 



French Speaker. 



423 



166 sortit eperdue, went away l 

dismayed 

167 se dirigea aneantie vers 

directed herself dumb 
founded toivards 



168 chaumiere, thatched house 

169 agonisait, was agonizing 



Z. 



This consonant is always mute when final : 



riz 


pronounce i as in 


assez 


pronounce ass as 


rice. 


city. 


e?iOit*/A. 


rt.s, ez as a in 


nez 


pronounce ez as a 




/ate. 


nose. 


in fate. 


vous finiriez 


pronounce ou as 


iez 


pronounce ez as a 


you should 


oo in too, both i's 


Turkish cap. 


in fate. 


finish. 


as in city, i com- 


biez 


pronounce i com- 




bined with ez as 


pond. 


bined with ez as 




a in /ate. 




a in /ate. 


vous verrez 


pronounce ou as 


vous avez 


pronounce ou as 


you will see. 


oo in teo, err as 


you have. 


oo in too, a as a/t, 




ere in *7tere broad, 




ez as a in /ate. 




ez as a in fate. 


vous mangiez pronounce on as 


vous vendriez pronounce ou as 


yon were 


oo in too, an as 


2/ow should sell, oo in too, en as 


eating. ■ 


in want,n mute, 




an in want, n 




g soft as j, i com- 




mute, i combin- 




bined with ez as 




ed with ez as a 




a in /ate. 




in fate. 


Z is sounded in : 






gaz 


pronounce a as ah. 


Fernandez 


pronounce er as ere 


gas. 




Spanish mar- 


in Mere broad, 


Suez 


pronounce u as in 


iner. 


an as in want, n 


cayial in Africa, French, e as ai 




mute, e as ai in 


isthmus. 


in said. 




said. 



And in all Spanish names ending- in z. 



Z is sounded as ss in : 
Metz pronounce Mess, 

city of Germany since 1871. 



424 French Speaker. 

{Noblesse et Noblesse — Suite.) 
IV. 

Le surlendemain, * la cloche 2 cle la petite eglise clu village 
reunissait 3 derriere le cercueil 4 de 1' unique enfant des Aubin 
toutes les femmes des pecheurs des environs. Quelques 
vieillards suivaient 5 aussi, hochant 6 tristement la tete. 

L'infortunee et brave mere avaitvouluaccompagner 1 son 
pauvre cher petit jusqu' au cimetiere, 8 et marchait chan- 
celante, 9 le visage pale et les levres convulsees, 1 ° d' oil 
s' echappait 1 1 par moment le trop-plein 1 2 de sa douleur. 

Son mari, homme honnete et d' une de ces natures simples 
et calmes, se tenait a cote d'elle 13 la tete courbee 14 dans 
une attitude de resignation, et d' abattement a la fois; 1 5 car 
sa robuste poitrine 16 exhalait 17 de temps en temps 18 un 
sourd gemissement 19 longtemps contenu: 20 

Les femmes causaient 21 entre elles et commentaient 22 la 
conduite du chatelain : 

— Pauvre Julie, disaient 1' une, elle aurait peut-etre 23 
mieux fait de s' adresser a V intendant, car M. le marquis 
n' aime pas qu' on lui parle a lui meme. 

— C est egal, 2 4 disait 1' autre, les Aubin sont de braves 
gens, et le marquis aurait bien du 25 les aider, 2fi mais il est 
trop dur 21 pour les pauvres et trop avare. 28 — Cette espece 
de gens 2 9 se croit 3 ° trop au-dessus de nous ! 3 1 

Quand 1' humble et triste ceremonie, qui s' accomplit dans le 
recueillement 3 2 le plus imposant et le plus profond 3 3 fut ter- 
minee 34 et qu'il fallut 35 quitter l'endroit 36 ou reposaient 37 
pour jamais 38 les restes de son Jules cheri, 1' inconsolable 
mere eut une crise, 39 et se jeta 40 sur la fosse 41 deja presque 
recouverte, 42 comme pour y imprimer mieux 43 le dechire- 
ment 44 de son cceur et son eternel adieu, et comme pour 
prendre 45 cette tombe 46 a temoin 47 de son desespoir: 

Ah! pauvre cher petit, murmura-t-elle 48 dans un torrent 
de sanglots, dire que tu aurais pu etre sauve 4 9 si nous n'av- 
ions pas ete si pauvres ! Ah ! ce monstre 



French Speaker. 425 

Aubin releva doucenient 50 sa ferunie affolee, 51 et tous 
deux, 52 les yeux fixes a terre, 53 retournerent 54 penible- 
ment 55 au village, accompagnes de la foule silencieuse 5 fi et 
syropathique qui venaient de prendre part 5 7 a leur douleur. 

Le jour suivant, 58 tout reprit son train habituel 59 dans 
les humbles habitations des pecheurs. Les. femnies cou- 
saient 6 ° et reprisaient, 6 1 les vieux 6 2 fumaient 6 3 leur pipe au 
frileux soleil 64 d' Avril, assis 6 5 a 1' abri du vent du nord, 6 6 et 
les enfants epiaient 67 deja le moment ou, dans le lointain 
de 68 1' Ocean, la premiere voile 69 apparaissant a 1' horizon, 
leur annoncerait le retour de leur peres et de leurs freres. 

Le marquis de Cernan, occupe qu' il etait des etudes de 
son fils, tout a ses affaires et fort peu soucieux 70 des infor- 
tunes et des malheurs de ses semblables, 7 1 comme nous 
!' avons remarque, ne savait rien 78 de la mort du petit Aubin. 
II P apprit 7 3 cependant : 

— Un jour qu'il se promenait seul 74 et absorbe aux envi- 
rons de son pare, une femme aux allures etranges, le tira 75 
de ses meditations : 

— C est vous qui etes monsieur le marquis, lui cria-t-elle 
d' une 7 6 voix au-dessus 7 7 du diapason ? 

— Oui, femme, repondit de Cernan tout interloque 78 et 
reconnaissant dans 1' apparition la femme Aubin, dont la 
raison etait ebranlee, 79 que demandez-vous de moi, fit-il? 80 

— Yous etes pere, monsieur le marquis, repliqua-t-elle 81 
d' un ton qui atteignait 8 2 le paroxysme, et j' appelle 8 3 la jus- 
tice de Dieu sur vous et sur votre fils, il faut 84 que mon 
pauvre enfant qui est couche la-bas, 8 5 designant du doigt 
P endroit du cimetiere, 8 6 soit venge, et il le sera ! 

De Cernan peu accoutume anx apostrophes violentes, et 
comme timide de 87 sa nature, se sentit effraye 88 decette ex- 
plosion inattendue 89 de haine et de menace 90 de la part 
d'une femme; il se deroba 91 sans repliquer mot, et dis- 
parut 92 dans le bosquet voisin, 93 comme pris 94 d'une ter- 
reur panique. 



426 



French Speaker 



Julie gronimelant, 9 5 la face bleme et hagarde, 9 6 descendit 
d'un pas saccade 97 et titubant 98 vers 99 le village. 

{A suivre — To be continued.) 



Vocabulary. 



1 surlendemain, the third day 

2 la cloche, the bell 

3 reunissait, called for the meet- 

ing 

4 derriere le cercueil, follow- 

ing the coffin 

5 quelquesvieillardssuivaient, 

some old men icere follow- 
ing 

6 hochant, shaking, wagging 

7 avait voulu accompagner, 

had wished to accompany 

8 cimetiere, graveyard 

9 marchait chancelante, was 

ivalking unsteadily 

10 convulsees, convulsed 

11 d' ou s' echappait, from where 

was escaping 

12 trop-plein, overflowing 

13 se tenait a cote d' elle, was 

standing by her side 

14 la tete courbee, bowing the 

head 

15 a la fois, at the same time 

16 poitrine, breast 

17 exhalait, ivas exhaling 

18 de temps en temps, from time 

to time 

19 sourd geinissement, hollow 

groaning 

20 longtemps contenu, retained 

for a long time 

21 causaient, were talking 

22 commentaient, were criticiz- 

ing 

23 peut-etre, perhaps 

24 c' est egal, it is all right 

25 aurait bien du, ought to 



26 les aider, help them 
17 dur, hard, 

28 avare, avaricious, miser 

29 cetteespecedegens, that kind 

of people 

30 se croit, believes itself 

31 au-dessus de nous, above us 

32 recueillement, meditation 

33 le plus profond, the deepest 

34 fut terminee, was finished, 

was ended 

35 qu' il fallut, ivhen it was nec- 

essary 

36 1'endroit, the place 

37 ou reposaient, where were 

resting 

38 pour jamais, forever 

39 eut uue crise, had a crisis 

40 se jeta, threw herself 

41 fosse, grave 

42 recouverte, filled up 

43 pour y imprimer mieux, in 

order to mark there better 

44 dechirement, the great an- 

guish of her heart 

45 prendre, take 

46 tombe, tomb 

47 a temoin, as witness 

48 murmura-t-elle, mumbled sJic 

49 dire que tu aurais pu etre 

sauve, surely, you should have 
been saved 

50 doucement, softly 

51 affolee, crazy 

52 tous deux, both 

53 les yeux Axes a terre, looking 

at the ground 

54 retournerent, went back 



French Speaker. 



427 



55 peniblement, with trouble, 

painfully, hardly 

56 la foule silencieuse, the silent 

crowd 

57 qui venaient de prendre 

part a leur douleur, which 
had just pitied. 

58 suivant, following 

59 tout reprit son train liabi- 

tuel, everything started again 
as usual 

60 cousaient, were sewing 

61 reprisaient, were repairing 

old clothes 

62 les vieux, the old ones 

63 fumaient, were smoking 

64 frileux soleil, chilly su?i 

65 assis, sitti?ig 

66 al'abri du vent du nord, safe 

from the north wind 

67 epiaient, were watching 

68 dans le lointain de, far on the 

69 voile, sail 

70 fort peu soucieux, having no 

care for 

71 semblables, others, neighbors 

72 ne savait rien, did not know 

anything 

73 II T apprit, he learned it 

74 qu' il se promenait seul, that 

he was taking a walk 



le tira, awoke him 

lni cria-t-elle d'une voix, cried 
she with a voice 

au-dessus, higher 

interloque, disconcerted 

ebranlee, failing 

flt-il, said he 

repliqua-t-elle, she replied 

qui atteiguait, which was 
reaching 

j'appelle, I call 

il faut que, it must, it is needed 

qui est couche la-bas, who is 
lying down there or yonder 

cimetiere, graveyard 

tiniide de, timid of 

se sent it effraye, took fear 

inattendue, unexpected 

menaces, threat 

se deroba, stole away from 

disparut, disappeared 

bosquet voisin, a neighboring 
small wood 

comme pris, as caught 

grommelant, grumbling 

hagarde, wild, fierce 

saccade, jerking 

titubant, walking in an irreg- 
ular manner, not straight 

vers, towards 



428 



French Speaker. 



CONJUGATION* OP PRONOMINAL VERBS. 

As said before, pronominal verbs take two pronouns of 
the same person throughout their conjugation in the per- 
sonal moods. 

All the pronominal verbs are conjugated with the auxil- 
iary etre, used in the same manner as avoir in other verbs. 



S'en aller — (To move one's self away, to go away.) 

(Irregular verb— Past participle : alle.) 

MODE INDICATIF. 



Present. 

Je m' en vais, I go away. 

tu t' en vas. 

il s' en va. 

nous nous en all ons. 

vous vous en all ez. 

ils s' en vont. 

Passe indeftni. 
Je m' en suis alle\ I have gone 

away. 
tu t' en es alle\ 
il s' en est alle\ 
nous nous en sommes all6s. 
vous vous en etes all6s. 
ils s' en sont alles. 

Passe deflni. 

Je m' en all ai, I went away. 

tu t' en all as. 

il s' en all a. 

nous nous en all ames. 

vous vous en all ates. 

ils s' en all erent. 



Imparfait. 
Je in' en all ais, I wan going away. 
tu t' en all ais. 
il s' en all ait. 
nous nous en all ions. 
vous vous en all iez. 
ils s' en all aient. 

Plus que parfait. 

Je m' en 6tais all<§, I had gone 

away. 
tu t' en etais alle\ 
ils s' en 6tait alle\ 
nous nous en Stions all6s. 
vous vous en 6tiez all6s. 
ils s' en 6taient all6s. 

Futur. 
Je m' en i rai, I will go away. 
tu t' en i ras. 
il s' en i ra. 
nous nous en i rons. 
vous vous en i rez. 
ils s' en i ront. 



Passe anterieur. Futur anterienr. 

Je in' en fus alle\ etc., I had gone Je m' en serai alle\ etc., I will lucre 



away. 



gone away. 



French Speaker. 429 

MODE CONDITIONNEL. 

Present. Passe. 

Je m' en i rais, I should go away. Je m' en serais alle etc., I should 

have gone away. 
tu t' en i rais. 
il s' en i rait. 
nous nous en i rions. 
vous vous en i riez. 
ils s' en i raient. 

MODE IMPERATIF. 

Va-t' en — 170 away (thou.) 
allons-nous en — let us go away. 
allez-vous en — go aioay (you.) 

MODE SUBJONCTIF. 

Present. Imparfait. 

Que je m' en aill e,* That I may go Que je m' en all asse, That I might 

away. go away. 

que tu t' en aill es. que .tu t' en all asses. 

qu' il s' en aill e. qu' il s' en all at. 

que nous nous en all ions. que nous nous en all assions. 

que vous vous en all iez. que vous vous en all assiez. 

qu' ils s' en aill ent. qu' il s' en all assent. 

MODE INEINITIF. 

Present. 

S' en all er ( To go away. ) 
Participe present. Participe passe. 

S' en all ant, Going away. Alle (mas.) all ee (fern.) gone 

away. 
Participe present compose. Participe passe compose. 

S' en etant alle, Having gone S' en etre all6, To have gone away, 
away. 

Se resignerf— {To submit.) 

(Regular verb— P^st participle : resigne.) 

MODE INDICATIF. 
Present. Imparfait. 

J e me resign e, I submit. Je me resign ais, I was submit- 

ting. 

* Pronounce aill as the pronoun I but shorter. 

f Pronounce i as in city, s as z and gn as in mignonette. 



430 French Speaker. 

tu te resign es. tu te resign ais. 

il se resign e. il se resign ait. 

nous nous resign ons. nous nous resign ions. 

vous vous resign ez. vous vous resign iez. 

ils se resign ent. ils se resign aient. 

Passe indefini. Plus que parfait. 
Je nie suis resigne, etc., 1 have Je m' etais resigne, etc., I had sub- 
submitted, mitted. 
Passe defini. Futur. 
Je me resign ai, I submitted. Je me resigne rai, I will submit. 
tu te resign as. tu te resigne ras. 
il se resign a. il se resigne ra. 
nous nous resign anies. nous nous r§signe rons. 
vous vous resign ates. vous vous resigne rez. 
ils se resign erent. ils se r6signe ront. 

Passe anterieur. Futur anterieur. 

Je me fus resigne, etc., I had sub- Je me serai resigne, etc., I ivill 
mitted. have submitted. 

MODE CONDITIONNEL. 

Present. Passe. 

Je me resigne rais, I should sub- Je me serais resigne, etc., I should 
mit. have submitted. 

tu te resigne rais. 
il se resigne rait. 
nous nous resigne rions. 
vous vous resigne riez. 
ils se resigne raient. 

MODE 1MPERATIF. 

Resign e-toi — submit (thou.) 
resign ons-nous — let us submit. 
resign ez-vous — submit (you.) 

MODE SUBJONCTIF. 

Present. Tmparfait. 

Que je me resign e, That I may Que je me resign asse, That I 
submit. might submit, 

que tu te resign es. que tu te resign asses. 

qu' il se resign e. qu' il se resign at. 

que nous nous resign ions. que nous nous resign assions. 

que vous vous resign iez. que vous vous resign assiez. 

qu' ils se resign ent. qu' lis se resign assent. 



French Speaker. 431 

Passe. Plus que parfait. 

Quejemesois resigne, etc., That Que je me fusse resigne, etc., That 
I may have submitted. I might have submitted. 

MODE INFINITIF. 

Present. 

Se resign er, To submit. 
Participe present. Participe passe. 

Se resign ant, Submitting. Resign e (mas.) resign ee (fern.) 

submitted. 

Participe present compose. Participe passe compose. 

S' etant resigne, Having submit- S' etre resign^, To have submitted 
ted. 

Conjugate all pronominal verbs of the first conjugation 
after this manner. 

S'enfuir — (To run aivay, to slip away.) 

(Irregular verb — Past participle : enfui.) 

MODE INDICAT1F. 

Present. Imparfait. 

Je m'enfu is,* I run away. Je m' enfuy ais, I was running 

away. 
tu t' enfu is. tu t' enfuy ais. 

il s' enfu it. il s' enfuy ait. 

nous nous entuy ons. f nous nous enfuy ions. J 

vous vous enfuy ez. vous vous entuy iez. 

ils s' enfui ent. ils s' enfuy aient. 

The compound tenses are conjugated as precedently. 

Passe defini. Futur. 

Je m'enfu is, Iran away. Je m' enfui rai, Twill run a>v<iy, 

tu t' enfu is. tu t' enfui ras. 

il s' enfu it. il s' enfui ra. 

nous nous enfu imes. nous nous enfui rons. 

vous vous enfu ites. vous vous enfui rez. 

ils s' enfu irent. ils s' enfui rout. 

* Pronounce uis as we. 

f y is used for two i's. 

Jy is used for one i — The i following is slightly accented. 



432 French Speaker. 



MODE CONDlTIONNELi. MODE IMPERAT1F. 

Present. 

Je m'enfui rais, I should run Enfu is-toi— Bun away (thou.) 

away. enfuy ons-nous — let us ran foray. 

tu t' enfui rais. enfuy ez-vous — run away (you.) 

il s' enfui rait. 
nous nous enfui rions. 
vous vous enfui riez. 
ils s' enfui raient. 

MODE SUBJONCTIF. 

Present. Imparfait. 

Que je m' enfui e, That Imay run Que je m' enfu isse, That I might 
away. run away. 

que tu t' enfui es. que tu t' enfu isses. 

qu' il s' enfui e. qu' il s' enfu it. 

que nous nous enfuy ions. que nous nous enfu i^sions. 

que vous vous enfuy iez. que vous vous enfu issiez. 

qu' ils s' enfui ent. qu' ils s' enfu issent. 

MODE INFINITIF. 

Present. 

S' enfu ir, To run away. 

Participe present. Participe passe. 

S' enfuy ant, Running atvay Enfu i (mas.) enfu ie (fern.) run 

away. 

Conjugate: 

Se repentir (to repent) in the same manner as Consentir. 

<S" abstenir (to abstain) in the same manner as tenir. 

Se retenir (to refrain, to forbear) in the same manner as tenir. 

/S" apercevoir (to perceive, to find out) in the same manner as perce- 

voir. 
/tf' emouvoir (to be affected, to be disturbed) in the same manner as 

mouvoir. 
i3e mouvoir (to move, to stir) in the same manner as mouvoir. 
Se prevaloir* (to avail one's self of) in the same manner as valoir. 
Se rendre (to surrender, to submit, to go) in the same manner as 

vendre. 
Se defaire (to rid one's self of, to get rid of) in the same manner as 

/aire. 

*See the subjonctif mood, present tense of the verb prevaloir ; the 
three persons singular and the third plural differ. 



French Speaker. 



433 



Se reduire (to be reduced, to amount to, to come to) in the same man- 
ner as reduire. 

Se soumettre (to subdue, to subject, to submit) in the same manner 
as mettre. 

Se taire (to be silent, to forbear talking) in the same manner as plaire. 



Present. 

Je m' assieds, T sit down. 

tu t' assieds. 

il s' assied. 

nous nous assey ons. \ 

vous vous assey ex. 

ils s' assey ent. 

Passe defini. 

Je m' ass is. 

tu V ass is. 

il t' as3 it. 

nous nous ass imes. 

vous vous ass ites. 

ils s' ass irent. 



S'asseoir*— {To sit down.) 

(Irregular verb — Past participle : assis. ) 
MODE INDICATIF. 

Imparfait. 

Je m' assey ais, I was sitting down. 

tu t' assey ais. 

il s' assey ait. 

nous nous assey ions.} 

vous vous assey iez. 

ils s' assey aient. 

Futur. 

Je m' assie" rai, I will sit down. 

tu t' assie" ras. 

il s' assie ra. 

nous nous assie 1 rons. 

vous vous assie" rez. 

ils s' assie ront. 



MODE IMPERAT1F. 



Assied s-toi — sit down (thou.) 
assey ons-nous — let us sit down. 
assey ez-vous — sit down (you. ) 



MODE CONDITIONNEL. 

Present. 
Je m' assie 1 rais, I should sit down. 
tu t' assie" rais. 
il s' assie rait. 
nous nous assie" rions. 
vous vous assie" riez. 
ils s' assie raient. 

MODE SUBJONCTIF. 

Present. Imparfait. 

Que je m' assey e, That I may sit Que je m' ass isse, That I might sit 



down. 



down. 



que tu t' assey es. 



que tu t' ass isses. 



* ass as as, eoir as war, ar being pronounced as in car. 
f y is used for two i's. 
% y is used for one i. 
BB 



434 French Speaker. 

qu' il s' assey e. qu' il s' ass it. 

que nous nous assey ions. que nous nous ass issions. 

que vous vous assey iez. que vous vous ass issiez. 

qu' ils s' assey ent. qu' ils s' ass issent. 

MODE INFINITIF. 

Present. 
S' ass eoir, To sit down. 

Participe present. Participe passe. 

S' assey ant, Sitting down. Ass is (mas.) ass ise (fern.) sit- 

ting down. 



Negative, Interrogative and Negative-Interroga- 
tive forms of Pronominal Verbs. 

In the Negative form simple tenses of Pronominal verbs, 
the part ne of the negation comes after the subject and is 
followed by the pronoun object and the verb, after which 
is placed the second part of the negation pas. Examples: 

Je ne me flatte pas. I do not flatter myself. 

L' ennemi ne se rendit pas. The enemy did not surrender. 

In compound tenses, ne keeps its place, but pas comes be- 
tween the auxiliary and the participle of the verb conju- 
gated : 
Je ne me suis pas tu sur telle con- I did not keep silent at such con- 

duite duct. 

Nous ne nous etions pas abstenus We had not abstained from talk- 

de parler. ing. 

In the Interrogative form, pronominal verbs are conju- 
gated as Adjective Verbs, and the pronoun object precedes 
their conjugation : 

Me loue-je ? Do I praise myself? 

S' est-il loue ? Has he praised himself ? 

In the Negative-Interrogative form simple tenses, ne 
comes first followed by the direct object, which is followed 
by the verb, after which the subject comes followed by pas: 



French Speaker. 435 

Ne nous flattons-nous pas ? Do we not flatter ourselves ? 

Est-ce que je* ne me repens pas Do I not repent of my mistake 
de ma faute? (or) sin ? 

In compound tenses, ne keeps its place followed by the 
pronoun direct object, after which comes pas followed by 
the past participle : 

Pourquoi ne vous etes-vous pas Why did you not refrain at that 

retenus alors ? time 1 

Xe se sont-ils j>as montres indul- Did not they show themselves to 

gents ? be indulgent ? 

* When in the first person singular of the indicative mood the form 
est-ce que is used, the pronoun subject, or the noun subject, comes 
after est-ce que, which constitutes the interrogation, and ne and pas 
are placed as in the Negative form. 



436 



French Speaker, 



CONJUGATION OP IMPERSONAL VERBS. 

Tonner— ( To thunder. ) 

MODE INDICAT1F. 



Present — 

Passe indefini — 

Imparfait — 

Plus que parfait — 

Passe defmi — 

Passe anterieur — 

Futur — 

Futur anterieur — 



Present — 



II tonne, 
II a tonn6, 
II tonnait, 
II avait tonne, 
II tonna, 
II eut tonne, 
II tonnera, 
II aura tonne, 



It thunders. 

It has thunder erd. 

It was thundering. 

It had thundered. 

It thundered. 

It had thundered. 

It will thunder. 

It will have thundered. 



MODE CONDITIONNEL. 



II tonnerait, 
II aurait tonn<§, 



It should thunder. 

It should have thundered. 



No Mode Imperatif. 
MODE SUBJONCTIF. 



Present — 



Imparfait— 
Plus que parfait- 



Present — 
Passe — 

Par'ticipe present- 
Participe passe — 



Qu' il tonn<5, 
Qu' il ait tonne, 
Qu'il tonnat, 
Qu' il eut tonne\ 



That it may thunder. 

That it may have thundered. 

That it might thunder. 

That it might have thundered. 



MODE INFINIT1F. 

Tonner, To thunder. 

Avoir tonne, To have thundered. 

Tonnant,* Thundering. 

Tonng, Thundered (not used alone.) 



Conjugate in the same manner : 

Arriver, To happen. 
Eclairer, To lighten. 
Neiger, To snow. 
Geler, To freeze. 
Greler,f To hail. 



Un Jupiter tonnant — A 
■His father in- 



*Not used but in the sense of to inveigh 
statue of Jupiter inveighing. 

Son pere tonna temblement contre sa conduite- 
veighed terribly against his conduct. 

fit is optional to double the 1 or not before an e mute : II grelle or 
il grele— The French Academy does not double that consonant. 



French Speaker. 



437 



S'agir— {To be the question.) 

(Conjugated with the auxiliary etre.) 

MODE INDICATIF. 



Present — 
Passe indefini — 
Imparfait — 
Plus que parfait- 
Passe defini— 
Passe anterieur— 
Futur— 
Futur anterieur- 



Present — 
Passe— 



II s' agit, It is the question. 

II s' est agi, It has been the question. 

II s' agissait, It was the question. 

II s' 6tait agi, It had been the question. 

II s' agit, It was the question. 

II se fat agi, It had been the question. 

II s'agira, It ivill be the question. 

II se sera agi, It will have been the question. 

MODE CONDITIONNEL. 



II s' agirait, 

II se se serait agi, 



It should be the question. 
It should have been the ques- 
tion. 



MODE SUBJONCTIF. 



Present- 



Qu' il s' agisse, 
Qu' il se soit agi, 



Imparfait — Qu' il s' agit, 

Plus que parfait — Qu' il se tut agi, 



That it may be the question. 
That it may have been the 

question. 
That it might be the question. 
That it might have been the 

question. 



The participles are not in use. 

Palloir — {To be needed, to be necessary.) 



MODE INDICATIF. 



Present. — 

Passe indefini- 
Imparfait — 



II faut, 

II a fallu, 
II fallait, 



Plus que parfait — II avait fallu, 
II fallut, 
II eut fallu, 
II faudra, 
II aura fallu, 



Passe defini — 
Passe anterieur — 
Futur — 
Futur anterieur — 



It is needed, necessary ; it 

must. 
It has been, etc. 
It was, etc. 
It had been, etc. 
It was, etc. 
It had been, etc. 
It will be, etc. 
It will have been, etc. 



Present — 



MODE CONDITIONNEL, 

II faudrait, It should be, etc. 



II aurait fallu, 



It should have been, etc. 



438 



French Speaker. 



Present — 
Passe — 
Imparfait — 
Plus que parfait 



MODE SUBJONCTIF. 

Qu' il faille, 
Qu' il ait fallu, 
Qu' il fallut, 
Qu' il eut fallu, 



That it may be, etc. 

That it may have been, etc. 

That it might be, etc. 

That it might have been, etc. 



MODE INFINITIF. 



Present — 

*Participe present compose- 

Participe passe compose — 



Falloir, To be needed, etc. 

-Ayant fallu, Having been, etc. 
Avoir fallu, To have been needed, etc. 



Pleuvoir— {To rain.) 



MODE INDICATIF. 



Present — 
Passe indeflni— 
Imparfait — 
Plus que parfait- 
Passe defini— 
Passe anterieur- 
Eutur — 
Futur anterieur- 



II pleut, 
II a plu, 
II pleuvait, 
II avait plu, 
II plut, 
II eut plu, 
II pleuvra, 
II aura plu, 



It rains. 

It has rained. 

It was raining. 

It had rained. 

It rained. 

It had rained. 

It will rain. 

It will have rained. 



Present — 
Passe — 



MODE CONDITIONNEL. 



II pleuvait, 
II aurait plu, 



It should rain. 

It should have rained. 



Present — 
Passe— 
Imparfait — 



MODE SUBJONCTIF. 



Qu' il pleuve, 
Qu'il ait plu, 
Qu' il plut, 



Plus que parfait — Qu' il eut plu, 



That it may rain. 

That it may have rained. 

That it might rain. 

That it might have rained. 



MODE INFINITIF. 

Present— Pleuvoir, To rain. 

*Participe present compose — Ayant plu, Having rained. 
Participe passe compose— Avoir plu, To have rained. 



* Single participles are not in use. 



French Speaker . 439 

Paire— (To do, to make.) 

This verb, which belongs to the fourth conjugation, is 
often used impersonally in Idiomatical Sentences and mostly 
to express the state of the weather. The use of /aire as 
impersonal verb consists of placing- after it adjectives, as 
beau (nice, pretty, fair), bon (good), gris, sombre, obscure, 
triste (gloomy), agreable (agreeable, pleasant), mauvais (bad, 
disagreeable), pleuvieux (rainy), du brouillard (foggy), etc. 
To conjugate this verb, take the third person singular of 
its conjugation as active verb, page 387, and make it followed 
by one of the adjectives above : 

II fait beau aujourd' hui. The weather is pleasant to-day. 

II a fait beau hier. The weather was agreeable yes- 

terday. 
II ferait beau si la lune etait dans The weather should be nice if the 

son plein. moon was full. 

11 fit du brouillard toute la mati- The weather was foggy all the 

nee et maintenant il fait clair. morning, but now it is clear. 

Negative, Interrogative and Interrogative-Nega- 
tive Form of Impersonal Verbs 

For the conjugation of Impersonal verbs in their negative, 
interrogative and negative-interrogative forms, follow what 
has been given for the Verbes adjectifs, pages 218, 221, 224 
and 228. 

(Noblesse et Noblesse — Suite.) 
V. 

Au chateau, une lecon de grammaire et de lecture faisait 
desormais, tous les matins, se pencher 1 sur le mems livre la 
tete grisonnante 2 du pere, et celle de cherubin 3 du petit 
Albert, et l'apres-midi, de jour a autre, 4 etait consacre a 
1' arithmetique et a la geographie. Les jours oh, apres 
1' etude du matin Albert etait libre, 5 il en profitait pour 6 
di verses recreations, auxquelles il etait parvenu, 7 a l'insu 8 
de tout le monde, a associer quelques autres enfants du vil- 



440 French Speaker. 

lage, que leurs loisirs 9 faisaient f ureter 1 ° un peu partout 11 
et specialement dans les environs du pare, 1 2 ou ils s' intro- 
duisaient 1 3 a la recherche de nids 1 4 d'oiseaux. II eut bientot 
noue connaissance 1 5 avec eux tous, 1 6 et s' amusa de leurs ma- 
nieres et de leur vagabondage, beaucoup mieux que du genre 
lui impose 1 7 par le cachet 1 8 et la morale de son pere, a l'en- 
droit de 1 9 l'espece de compagnie dont celui-ci cherchait 1 9 bia 
deja a inculquer 1' esprit a son fils. Lors que le temps etait 
favorable, et que ses camarades ne venaient pas 20 le rejoin- 
dre, Albert franchissait furtivement 21 la cloture 22 et allait 
les retrouver, 23 soit 24 au villag-e, soit sur les bords de la 
mer, 25 ou ils s'amusaient tous ensemble 26 dans les sables 21 
de la greve, 28 ou dans les chaloupes 29 y amarrees. 30 Le 
marquis, occupe de ses affaires aux heures de loisir 3 1 que lui 
laissaient 32 les soins de 1' education de son jeune heritier, 33 
ne connaissait, moins que personne, 3 4 rien de ses desertions. 
Un jour que, pendant un apres-midi du mois de Juin, 
Albert avait attendu 35 en vain ses amis, il jugea 36 qu'ils 
s'etaient, comme cela arrivait quelque fois, 31 diriges sans 
lui vers la cote. II s' y rendit 3 8 aussi, accompagne de Black ; 
mais arrive la, tout, a son grand desappointement, etait 
desert — Les enfants des pecheurs, inities 3 9 par leurs parents 
aux signes du temps comme lui 1' etait par son pere a cer- 
taines regies de convenance, avait, contairement a lui, pro- 
fite 40 des lecons recues, et s'etaient abstenus 41 de s' eloi- 
gner 42 ce jour-la, de crainte qu' 43 un orage survint. 44 Sans 
experience aucune 45 d'un danger de l'espece et peut-etre 
conservant 46 quelque espoir que ses compag-nons le sui- 
vraient, 4 7 il se mit machinalement, 4 8 lui avec sa petite pelle, 4 9 
et son chien avec ses griffes, 50 a creuser 51 des trous 52 dans 
le sable. Un vent, leger d'abord, 53 soufflant 54 du Sud- 
Ouest, et la maree montante, 55 soulevaient 56 graduellement 
les vagues, agitant les embarcations, qu' Albert se mit 57 a 
observer. 



French Speaker. 441 

La mer grossissait, 5 8 et atteignit 5 9 bientot l'endroit d'oii 
il contemplait cette vacillation jusqu'alors reguliere quand, 
le flux envoyant 60 a sa portee 61 un cles petits bateaux, 62 le 
dessein 63 de le monter 64 lui passa tout a coup par 65 la tete, 
et il en epia 66 le retour. L'esquif ne tarda pas a revenir 
presque le heurter; 67 il y sauta 68 et s'y installa, 69 invitant 
son chien a l'y rejoindre. Mais 1' animal, plus sag-ace que 
son jeune maitre, semblait par ses tentatives forcees et par 
ses grogneroents, 7 ° lui repondre qu' il n' oserait 7 1 affronter" 2 
pareil danger. ' 3 

L' horizon, de gris 74 qu'il etait, avait change au noir, et 
les nuages 75 de plus en plus epais, 76 avaient augmente la 
force du vent; les embarcations, de l'espece de cadence 
qu'elles avaient conservee 7 * jusqu' alors, 78 commencerent a 
courir 7 9 sur leurs longs cables et a perdre 8 ° leur mouvement 
d'allee et venue; 81 1' oppression imprimee par 8 2 1' atmos- 
phere, fuyait sous le vent 83 comme a l'arrivee de Y orage: 
le denouement 84 etait proche ! 

—Black qui suivait tout de 1' ceil, 8 5 et qu' on aurait dit 
etudier le courroux 86 des elements, montrait 8 * toute son 
inquietude, 8 8 tantot courant, 89 tantot trotinant 90 et s' arre- 
tant; 91 les regards attaches sur cette flotte de perissoires 92 
et le nez dans la direction de la tempete, son a-ouw pro- 
longe temoignait assez de 9 3 son angoisse et de ses craintes. 9 4 

— Quant a 95 Albert, que la frayeur avait gagne, 96 apres 
s' etre accroche de 9 7 ses petites mains comme il Y avait pu, 9 8 
et apres avoir crie et pleure 99 de toutes ses forces, il s' etait 
blotti 1 ° ° au fond de la nacelle, 1 ° 1 d'ou continuaient a partir 
ses lamentations 102 et les exclamations de terreur que lui 
arrachait 2 ° 3 1' entre-choquement 1 ° 4 des barques. J ° 5 

— Un eclair 106 fendit 107 la nue, 108 suivi bientot d'un 
vibrant 1 ° 9 coup de tonnerre : 110 1' orage etait la, dans sa ma- 
jestueuse et saisissante laideur I 1 x 1 

— Le marquis, tres affaire ce jour-la, s' etait renferme 112 
dans son cabinet de travail et, tout occupe, de 1' expedition 



442 French Speaker. 

d' une correspondance pressanle 1 1 3 il ne s' etait pas apercu 
de la disparition de 1' enfant, que vint lui rappeler le craque- 
ment de la foudre. 1 1 4 — II sonna 1 1 5 violemment. 

— Oil est mon fils, demanda-t-il au domestique qui appa- 
rut aussitot? 1 1 6 

— Monsieur !e marquis, repondit celui-ci en balbutiant, 1 1 n 
Monsieur Albert joue 1 1 8 dans les environs, mais on est a sa 
recherche. 

— Dans les environs ! Oil ca I 1 1 9 les environs % 

— Et, n attendant pas de reponse, il s' elanca au dehors 1 2 ° 
et eut, en une minute, mis 121 tout son personnel sur les 
dents. 1 2 2 II les distribua aux quatre coins du pare, qui 
furent bientot fouilles a fond 123 quoiqu'avec hate; mais 
rien n'y avait fait decouvrir 124 les traces du jeune fugitif. 

Le marquis ne savait plus a quel saint sevouer 125 quand, 
soudain, la pensee du bord de la mer lui tra versa l'esprit, 1 2 6 
et il ordonna a une partie de ses gens de le suivre, 1 2 7 en- 
voy ant 1 2 8 le reste s' informer au village si 1' on n' y savait 1 2 9 
rien de son fils. 

— L'espace d'un bon quart de lieue 130 qui distancait le 
pare du rivage fut franchi 1 31 en un rien de temps, tant 1 32 
par les gens de M* que par de Cernan et les domestiques 
de sa suite. lis n'etaient pas eloignes 133 du but 134 lors- 
que 135 le marquis, qui les precedait de quelques pas, 136 
sentit 131 ses oreilles tinter 138 comme d'un bruit d'aboie- 
ments. 139 Quoiqu'essouffle 140 et n'en pouvant plus, il 
doubla, comme pousse 141 par un moteur electrique, la 
vitesse 142 de ses jambes, et reconnut 143 sans tarder 144 que 
sa perception etait fidele, 1 4 5 car Black, dont 1' allure 1 4 6 etait 
extraordinaire, accourait a lui 147 en poussant 148 des hurle- 
ments 149 lugubres. 150 0' etait plus qu'il n'en fallait 151 
pour montrer au chatelain 152 le peril qui menacait 153 son 
fils sideja les flots ne l'avaient englouti ! 1 5 4 Aum erne in- 
stant, un cri aigu, 1 55 couvert par le mugissement 1 56 d'une 
rafale, retentit Une secousse, 1 5 7 plus violente que 



French Speaker. 443 

les precedentes, venait d'arracher 158 Albert du gite 159 ou 
il s' etait cramponne 1 60 et l'avait precipite dans les flots! 

— Albert ! Albert ! mon fils ! fit convulsivement le marquis 
en volant vers la greve 161 comme pour se jeter 102 au 
secours de 1' enfant — Mais ses domestiques accourus au-de- 
vant de lui, 163 l'empecherent 164 de mettre a execution sa 
subite 165 et funeste determination. 

— La pluie tombait avec force. — 

— On vient ! 166 on vient ! cria-t-on d' un group e nombreux i ° 7 
qui arrivait juste sur le lieu 1 6 8 de la scene. C etait les g-ens 
du village. 

— Ma fortune a qui sauvera mon fils ! exclamait de Cernan, 
laissez-moi aller ! 1 6 9 laissez-moi sauver mon fils ! 

— Un homme vers la moyenne de l'ag-e, 170 trapu 171 et 
solide, s' etait detach e des paysans, en se debarrassant de sa 
vareuse; 1 73 il s'avanca vers de Cernan: 

— Ou est-il ? demanda ce sauveteur 1 7 3 au marquis et a ceux 
qui l'entouraient. 1 7 4 

—La! la! lui fit-on, en lui designant l'endroit oil le fidele 
caniche 1 75 etait alle reprendre 1 76 la place qu'il avait quit- 
tee 1 7 7 un peu auparavant 1 7 8 pour accourir a la rencontre du 
marquis. 

— Et 1' homme disparut sous 1'onde ecumante. 179 

— Tous les villageois 1 8 ° se signerent 1 8 1 et tomberent a g*e- 
noux, 1 8 2 un cri d'unanime invocation sortit 1 8 3 de toutes les 
poitrines! 1 8 4 

— Je donne la moitie 1 8 5 de ma fortune au sauveur de mon 
enfant! s'ecria de nouveau 186 le marquis de Cernan, qui 
n' avait point suivi l'exemple des g-ens du village dans leur 
genuflexion. 

— Cela ne rendra 187 pas la vie 188 au pauvre petit que 
nons avons perdu! 1 89 lui repliqua aussitot Julie Aubin, qui 
se trouvait 190 aussi parmi 1 9 1 les assistants; car elle avait 
suivi son mari de peur qu'il s'exposat. 192 Mais le brave 
pecheur, n' entendait que 1 9 3 la charite cliretienne, exempte 1 9 4 



444 French Speaker. 

de ressentiment 1 9 5 ou de haine, et avait sa confiance en Dieu 
seul, 1 9 6 quoique fussent 1 9 7 ou lui apparussent les hommes; 
il n'en etait d'ailleurs 1 9 8 pas a son premier acte. 

— Aubin reparut au bout de 1 9 9 dix minutes de longue et 
cruelle anxiete, de dessous des debris 200 qui s'amonce- 
laient 2 ° 1 dans une sorte d' excavation non lion du bord 2 ° 2 et 
a environ vingt metres 2 ° 3 du lieu oil il avait plonge. Quoi- 
que presqu'epuise 204 par des efforts desesperes et par les 
recherches 2 ° 5 les plus laborieuses 2 ° 6 et les plus penibles, 2 ° 7 
embarrasse dans ses mouvements, il atteignit neanmoins 208 
en peu d'instants 209 le rivage 210 oil, sous les explosions 
frenetiques des plus enthousiastes acclamations, il vint avec 
1' air le plus modeste, deposer aux pieds 2 1 1 du marquis fie- 
vreux et abattu, 2 1 2 le corps inerte 2 1 3 du jeune Albert. 

— Allons, 2 1 4 monsieur le marquis, fit notre vaillant heros 
apres avoir avale 215 un cordial qu'on lui tendait, 2 1 6 votre 
fils n'est pas mort, qu'on le fasse degorger 2 1 7 et qu'on le 
frictionne, dit-il, et le bon Dieu vous le rendra. 

En effet, 21 8 par les soins intelligents et entendus 21 9 que 
lui prodiguerent 220 a l'instant 221 quelques femmes de pe- 
cheurs, Albert se ranima bientot et ne tarda memepas 222 
longtemps de revenir entierement a la vie. 2 2 3 Les domesti- 
ques le transporterent alors au chateau, oil il fut complete- 
ment retabli en moins 224 de liuit jours. 

Aubin s' etait eloigne entretemps 225 vers sa femme, en- 
touree 2 2 6 de quelques voisines 2 2 T a une quinzaine de pas de 
la, 228 car Julie s' etait trouvee mal 229 au moment ou elle 
avait vu son mari dispaitre sous une mer si mauvaise. 230 

— Tu m'as bien effrayee, 231 Francois, lui dit-elle quand 
elle le vit ; 2 3 2 mon pauvre petit Jules est parti 2 33 il y a un 
mois, 234 et j'ai cru 235 que toi aussi, tu allais m'aban- 
donner ; 2 3 6 tout cela 2 3 7 pour monsieur le marquis qui nous a 
montre 2 3 8 tant d' interet, n' est-ce pas ? 2 3 9 ajouta-t-elle 2 4 ° d' un 
accent affaibli et piteux. 241 



French Speaker. 445 

— Cliere femme, dit Aubin avec affection, le bon Dieu a 
pardonne 242 a ses ennemis, il sait gre 243 aux Chretiens qui 
Timitent en se devouant 244 pour leurs semblables 245 quels 
qu'ils soient. 246 Quant au 247 pauvre cher petit, son lieure 
etait marquee la, vois-tu ; 2 4 8 nous devons 249 nous resigner a 
la volonte Divine, mais nous devons aussi tou jours espe- 
rer 250 — Qui sait 251 si la Providence ne nous rendra pas un 
enfant ? 

— Alors, interrompit de Cernan qui s' etait approche, votre 
enfant sera le f rere du mien ! 

— Le ciel 2 5 2 commenga a s'eclaircir. — 2 5 3 

Peu de temps apres 254 l'evenement 

que nous venons de raconter, 2 5 5 Aubin, qui s' etait deja fait 
remarquer 2 5 6 en differentes occcasions par son honnetete et 
sa bravoure, 2 5 7 et qui avait cru devoir 2 5 8 ne pas accepter les 
liberalites que le marquis de Cernan, en homme fidele a sa 
parole 2 5 9 lui avait formellement offertes, regut du gouverne- 
m^nt une nomination au poste 260 de garde-maritime, 261 a 
laquelle etait joint un brevet de 2 6 2 chevalier 2 6 3 de la Legion 
d' Honneur. 2 6 4 

A un an du sauvetage 2 6 5 du jeune Albert, la digne femme 
de Tancien pecheur donna le jour 2 6 6 a une fille, qui regut au 
bapteme les noms d'Albertine-Marie-Josephe-Julie-Fran- 
goise. 

Albertine fut la consolation et la joie de ses parents, qui 
vecurent, 2 6 7 ainsi que 2 6 8 le marquis de Cernan, d'une longue 
et heureuse vieillesse. 2 6 9 

Aujourd'hui, le ci-devant 270 pauvre village de M* cele- 
bre 271 la munificence et les vertus des enfants de Cernan- 
Aubin, et venere la memoire de leurs auteurs 

H. Bertrand. 



446 



French Speaker. 



Vocabulary 

1 se pencher, to stoop 

2 la tete grisoimante, the gray- 

haired head 

3 cherubin, cherub 

4 de jour a autre, every other 

day 

5 etait libre, was free 

6 il en profitait pour, he was 

taking that time for 

7 il etait parvenu, he had suc- 

ceeded 

8 a 1' insu, unknown to 

9 loisirs, leisure 

10 faisaient fureter, caused to 

search 

11 un peu partout, a little every 

w here 

12 pare, -park 

13 ouilss'introduisaieiit,w;Ae?*e 

they were introducing them- 
selves 

14 nids, nests 

15 II eut Men tot noue connais- 

sance, he was soon ac- 
quainted 

16 eux tous, them all 

17 que du genre lui impose, 

then of the manner imposed 
on him 

18 cachet, way of being, stamp 

19 a 1' endroit de, as to the 

19 bis dont celui - ci cherchait, 

from which this was trying 

20 ne venaient pas, were not 

coming 

21 franchissait furtivement, 

was leaping clean over 

22 la cloture, the fence 

23 et allait les retrouver, and 

was going to meet them 

24 soit, or 

25 sur les bords de la mer, to 

the seashore 



26 ou ils s' amusaient tous en- 
semble, where they ivere 
amusing themselves together 

27 sables, sand 

28 greve, bank 

29 chaloupes, boats 

30 y amarrees, attached there 
(or) tied 

31 loisir, leisure 

32 que lui laissaient, which were 
left, ivhich he had of rest 

33 heritier, heir 

34 moins que personne, less 
than anybody 

35 avait attendu, had waited 

36 il jugea, he judged, he con- 
ceived 

37 quelque fois, sometimes 

38 II s'y rendit, he went there 

39 inities, intimated 

40 avaient profite, had taken 
the benefit, the profit 

41 s' etaient abstenus, had kept 
themselves 

42 de s 1 eloigner, of going far 
away 

43 de crainte que, fearing that 

44 survint, might come 

45 sans experience aucune, 
xoithout experience 

46 conservant, keeping 

47 le suivraient, would follow 
him 

48 machiiialement, m echani- 
cally 

49 pelle, spade, shovel 

50 griffes, clutches 

51 a creuser, to dig 

52 trous, holes 

53 leger d' abord, light at first 

54 soufflant, blowing 

55 niaree montante, the flux 

56 soulevaient, were lifting 



French Speaker. 



447 



57 se mit, started 

58 grossissait, 'was becoming 

high 

59 atteignit, readied 

60 envoyant, sending, bringing 

61 a sa portee, near him, handy 

62 petits bateaux, small boats 

63 le desseiu, the intention, the 

idea 

64 de le moiiter, to ride- it 

65 lui passa tout a coup par, 
• passed suddenly through 

(or) had the sudden idea, 

66 il en epia, he watched for it 

67 presque le heurter, almost 

to touch him 

68 il y sauta, jumped in it 

69 s' y installa, installed himself 

in it 

70 grognements, grumblings 

71 qu' il n' oserait, that he should 

not dare 

72 affronter, encounter 

73 pareil danger, such a danger 

74 gris, gray 

75 uuages, clouds 

76 epais, thick 

11 qu' elles avaient conserve, 
which they had kept 

78 jusqu' alors, till that moment 

79 commen cerent a courir, 

started to run 

80 a perdre, to lose 

81 d' allee et venue, of going 

and coming 

82 imprimee par, imposed by 

83 fuyait sous le vent, ivas fly- 

ing (or) disappearing by 
the impulsion of the wind 

84 denouement, denouement 

85 qui suivait tout de l'osil, 

which was watching every- 
thing carefully 

86 courroux, the anger, the rage 



87 montrait, was showing 

88 inquietude, inquietude, anx- 

iety 

89 tantot courant, sometimes 

running 

90 trotinant, trotting 

91 s 1 arretant, stopping himself 

92 perissoires, small boats 

93 temoignait assez de, teas 

giving enough of 

94 craintes, fearing 

95 Quant a, As to 

96 avait gagne, had, reached 

97 s' etait accroche de, had tied 

himself with 

98 coinine il avait pvi, as he had 

been able to do 

99 apres avoir pleure, after he 

had cried 

100 il s'etait blotti, he had squat- 

ted himself 

101 nacelle, boat 

102 lamentations, lamentations 

103 que lui arrachait, ivfyich were 

pulled off by him 

104 l'entre- choquement, th e 

beating against one another 

105 des barques, of the small 

boats 

106 un eclair, a flash of lightning 

107 fendit, cleaved 

108 la nue, the cloud 

109 vibrant, vibrating 

110 coup de tonnerre, thunder- 

clap 

111 laideur, ugliness 

112 s' etait renferme, had closed 

up himself 

113 pressant, urging 

114 craquement de la foudre, 

th under clap 

115 il sonna, he rang the bell 

116 qui apparut aussitot, who 

came immediately 



448 



French Speaker. 



117 en. balbutiant, while stam- 

mering 

118 joue, is playing 

119 ou 9a ? where that ? 

120 il s' elanQa au dehors, he ran 

outside 

121 eut mis, had put 

122 sur les dents, looking for with 

attention (or) care ; atten- 
tive 

123 qui furent bientot fouilles a 

fond, which were soon care- 
fully investigated 

124 mais rien n'y avait fait de- 

couvrir, but nothing caused 
them to discover 

125 ne savait plus a quel saint 

se vouer, did not know any 
more what to do (or) where 
to go 

126 la pensee du bord de la mer 

lui traversa 1' esprit, the 
thought of the seashore went 
through his mind 

127 de le suivre, to follow him 

128 envoyant, sending 

129 si T on n'y savait, if no one 

should know (or) was not 
knowing 

130 lieue, about three miles 

131 fut franchi, was made 

132 ta-nt, as much 

133 ils n'etaient pas eloignes, 

they were not far 

134 du but, from the profit 

135 lorsque, when 

136 quelque pas, a few steps 

137 sentit, felt 

138 tinter, tingling 

139 aboiements, barkings 

140 Quoiqu' essouffle, Though out 

of breath 

141 conime pousse, as if he had 

been pushed 



142 vitesse, quickness 

143 reconnut, discovered 

144 sans tarder, soon 

145 etait fldele, was faithful 

146 allure, gait, manners, way of 

doing 

147 accourait, was running to 

(or) coming 

148 en poussant, while pulling 

off 

149 hurlements, howling s,shriek- 

ings 

150 lugubres, sad, mournful 

151 qu' il n' en fallait, than it was 

needed 

152 chatelain, casiellain, lord 

153 qui mena^ait, which ivas 

threatening 

154 1' avaient englouti, had swal- 

lowed him up 

155 cri aigu, sharp cry 

156 mugissement, lowing, roar- 

ing 

157 Une secousse, a shake 

158 venait d' arracher, had just 

taken off 

159 dugite, from the laying place 

160 ou il s' etait cramponne, 

where he had hooked himself 

161 en volant vers la greve, while 

flying towards the bank 

162 comme pour se jeter, as to 

throw himself 

163 au-devant de lui, cross him 

164 1' empecherent, prevented 

him 

165 subite, sudden 

166 On vient, one is coming 

167 nombreux, numerous 

168 sur le lieu, on the spot 

169 laissez-moi aller, let me go 

170 vers la moyenne de l'age, of 

about a middle age 

171 trapu, thick and short 



French Speaker 



449 



172 vareuse, overshirt 

173 sauveteur, saviour 

174 qui l'entourait, ivho were 

around him 

175 caniohe, poodle dog 

176 etait alle reprendre, had 

gone io occupy a gain 

177 qu' il avait quit tee, which he 

had left 

178 un peu auparavant, a little 

before 

179 sous T onde ecuraante, under 

the foamy water 

180 villageois, inhabitants of the 

village 

181 se signerent, made the sign 

of the cross 

182 tomberent a genoux, fell on 

their knees 

183 sortit, came out 

184 poitrines, breaths 

185 moitie, the half 

186 de nouveau, again 

187 Cela ne rendra pas, That 

will not give back 

188 la vie, the life 

189 que nous avons perdu, which 

we have lost 

190 qui se trouvait, who was 

191 parmi, among 

192 de peur qu' il s' exposat, 

fearing that he would ex- 
pose himself 

193 n'entendait que, would not 

recognize (or) know' but 

194 exempte, without 

195 ressentiment, bad feeling, 

rancour 

196 en Dieu seul, in God alone 

197 quoique fussent, though they 

{men) should be 

198 d' SLilleurs,besides,from other 

places 

199 au bout de, at the end of 

CC 



200 debris, wrecks 

201 qui s' amoiicelaieiit, which 

were gathering (or) heap- 
ing 

202 non loin du bord, not far 

from the bank 

203 vingt metres, about 20 years 

204 presqu' epuise, almost ex- 

hausted 

205 recherches, researches 

206 les plus laborieuses, the 

hardest 

207 les plus penibles, the most 

dim cult 

208 neanmoins, notwithstanding 

209 en peu d' instants, in a few 

moments 

210 le rivage, the bank 

211 aux pieds, at the feet 

212 abattu,/«m£ 

213 inerte, inert, sluggish 

214 Allons, well 

215 apres avoir avale, after hav- 

ing stvallowed 

216 qu' on lui tendait, tvhich was 

presented (or) offered to 
him 

217 qu' on le fasse degorger, one 

must make him throw up 

218 En effet, in fact 

219 entendre, understood 

220 que lui prodiguerent, which 

were given to him with pro- 
fusion 

221 a 1' instant, at once 

222 et ne tarda raerae pas de, 

and was not even long to 

223 de revenir entierement a la 

vie, to revive entirely 

224 en moins de, in less than 

225 entretemps, between times 

226 entouree, surrounded 

227 voisines, neighboring loomen 



450 



French Speaker. 



228 a une quinzaine de pas de 

la, at about fifteen slejys 
from there 

229 se trouva mal, took ill sud- 

denly 

230 sous une mer si mauvaise, 

in such a, bad sea 

231 Tu m'as bien effrayee, you 

made me so much afraid 

232 quand elle le vit, when she 

saw him 

233 est parti, has gone 

234 il y a un mois, a month ago 

235 j'ai cru, I have believed 

236 que tu allais m' abandon- 

ner, that you icere going to 

237 tout cela, all that 

238 que nous a raontre, who has 

shoived us 

239 tant d'interet, n'est-ce pas? 

as much of interest, is it 
not so ? 

240 ajouta-t-elle, added she 

241 piteux, pitiful 

242 a pardonne, has forgiven 

243 il sait gre, he recognizes, re- 

wards 

244 en se devouant, while devot- 

ing themselves 

245 semblables, neighbors 

246 quels qu' ils soient, not mat- 

ter who they are 

247 Quant au, as to 

248 vois-tu, do you see 

249 nous devons, we must 

250 esperer, hope (to) 



251 Qui sait, who knows 

252 Lie ciel, the sky 

253 a s' eclaircir, to clear up 

254 Peu de temps apres, A little 

time after 

255 que nous venons de racon- 

ter, which we have narrated 

256 qui s' etait deja fait remar- 

quer, who had distinguished 
himself already 

257 sa bravoure, his bravery, 

courage 

258 qui avait cru devoir, who 

had believed to be obliged 

259 en horame fidele a sa pa- 

role, as a faithful man for 
what he says 

260 au poste, for the situation 

261 garde-maritime, pilot 

262 un brevet de, letters patent 

of 

263 cbevalier, knight 

264 Legion d'Honneur, Order 

of merit in France 

265 A un an du sauvetage, one 

year after the salvage 

266 donna le jour, gave birth 

267 qui vecurent, who lived 

268 ainsi que, as 

269 d' une longue et heureuse 

vieillesse, very old and 
happy (or) who reached a 
very old age in happiness 

270 le ci-devant, the former 

271 celebre, celebrates